Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC
Topics: Water ,
Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC: Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.
Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC
The link address is: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:327:0001:0072:EN:PDF
Progress in management of contaminated sites The term 'contaminated site' (CS) refers to a well-defined area where the presence of soil contamination has been confirmed and this presents a potential risk to humans, water, ecosystems or other receptors. Risk management measures, e.g. remediation, may be needed depending on the severity of the risk of adverse impacts to receptors under the current or planned use of the site. The term 'potentially contaminated site' (PCS) refers to sites where unacceptable soil contamination is suspected but not verified, and where detailed investigations need to be carried out to verify whether there is an unacceptable risk of adverse impacts on receptors. Both of these parameters were introduced for the first time in the 2011 data request. The scale of soil contamination was also assessed in previous data requests but results were derived from other parameters (in particular the four key management steps); an approach that was abandoned in the 2011 data request. Management of contaminated sites aims to assess and, where necessary, reduce the risk of adverse impacts on receptors to an acceptable level. This management process starts with a basic desk study or historical investigation, which may lead to more detailed site investigations and, depending on the outcome of these, remediation measures. The indicator shows progress in four key management steps: preliminary study/site identification, preliminary investigation, main site investigation, and implementation of risk reduction measures. Under each management step, two stages can be distinguished: estimation of the number of sites in need of this specific step, and actual counting or completion of this specific management step. In addition, the indicator reports the costs to society of site management, the main activities responsible for soil contamination and the outcomes of managing contaminated sites.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe The indicator is used to illustrate emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, indicator shows decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from the environmental impact (emission of pollutants).Decoupling indicator displays the percentage of change in emission of pollutants from manufacturing plotted together with the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (between 2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of the GVA. In line with Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community NACE Rev. 2 Section C (divisions 10-33) the following industries : are considered in the „manufacturing“:” Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manu- facture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machineryand equipment n.e.c. Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered for: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25
Trends in Marine Alien Species (MAS) The indicator for the marine and estuarine species represents the cumulative number (i.e. the sum) of primary producers (plants), invertebrate and vertebrate alien species that have been recorded in European waters since 1950
Impacts and pressures Main pressures and impacts affecting rivers, lakes, transitional waters and coastal waters. The indicator can be used to illustrate variations between different water categories and geographical variations.
Chemical status Chemical status of groundwater, rivers, lakes, transitional waters and coastal waters. The indicator can be used to illustrate variations between different water categories and geographical variations.
Ecological status or potential Ecological status or potential in rivers, lakes, transitional waters and coastal waters. The indicator can be used to illustrate variations between different water categories and geographical variations.
Ammonia (NH3) emissions The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry;, Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other. Geographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2010
Hazardous substances in marine organisms This indicator describes the levels and trends in European seas of concentrations of seven hazardous substances in marine biota, based on the individual assessment of monitoring data for the following substances: Mercury (Hg) and its compounds Cadmium (Cd) and its compounds Lead (Pb) and its compounds Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), using chlorinated biphenyls CB28, CB52, CB101, CB118, CB138, CB153, and CB180 as representatives The pesticide DDT (using pp’DDE as a representative of DDT) The pesticide Lindane- 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) The indicator is based on data for substances measured in organisms from the regional seas as follows: Baltic Sea – Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) North-east Atlantic Ocean – blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichtys flesus) Mediterranean Sea – Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovinicialis) Black Sea - Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovinicialis)
Use of freshwater resources - outlook from EEA Definition: The water exploitation index (WEI) is the annual total abstraction of freshwater divided by the annual total renewable freshwater resource, expressed in percentage terms. This indicator can be computed at the country level or, preferably, by river basin. A region is characterized as being under water stress, if it the water exploitation index exceeds 20%, and under severe water stress if it exceeds 40%. This indicator combines data on water availability and water withdrawals, and has thus also been referred to as withdrawals-to-availability index. Alternatively, the underlying data can be used (i.e. data on water availability and water withdrawals for domestic use, industrial use, an agricultural use, respectively) to indicate seperately: The water availability index is defined as the average freshwater resources available per person in a country or river basins. Regions can be labelled as water scarce if this value drops below 1000 m3 per person - however as the indicator uses population as a proxy for water uses it is less accurate. Changes in annual water availability indicates the change in freshwater resources in a country or river basin over a given time period, primarily due to changes in upstream water use or climate change. Changes in annual water abstraction indicates the change in water use in a country or river basin over a given time period. Changes can be presented separately for different socio-economic activities, i.e. water for domestic use, for use in manufacturing and electricity production, and for agricultural purposes. Model used: WaterGAP Ownership: European Environment Agency Temporal coverage: 2000 - 2030 Geographical coverage: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Cyprus, Czech republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Lichtenshtain, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Swetzerland, Slovakia, Slovenia, United Kingdom
Floods and droughts - outlook from the University of Kassel According to WaterGAP model the indicator 'floods and droughts' provides the following objects: Drought events and deficit volumes are presented in the form of the drought frequency distributions. Within this indicator the concept of river flow drought (or hydrological drought) is adopted. Floods are presented in the form of the flood frequency distributions or flood discharges. Flood is defined strictly in terms of discharge. To answer to what extent a given discharge value is related to a real flooding, in terms of bursting river banks and setting a considerable area under water, in particular a high-resolutions elevation model is required.
Total fertiliser consumption - outlook from FAO Total fertiliser consumption refers to the total sum of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O) used in agriculture. The time reference is generally the crop year (July through June). Model used: FAO Time horizon: 1997/99- 2020 Geographical coverage: Sub-Saharah Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near East/ North Africa, South Asia, South Asia excl. India, East Asia, East Asia excl. China, Industrial Coutnries, Transition Countries, World.
Urban waste water treatment - outlook EEA Definition: Percentage of population connected to primary, secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment plants. The indicator illustrates: 1. current level and future changes in level (accordingly UWWT directive) of population connected to urban wastewater treatment (primary, secondary and tertiary); 2. current level and future changes (accordingly UWWT directive) of discharges of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater treatment plants Model used: Water Model from EEA/ETC Ownership: European Environment Agency Temporal coverage: 2005, 2008-2015 (objectives of the UWWT directives) Geographical coverage: EU 15 : Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom; EU -5: Estonia, Hungary, Check Republic, Polamd, Slovenia,
Chlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine waters The indicator shows 1) annual mean summer surface concentrations (microgram/l), 2) classification of concentration levels (i.e. low, moderate, high) and 3) trends in mean summer surface concentrations of chlorophyll-a (microgram/l) in the regional seas of Europe. Summer period is: June to September for stations north of latitude 59 degrees in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland) May to September for all other stations The used regional and subregional seas of Europe are in line with the geographical regions and sub-regions specified in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Other European Seas (Icelandic Sea, The Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the White Sea) are not covered in this indicator due to current lack of data.
Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters The indicator shows 1) annual winter concentrations (micromol/l); 2) classification of concentration levels (i.e. low, moderate, high) and 3) trends in winter oxidised nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite) and phosphate concentration (micromol/l)in the regional seas of Europe. Levels and trends of winter concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients are used for this indicator, as it is assumed that winter concentrations are not significantly reduced due to uptake by primary producers. The winter period is defined as follows: January, February and March for stations east of longitude 15 degrees (Bornholm) in the Baltic Sea January and February for all other stations. The used regional and subregional seas of Europe are in line with the geographical regions and sub-regions specified in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Other European Seas (Icelandic Sea, The Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the White Sea) are not covered in this indicator due to current lack of data.
Nutrients in freshwater Concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus in lakes and nitrate in groundwater bodies. The indicator can be used to illustrate geographical variations in current nutrient concentrations and temporal trends.
Progress in management of contaminated sites The term 'contaminated site' refers to a well-delimited area where the presence of soil contamination has been confirmed. The severity of the impacts to ecosystems and human health can be such that remediation is needed, specifically in relation to the current or planned use of the site. The remediation or clean-up of contaminated sites can result in a full elimination or in a reduction of these impacts. The term "potentially contaminated site" includes any site where soil contamination is suspected but not verified and detailed investigations need to be carried out to verify whether relevant impacts exist. Management of contaminated sites is designed to ameliorate any adverse effects where impairment of the environment is suspected or has been proved, and to minimize any potential threats (to human health, water bodies, soil, habitats, foodstuffs, biodiversity etc.). Management starts with a basic desk study or historical investigation, which may lead to more detailed investigations, remediation or land redevelopment. The indicator shows progress in five main steps: 1) preliminary study; 2) preliminary investigation; 3) main site investigation; 4) implementation of risk reduction measures. The indicator also shows the costs to society of the clean-up, the main activities responsible for soil contamination and the achievements managing the contaminated sites.
Renewable primary energy consumption The share of renewable energy consumption is the ratio between gross inland energy consumption from renewable sources (TOE) and total gross inland energy consumption (TOE) calculated for a calendar year, expressed as a percentage. Both renewable energy and total energy consumption are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Renewable energy sources are defined as renewable non-fossil sources: wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases. Projections are for 2020-2030 from the POLES (IPTS) Baseline and GHG Reduction Scenario (Mitigation), from PRIMES 2009 Baseline and Reference scenarios and from the WEO 2009 (IEA) Reference and 450 Scenario
Gross nutrient balance The indicator estimates the potential surplus of nitrogen on agricultural land. This is done by calculating the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system and nitrogen removed from the system per hectare of agricultural land. The indicator accounts for all inputs to and outputs from the farm. The inputs consists of the amount of nitrogen applied via mineral fertilisers and animal manure as well as nitrogen fixation by legumes, deposition from the air, and some other minor sources. Nitrogen output is contained in the harvested crops, or grass and crops eaten by livestock (escape of nitrogen to the atmosphere, e.g. as N 2 O, is difficult to estimate and therefore not taken into account).
Oxygen consuming substances in rivers The key indicator for the oxygenation status of water bodies is the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is the demand for oxygen resulting from organisms in water that consume oxidisable organic matter. The indicator illustrates the current situation and trends regarding BOD and concentrations of total ammonium (NH 4 ) in rivers.
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