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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter / Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (CSI 003/APE 009) - Assessment published Dec 2011

Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (CSI 003/APE 009) - Assessment published Dec 2011

Generic metadata

Topics:

Air pollution Air pollution (Primary topic)

Environment and health Environment and health

Industry Industry

Tags:
soer2010 | csi | pm10 | particulate matter | pm2.5 | nox | air emissions | nh3 | emissions | sox | pollution
DPSIR: Pressure
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 003
  • APE 009
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: What progress is being made in reducing emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter ?

Key messages

  • Total emissions of primary PM10 particulate matter have reduced by 27% across the EEA-32 region between 1990 and 2009, driven by a 34% reduction in emissions of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) fraction; emissions of particulates between 2.5 and 10 µm have risen slightly (10%) over the same period.
  • Of this reduction in PM10 emissions, 37% has taken place in the 'Energy Production and Distribution' sector due reasons including the fuel-switching from coal to natural gas for electricity generation and improvements in the performance of pollution abatement equipment installed at industrial facilities.

Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (EEA member countries)

Note: This chart shows past emission trends of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter, 1990-2009.

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Percentage change in PM2.5 and PM10 emissions 1990-2009 (EEA member countries)

Note: The reported change in primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter for each country, 1990-2009.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution. Where emissions of primary PM10 were not reported by countries, emission estimates have been obtained from the RAINS PM10 model (IIASA).

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

Emissions of primary particulate matter (PM10) have reduced by 27% across the EEA-32 region between 1990 and 2009 (Figure 1), with significant reductions having occurred within most individual countries. The largest reductions have been reported by Estonia (-65%), Belgium (-60%) and Slovakia (-58%). In contrast emissions have increased in 7 countries since 1990; the greatest increases have been reported in Malta (112%), Finland (580%) and Romania (609%).

The reductions in total emissions of particulate matter between 1990 and 2009 have been mainly due to the introduction or improvement of abatement measures across the energy, road transport, and industry sectors coupled with other developments in industrial sectors such as fuel switching from high-sulphur containing fuels to low-sulphur fuels (which have also contributed to decreased formation of secondary particulate matter in the atmosphere). Emissions of primary PM10 are expected to decrease in the future as vehicle technologies are further improved and stationary fuel combustion emissions are controlled through abatement or use of low sulphur fuels such as natural gas. Despite this, it is expected that within many of the urban areas across the EU, PM10 concentrations will still be well above the EU air quality limit value. Substantial further reductions in emissions will therefore be needed if the limit value set in the EU's Air Quality Directive is to be reached.

There are no specific EU emission targets for primary PM10. However the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) and the Gothenburg protocol to the UNECE LRTAP Convention both set ceilings (i.e. limits) for the secondary particulate matter precursors NH3, NOX and SO2 that countries must meet by 2010 [1]. Further details concerning the overall progress toward the 2010 ceilings for these pollutants may be found in the indicator fact sheet CSI 001 Emissions of acidifying substances, with additional details concerning the individual secondary particulate matter precursor pollutants available in the following indicator fact sheets:

 

[1] The NECD and Gothenburg protocol also set an emission ceiling for non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) which contribute to ground-level ozone formation.

 

Specific policy question: How do different sectors and processes contribute to emissions of PM2.5 and PM10?

Sector contributions of emissions of primary particulate matter and secondary precursors (EEA member countries)

Note: The contribution made by different sectors to emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10, and to emissions of the secondary particulate matter precursors.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution and the UNFCCC.

Downloads and more info

Change in PM2.5 emissions for each sector and pollutant 1990-2009 (EEA member countries)

Note: Percentage change in primary PM2.5 particulate matter emissions for each sector and pollutant between 1990 and 2009.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution.

Downloads and more info

Change in PM10 emissions for each sector and pollutant between 1990 and 2009 (EEA member countries)

Note: Percentage change in primary PM10 particulate matter emissions for each sector and pollutant between 1990 and 2009.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution.

Downloads and more info

Contribution to total change in PM2.5 emissions for each sector and pollutant between 1990 and 2009 (EEA member countries)

Note: The contribution made by each sector to the total change in primary PM2.5 particulate matter emissions between 1990 and 2009.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution.

Downloads and more info

Contribution to total change in PM10 emissions for each sector and pollutant between 1990 and 2009 (EEA member countries)

Note: The contribution made by each sector to the total change in primary PM10 particulate matter emission between 1990 and 2009.

Data source:

Data from 2011 officially reported national total and sectoral emissions to UNECE/EMEP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution.

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

The most important sources of primary PM10 emissions in 2009, across the EEA-32 region, were the 'Commercial, institutional and households' (38%), 'Industrial processes' (15%), 'Road transport' (14%) and 'Agriculture' (13%) sectors. The ‘Commercial, institutional and households’ sector includes combustion-related emissions from e.g. heating of residential and commercial properties.

Since 1990, emissions of primary PM10 from most sectors have decreased (Figure 5), with the exception of the 'Other' and 'Agriculture' sectors, in which emissions have risen by (14%) and (6%) respectively.

Since 1990, emissions from the combustion-related sectors 'Energy production and distribution', 'Energy use in industry' and 'Road Transport' have in particular reduced significantly, contributing 37%, 18% and 16% respectively of the total reduction of particulate matter emissions (Figure 7). As described in the main assessment, a combination of factors has contributed to the reduction of both primary PM and secondary particulate matter emissions in these sectors between 1990 and 2009. These include for primary PM:

  • improvements in the performance of particulate abatement equipment at industrial combustion facililties, e.g. coal-fired power stations;
  • since the early 1990s, a fuel shift from the use of coal in the energy industries, industry and domestic sectors to cleaner burning fuels such as gas;
  • cleaner stoves for domestic heating;
  • introduction of particle filters on new vehicles (driven by the legislative 'Euro' standards);
and for the secondary particulate matter precursors:
  • fuel switching from high-sulphur solid (e.g. coal) and liquid (e.g. heavy fuel oil) fuels to low sulphur fuels (such as natural gas) for power and heat production purposes within the 'energy industries', industry and domestic sectors;
  • the impact of European Union directives relating to the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels;
  • the introduction of flue-gas abatement techniques (e.g. flue gas desulphurisation, NOX scrubbers and selective (SCR) and selective non-catalytic (SNCR) reduction) and introduction of combustion modification technologies (such as use of low NOX burners);
  • the introduction of three way catalytic converters for petrol-fuelled cars (driven by the legislative 'Euro' standards);
  • the introduction of exhaust particle traps for diesel HGVs to meet emission standards EURO V.

 

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Martin Adams

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2011 2.1.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)
Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100