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GHG emission projections reported by Member States in 2015 and 2016 under the EU Monitoring Mechanism. The reported data was quality checked and gap-filled by the EEA.
The Effort Sharing Decision (EDS) No 406/2009/EC establishes binding annual greenhouse gas emission targets for Member States for the period 2013–2020. These targets concern emissions from most sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste. The ESD introduced an annual compliance cycle requiring a review of Member States’ greenhouse gas inventories. The EEA supports the annual reviews of Member States' greenhouse gas emission inventories to ensure that the European Commission has accurate, reliable and verified information on annual greenhouse gas in order to determine compliance with the ESD targets. The first annual review was carried out as a “trial review” in 2015 concerning Member States inventories for the year 2013. The first comprehensive review was carried out in 2016 for the years 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2013 and 2014. The ESD dataset includes the results of the comprehensive review 2016. The review reports will be published by the European Commission.
The European inventory of nationally designated areas holds information about protected areas and the national legislative instruments, which directly or indirectly create protected areas.
In comparison to average consumer prices, the cost of purchasing motor cars has decreased significantly since 1996, taking 2015 as the reference point.
In contrast, the cost of passenger services and the operation of personal transport equipment has generally increased.
The vitality of the transport market can be seen in 2009, for example, when overall transport prices fell at a faster rate than average consumer prices, primarily due to a significant drop in the average crude oil price between 2008 and 2009, and subsequent reductions in fuel prices.
Rail transport prices are less closely tied to the costs of fuel as most services operate under ‘public service obligations’ and an increasing proportion of passenger rail is electric-powered.
Overall transport prices appear to peak in 2012, largely driven by a peak in the price for the operation of personal transport equipment.
Since 1980, the real price of transport fuel, including taxes, has fluctuated between EUR 0.75 and EUR 1.25 per litre, with an average price of EUR 0.98 per litre. This price covers all transport fuels and is expressed as the equivalent consumption of unleaded petrol. It is corrected for inflation to 2005 prices and includes taxes.
At just EUR 0.98 , t he average European fuel price in June 2016 was slightly lower than the long-term average .
Both freight and transport demand have increased significantly over the past years.
The extent to which fuel taxes have been used to internalise environmental externalities has not significantly changed during the period in question. T axes on transport fuels have not been widely used in Europe as an environmental policy measure that can directly influence transport demand levels. Such a tax which would reduce the environmental harm caused by the sector .
Compared with 2014, sales of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the EU-28 increased by 49 % in 2015, continuing a steep upward trend since 2008. Nevertheless, electric vehicles (EVs) continue to constitute only a very small fraction of new vehicle registrations .
According to the most recent estimates, the number of alternative fuel passenger cars as a proportion of the total fleet has remained constant around 5 % over the last five years, with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cars making up the largest proportion. The number of electric vehicles (EVs) has grown, although it represents a minor proportion (0.11 %) of total passenger car fleet numbers.
The proportion of renewable energy used by the transport sector is growing but remains small. Across the EU-28, the average share of renewable energy used in transport was 5.4 % in 2013, a 0.4 % increase compared to the previous year. EEA data indicate that the share of renewable energy supply in the transport sector (RES-T) further increased to 5.9 % in 2014. These figures include only those biofuels that meet the sustainability criteria of the European Union’s (EU) Renewable Energy Directive (RED). All EU Member States are required to achieve a 10 % share in renewable energy by 2020, for all transport options. The progress of individual Member States’ towards this target varies, with most requiring significant further increases.
Initially, the EU supported biofuels as a way to help mitigate climate change, but time and research has shown that making fuels out of crops has led to deforestation and increased stress on land resources, as well as potentially inflating food prices. As such, a 7 % cap on the amount of biofuels made from crops has been proposed. Next generation biofuels made from waste or algae may not raise the same problems but will require large investments to achieve large scale production.
In 2011, EUROSTAT published the first data on the share of biofuels in transport energy use that meet the sustainability criteria of the Renewable Energy Directive (Art. 17 & Art. 18, 2009/28/EC). In 2011, 3.4 % of the energy consumed in transport was renewable, most of it from biofuels that meet the sustainability criteria. Most Member States require significant further increases in order to reach the Directive’s target of a 10 % share of renewable energy in transport by 2020.
Since the mid-1990s, spending on transport infrastructure has increased significantly across the EEA-33 member countries, reaching a peak in 2009. It has subsequently decreased each year. Despite these reductions, in 2014, the level of spending was 8 % higher than in 1995.
The share of road transport investment has decreased from a high of 61 % in 1995 to a 52 % share of total investment in 2014. Rail investments comprised a 37 % share in 2014, a larger fraction than in 1995 when the figure was less than 27 %. Infrastructure spending on other transport modes has remained broadly constant.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/find/global or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 02 Dec 2016, 11:16 PM
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