Land take as a result of the expansion of residential areas and construction sites is the main cause of the increase in urban land coverage in Europe.
Agricultural zones and, to a lesser extent, forests and semi-natural and natural areas are disappearing in favour of the development of artificial surfaces. This affects biodiversity since it decreases habitats and fragments the landscapes that support and connect them.
Between 2006 and 2012, the annual land take in the European countries (EEA-39) assessed in the 2012 Corine land cover (CLC) project was approximately 107 000 ha/year. The figure for the 2000-2006 period was approximately 118 000 ha/year.
In the 28 countries 1 covered by all three CLC assessment periods (1990-2000, 2000-2006 and 2006-2012), annual land take decreased by 10.5 % between 2000 and 2006, and by 13.5 % between 2006 and 2012.
In absolute values, the annual land take in these 28 countries was 114 000 ha/year (1990-2000), 102 000 ha/year (2000-2006) and 98 500 ha/year (2006-2012).
Between 2000 and 2006, more arable land and permanent crops were taken by artificial development than between 1990 and 2000, while fewer pastures and less mosaic farmland were taken over the same period. In fact, between 2006 and 2012, the types of land most taken for artificial development were arable land and permanent crops, followed by pastures and mixed agricultural areas.
1 The 28 countries covered by all three CLC assessment periods are AT, BE, BG, CZ, DE, DK, ES, EE, FR, GR, HR, HU, IE, IT, LT, LU, LV, ME, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, RS, SI, SK, TR and UK.
The Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 requires Member States to record information for each new passenger car registered in its territory. Every year, each Member State shall submit to the Commission all the information related to their new registrations. In particular, the following details are required for each new passenger car registered: manufacturer name, type approval number, type, variant, version, make and commercial name, specific emissions of CO2, mass of the vehicle, wheel base, track width, engine capacity, fuel type and fuel mode. Additional information, such as engine power, were also submitted.
Data for EU-28 are reported in the main database.
The fuel efficiency of new cars sold in the European Union (EU) continued to improve last year but at a slower rate. In fact, the 1.4 grammes (g) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per kilometre (km) reduction compared to 2015 constitutes the smallest annual improvement recorded over the last decade, according to provisional data published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA).
Large combustion plants are responsible for a significant proportion of anthropogenic emissions. In 2014, large combustion plant emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) contributed 45 % and 15 %, respectively, to EU-28 totals.
Since 2004, emissions from large combustion plants in the EU-28 have decreased by 74 % for SO 2 , 47 % for NO x and 73 % for dust.
The largest plants (> 500 MWth) account for only 24 % of large combustion plants but are responsible for around 80 % of all large combustion plant SO 2 , NO x and dust emissions. In 2014, of a total of 3 446 large combustion plants, 50 % of all emissions came from just 42, 82 and 31 plants for SO 2 , NOx and dust, respectively.
One indicator of the environmental performance of large combustion plants is the ratio between emissions and fuel consumption (i.e. the implied emission factor). The implied emission factors for all three pollutants decreased significantly between 2004 and 2014 for all sizes of large combustion plants.
In 2014, there were just over 3 400 large combustion plants (LCPs) in the EU-28. The number of such plants increased by 10 % between 2004 and 2014. Most of this increase occurred between 2004 and 2010, with the trend stabilising after 2010.
There was also an 19 % increase in installed capacity in the EU-28 between 2004 and 2014.
The actual use of this capacity, in terms of the fuel input, remained broadly stable between 2004 and 2008, but since 2010 there has been a decreasing trend in total fuel used by large combustion plants in the EU-28. Fuel input fired in 2009 was 7 % lower than in 2008 and 3 % lower than in 2010.
The mix of fuels used remained largely stable over this time, although with a shift away from liquid fuels towards biomass. Between 2010 and 2014, the consumption of solid fuels increased while that of natural gas decreased. The types of fuel consumed most in 2014 were solid fuels (mainly coal; 56 % of total fuel consumption) and natural gas (24 %).
The installed capacity of large combustion plants in Europe is not equally distributed: Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom together accounted for more than 50 % of total fuel input and operating capacity in 2014.