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Noise pollution is a major environmental health problem in Europe.
Road traffic is the most widespread source of environmental noise, with an estimated 125 million people affected by harmful levels. Noise from railways, airports and industry are also important sources of noise.
The European Union's (EU) Seventh Environment Action Programme sets the objective that by 2020 noise pollution in the EU has significantly decreased, moving closer to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels.
Annual precipitation since 1960 shows an increasing trend of up to 70 mm per decade in north-eastern and north-western Europe, and a decrease of up to 90 mm per decade in some parts of southern Europe. At mid-latitudes no significant changes in annual precipitation have been observed. Mean summer precipitation has significantly decreased by up to 20 mm per decade in most of southern Europe, while significant increases of up to 18 mm per decade have been recorded in parts of northern Europe.
Projected changes in precipitation vary substantially across regions and seasons. Annual precipitation is generally projected to increase in northern Europe and to decrease in southern Europe. The projected decrease in southern Europe is strongest in the summer.
This report sets out the logic for identifying the
implications of Global Mega Trends at the national,
regional or European level, and aims to provide
inspiration to EEA member and cooperating countries
to undertake their own national studies. It describes the context and the reasons why understanding global trends is important, and sets out
a suggested methodology for doing so.
The observed changes in climate are already having wide-ranging impacts on ecosystems, the economy and on human health and well-being in Europe. New records continue to be set on global and European temperatures, sea levels and reduced sea ice in the Arctic. Precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter and dry regions drier. Glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing. At the same time, climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation and droughts, are increasing in frequency and intensity in many regions. Improved climate projections provide further evidence that climate-related extremes will increase in many European regions.
The Directive relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise (the Environmental Noise Directive – END, 2002/49/EC) is the main EU instrument to identify noise pollution levels and to trigger the necessary action both at Member State and at EU level.
Data submitted by EEA member countries until 15/04/2016.
Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least three stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid box. Significant (at the 5% level) long-term trend is shown by a black dot .
In many parts of Europe, the risk of river flooding is expected to increase; in north-eastern Europe, the probability of floods is expected to fall. Further to climate exposure, the placement of many new urban areas and the accumulation of assets in low-lying areas close to rivers has intensified the sensitivity to river floods.
The map shows the low-lying urban areas potentially threatened by river flooding in a one-in-a-century flood event, both for the current period and in the projected future. However, the map does not take into account eventual future changes in urban land-take, nor any adaptation measures like flood defences or flood retention that may lower the risk.
The map is based on gridded data and shows multi-sectoral vulnerability from an ecosystem service assessment perspective.
This map shows current and projected estimates of the capacity of regions to cope with climate change impacts for two different time horizons (2020 and 2050) and for different scenarios based on the CLIMSAVE project.
The map shows that southern cities can experience daytime conditions that represent slight to moderate heat stress at the very least. Many southern cities have also a high share of elderly people. The map does not yet show future projections of thermal discomfort in cities, although it is expected that discomfort in more northern cities will increase.
Hatching indicates regions where the multi- model mean signal is less than 1 standard deviation of internal variability. Stippling indicates regions where the multi- model mean signal is greater than 2 standard deviations of internal variability and where 90% of models agree on the sign of change.
The map shows the observed and projected climate change and impacts for the main biogeographical regions in Europe
The map is based on gridded data and shows the results of a multi-hazard assessment, considering the following seven hazards: heat waves, cold waves, droughts, wildfires, river floods, coastal floods and windstorms. The maps shows by how many hazards each grid cell is projected to be affected.
The map shows the farming systems in Europe and location of MASCUR regional pilot studies based on the NUTS level 1.
This map shows the projected impacts of climate change on electricity production from four different sources in four European regions. Green denotes positive impacts whereas red denotes negative impacts.
Polygons have been created for the CCIV-2016 report. The polygons have no clear definition and should not be regarded as defined legal boundaries.
The map base are the climatic regions in Europe. The map considers 6 extreme weather events and their probability of occurrence in future (2050 and beyond), and their probability of impacting on transport infrastructure (3 threshold levels: 33%, 66%, 99%).
The map provides a simple overview which EEA member countries have conducted detailed studies, general studies or no studies on the vulnerability of the transport sector to climate change.
Stations available in the European Climate Assessment and Datasets (ECA&D) (with different lengths of records) for daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount. Green dots represent downloadable data and red dots present station used in addition in gridded products.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/find/global or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 24 Feb 2017, 11:18 PM
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