The gradient of the AOT40f values is similar to those of the AOT40c for crops: relative low in northern Europe, and the highest values observed in the countries around the Mediterranean.
The critical level is met in north Scandinavia, Ireland, part of the UK and in the coastal regions of the Netherlands (total forested area with concentrations below the critical level is 22 % of a total area of 1.44 million km2). In south Europe levels may be as high as 4-5 times above the critical level.
EEA standard re-use policy: unless otherwise indicated, re-use of content on the EEA website for commercial or non-commercial purposes is permitted free of charge, provided that the source is acknowledged (http://www.eea.europa.eu/legal/copyright). Copyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).
Sign up to receive our reports (print and/or electronic) and quarterly e-newsletter.
Don't forget about your local shops.
New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
More green tips