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NOBANIS - European Network on Invasive Alien Species

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Regional portal on invasive alien species

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Indicators using this data

Trends in Marine Alien Species pathways/vectors Trends in Marine Alien Species pathways/vectors This indicator shows trends in pathways of marine alien species. It shows the number of species introduced via 5 main categories of primary pathways of introduction (i.e. aquaculture, shipping, corridors, aquarium trade and others) per decade since the 1950´s. Results are shown for each EU regional sea, covering alien species in both in the marine and estuarine environment. Pathways describe the processes that result in the introduction of alien species from one location to another. The classification of primary pathways of introduction was an adaptation of the frameworks proposed by Hulme et al. (2008) and Molnar et al. (2008) and analysed by Katsanevakis et al (2013). Alien species may arrive and enter a new region through three broad mechanisms: importation of a commodity, arrival of a transport vector, and/or natural spread from a neighbouring region where the species is itself alien. Five pathways are associated to these broad mechanisms: commodities intentionally released or escaped (aquaculture, aquarium & live food/bait trade), contaminants of commodities (aquaculture), stowaways on modes of transport (shipping), and exploitation of corridors that is resulting from transport infrastructures (Suez canal, inland canals). The sixth pathway proposed by Hulme et al. (2008) is a secondary pathway and is not considered herein; it refers to alien species that may arrive unaided in a region as a result of natural spread following a primary human-mediated introduction in a neighbouring region. In this analysis for simplicity and to be more specific to the marine environment, we used five broad categories defined on a human activity basis, as also proposed by Molnar et al. (2008): ´aquaculture´(subdivided to  ´commodity´ and ´contaminant´), ´shipping’ (subdivided to ´ballasts´ and ´fouling´), ´corridors’ (subdivided to ´Suez´ and ´inland canals´), ´aquarium trade´, and ´other´ (including live food / Angling bait trade i.e. Fucus spiralis;  Freshwater barrels i.e. Potamopyrgus antipodarum ; introduced with packing material i.e. Spartina versicolor; Floating objects; imported for military purposes). In other are also assigned species introduced for research and education: with equipment, intentional release, waste discharges (Ojaveer et al. 2013).

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