Climate change mitigation - National Responses (Sweden)
- Climate change
The Swedish climate strategy stresses the use of general economic instruments. Targeted initiatives, such as technology procurement, information, differentiated vehicle taxes and investment grants, are added, along with legislation.
e) Which responses (R) have been put in place or are planned at national level for the theme in question?
In Sweden a series of control mechanisms have been introduced that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas emissions. The Swedish climate strategy stresses the use of general economic control mechanisms, but these mechanisms are supplemented in many cases with targeted initiatives, such as technology procurement, information, differentiated vehicle taxes and investment grants. Legislation also contributes to emission reductions, primarily within the waste sector. In recent years, joint EU control mechanisms, particularly the emissions trading scheme (ETS), have played an increasingly important role in Sweden.
Control mechanisms were introduced in earlier decades, too
At the same time, the formulation of social planning in Sweden and other control mechanisms, that were put into practice long ago, established to a great extent frameworks (created opportunities and set up obstacles) for developments during recent decades. Of special importance are the investments made during previous decades to expand district heating networks, public transport systems and carbon dioxide-free electricity generation.
The combined effect of the control mechanisms that have been introduced and strengthened since 1990 has been estimated at 30–35 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents per year in the period from 2010 to 2020 compared to the situation if no control mechanisms had been introduced. The energy sector has contributed most to the decrease in emissions.
For more information about the way the projected emission reductions will be achieved (including the application of Kyoto mechanisms), see Sweden's Fifth National Communication on Climate Change, http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/swe_nc5.pdf.
The figure shows how emissions would have developed without implementation of control mechanisms in comparison with historical and forecast emissions with introduction of control mechanisms as well as in comparison with estimated emissions with additional planned measures.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
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