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You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Czech Republic / Freshwater - Drivers and pressures (Czech Republic)

Freshwater - Drivers and pressures (Czech Republic)

Topics: ,
SOER Common environmental theme from Czech Republic
Topic
Freshwater Freshwater
more info
CENIA
Organisation name
CENIA
Reporting country
Czech Republic
Organisation website
Organisation website
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Contact link
Last updated
26 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
CENIA
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 26 Nov 2010 original
Key message

Changes in industry, public sector and wastewater treatment are the main positive drivers and pressures influencing water quality.

The reduction in water abstraction and the related amount of wastewater discharged into surface waters should be seen in the context of declining industrial production following the restructuring of the national economy and technological changes in the period since 1990. The decline in public water abstraction has mainly been due to decreased consumption of drinking water and reduced losses in distribution systems. More information: http://issar.cenia.cz/issar/page.php?id=1772.

The construction and modernisation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewerage systems has contributed significantly to reducing the pollution discharged into watercourses from point sources, particularly since the mid-1990s. The proportion of the population connected to public sewerage systems has increased from 72 % in 1990 to 81.1 % in 2008 (see Fig.). Between 1990 and 2008, the proportion of wastewater (excluding rainwater) treated and discharged into sewerage systems increased from 75 % to 95 % (see Fig.). Moreover, the percentage of tertiary treatment to remove problematic nutrients in new and modernised WWTPs has increased (see Fig.). Since 1990, the total number of WWTPs in the Czech Republic has more than tripled. The first new sewerage systems and WWTPs were constructed in larger towns and cities. This is because coverage in smaller municipalities, where the population density is lower, requires a larger financial outlay and the construction itself takes longer. More information: http://issar.cenia.cz/issar/page.php?id=1776.

The positive developments in wastewater treatment are supported by the obligations under Council Directive 91/271/EEC concerning urban wastewater treatment. The decrease in phosphorus emissions has also been supported by a ban on phosphates in detergents since October 2006 (see Fig.).

The presence of nutrients in freshwater can also be attributed to agriculture. After 1990, the use of inorganic fertilisers decreased significantly in connection with the transformation of agriculture and an increase in the cost of fertilisers. From 1993, the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilisers started to increase, mainly to compensate for the decrease in applied nitrogen from livestock manure production. From 2000, the balance in inputs minus outputs increased to 60–73 kg N per hectare, which is reasonable given the climatic conditions in the Czech Republic. However, the use of nitrogen in organic fertilisation is a very one sided affair causing many problems. Nitrogen run-off into water from agriculture is influenced by erosion, soil compaction, inappropriate agricultural techniques and the storage of fertilisers and livestock manure. The average amount of nitrogen run-off from agriculture on Czech territory is approximately two-thirds of the balance (see Fig. (for soil surface nitrogen balance) and Fig. (for soil surface phosphorus balance)).

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The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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