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Land take, or the change from non-artificial to
artificial land cover, reflects on-going and often
conflicting claims on land. Some of the land that
is 'taken' for urban development is covered with
an impervious surface, which severely hampers
ecosystem functioning and the related delivery of
ecosystem services. However, when land is 'recycled',
land that was developed in the past and has become
available for redevelopment again is reused. Urban
densification, or infilling, can also prevent the
consumption of land that may be very valuable for
food production or recreation.
In this report, the processes of recycling and
densification are jointly referred to as 'land recycling
in its broad sense'. Land recycling can be considered
a response to the on-going pressures we as a society
apply to our land resources, particularly in the urban
This report was developed in cooperation with the European Environment Information
and Observation Network (Eionet) — a partnership network of the EEA and its member
and cooperating countries involving more than 1 000 experts and 350 national
institutions across Europe.
Drawing on evidence collected from across the network, the report represents an initial
attempt to explore what the concepts of sustainability transitions and transformations
mean in practice, and how the EEA and Eionet can help develop the knowledge needed
to support systemic change in Europe. Case studies are used to explain and illustrate
key concepts and to give a sense of what activities are already under way at local levels.
The report concludes with reflections from the EEA's Scientific Committee and Executive
Director, which provide further insights into the new knowledge needs and the potential
role of the EEA and Eionet in responding to them.
The 2016 edition of the annual EEA report, Trends and projections in Europe, provides an updated assessment of the progress of the EU and European countries towards their climate mitigation and energy targets.
Society depends on the satisfactory and sustainable management of water. This report considers three pieces of EU water legislation targeted at particular sectors: the Bathing Water Directive, the Drinking Water Directive and the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, and looks at common issues in the context of the Water Framework Directive. A review of the implementation of each of the sectoral directives is provided.
This report presents an updated overview and analysis of air quality in Europe. It is focused on the air quality state in 2014 and the development from 2000 to 2014. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the trends in concentrations, the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems are also given.
This briefing is a synthesis of the outcomes of a country-by-country analysis that addressed 32 EEA countries: EU-28 Member States, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey (ETC/WMGE, 2016), complemented with some information from the Western Balkan countries.
This report provides estimates of greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU) and its
Member States for 2015, covering the full GHG inventory
(all sectors, except land use, land-use change and
forestry (LULUCF), and all gases). These estimates are
also referred to as approximated ('proxy') estimates or
inventories in this report as they cover the year for which
no official GHG inventories have been prepared yet.
The proxy inventories in this report are based on GHG
emission estimates reported by Member States to the
European Commission under existing EU legislation (1
and on calculations made by the European Environment
Agency's (EEA) European Topic Centre on Air Pollution
and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) using activity
and/or emission data at country level. The official
submission of 2015 inventories to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will
take place in 2017. The proxy estimates greatly improve
the timeliness of information on GHG emissions and
are used for analysis of emission trends and progress
towards EU climate targets.
Most European cities have at least one river or lake crossing their urban landscape. Urbanisation has come at a cost to rivers and lakes, as they have been heavily degraded to enable development, carry waste, supply drinking water and facilitate transport and industry.
This report builds on a food system approach to explore the knowledge base, and the mesh of actors and activities that enable the EU to produce, trade and consume seafood. It then further assesses the implications of such a food system analysis for EU policy and knowledge development as a means to transform Europe's food system in line with sustainability goals. The report identifies three complementary pathways in the current EU food and seafood related policy framework, and the related knowledge base that can help support a more functional system.
The report provides an analysis of past, present and future emissions trends under the EU ETS, based on the latest data and information available from the European Commission and Member States. It also analyses the balance between supply and demand of allowances in the market. The report's annexes provide extensive material describing the functioning, scope and cap of the EU ETS.
Annual accounts for the European Environment Agency, financial year 2015
fossil fuels still contributing to roughly half of the
electricity generated in Europe, moving away from a
carbon-intensive power supply over the next few decades
will require a commitment to increase investment in
clean technology, restructure the fossil fuel energy
infrastructure and ensure a secure and affordable power
In this context, this report fills an important information
gap by looking at:
• the theoretical evolution of fossil fuel capacity by 2030
in the absence of strong drivers to counter present
• how this hypothetical evolution would fit in with the
need to create a qualitatively different EU power
sector by 2030 and beyond, in line with EU climate
Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. The joint EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook supports the reporting of emissions data under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. It provides expert guidance on how to compile an atmospheric emissions inventory. The Guidebook is published by the EEA with the CLRTAP Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections responsible for the technical content of the chapters.
This report provides a non-technical summary of the latest information on electric road
vehicles in Europe, including those with hybrid technologies. It focuses upon electric
passenger vehicles, explaining the different types that are now available on the market,
how each type works, and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
A fundamental change within the road transport sector is required if Europe wants to achieve its objective of a long-term transition to a low-carbon European economy. Electric vehicles charged with electricity from renewable sources can reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from road transport. This briefing (based on an assessment carried out on behalf of the EEA) presents the key implications for emissions and Europe's energy system arising from the potential wide-scale use of electric cars in 2050.
This report summarises the data reported by
undertakings in accordance with the ODS Regulation
for 2015 and looks at the major trends since 2006. Aggregated data reported by companies on the import, export,
production, destruction, and feedstock and process agent use
of ozone-depleting substances in the European Union
This report does three things. It provides an overview
of market‑based instruments (MBIs) established by
EU environmental legislation. Then it explains the
established definitions and rationales for the application
of environmental taxes and discusses their current
design and application in EEA member countries. It
concludes with overall findings and some reflections
on the potential for long-term tax-shifting programmes
in the context of policy targets as well as technological
innovation and demographic changes.
The intended audience of this European Environment
Agency (EEA) publication is the professional
environmental evaluation community, that is,
evaluators of European environment and climate
policies, the EEA's networks and interested evaluation
professionals, including those that are active in the
European Environmental Evaluators Network (EEEN).
The publication aims to facilitate a dialogue on policy
evaluation, by clearly setting out the EEA's views on
some of the challenges that evaluators encounter in the
areas of environment and climate policy.
This document is the annual European Union (EU) emission inventory report to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention
on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The report and its accompanying data constitute the official submission by the European Commission (EC) on behalf of the EU as a Party to the Executive Secretary of UNECE. The report is compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in cooperation with the EU Member States.
This report builds on and complements existing products and initiatives on urban adaptation in Europe. It focuses on the state of actions in the field and progress achieved since the first EEA report in 2012, and it considers this analysis in relation to current challenges: Do existing actions lead to attractive, climate-resilient cities and if not, what needs to be changed? The report aims to broaden perspectives and provide input to a review and subsequent adjustment of urban adaptation to climate change by local governments and by supporting regional, national and European institutions, researchers and other relevant stakeholders.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/latest or scan the QR code.
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