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Municipalities across Europe increasingly acknowledge the need to adapt to climate change and have begun to adopt various measures. Meeting the costs of adaptation measures for climate change is, however, a major challenge. Municipalities have found innovative ways to overcome that challenge and have started implementing measures. These solutions could be relevant for other cities, towns and smaller municipalities too, and examples are collected and
presented in this publication as an inspiration. It offers insights into lessons learned on the ground regarding the most successful approaches, the difficulties encountered and overcome and the key success factors
in financing local adaptation action.
This report sets out the logic for identifying the
implications of Global Mega Trends at the national,
regional or European level, and aims to provide
inspiration to EEA member and cooperating countries
to undertake their own national studies. It describes the context and the reasons why understanding global trends is important, and sets out
a suggested methodology for doing so.
This report is an indicator-based assessment of past and projected climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society. It also looks at society’s vulnerability to these impacts and at the development of adaptation policies and the underlying knowledge base. This is the fourth ‘Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe’ report, which is published every four years. This edition aims to support the implementation and review process of the 2013 EU Adaptation Strategy, which is foreseen for 2018, and the development of national and transnational adaptation strategies and plans.
Expanding the knowledge base for policy implementation and long-term transitions
This report provides a summary of the quality of petrol and diesel used for road transport in the European Union under the requirements of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), based on the information reported by Member States for 2015. EU Member States must sample fuels each year and analyse technical characteristics of petrol and diesel fuels sold in their territories to ensure that they are consistent with the requirements of the FQD.
The European Environment Agency (EEA) is supporting the Commission in the monitoring of the CO2 performance of passenger cars and vans, according to the European Regulations (EC) 443/2009 and (EU) 510/2011.
The report ‘Prevention of hazardous waste in Europe – the status in 2015’ is the third in a series of annual reviews of waste prevention programmes in Europe as stipulated by the Waste Framework Directive. EU Member States are obliged to adopt waste prevention programmes, while EEA is invited to carry out review on their completion and implementation.
The EEA’s new report ‘TERM 2016: Transitions towards a more sustainable mobility system’ assesses the progress European Union Member States are making to improve the environmental performance of transport in line with related EU policy targets. The report also looks at the big changes underway in the sector, from emerging technologies like electric and driverless cars, or recent practices that have caught on, like shared or on-demand online mobility services for commuters. The report stresses that transport activity in the years ahead will continue to put pressure on the environment if action isn’t taken to make transport sustainable.
Data reported by companies on the production, import and export of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the European Union.
This report examines if the EU and its immediate neighbours are on target to achieving by 2020 the three thematic priority objectives (natural capital; resource efficiency and low carbon economy; health and well-being) of the 7th Environment Action Programme. It does that with the help of a set of selected indicators and other information. The report also highlights the role of eco-innovation and green finance to enable meeting aspects of the resource efficiency and low carbon economy priority objective.
Land take, or the change from non-artificial to
artificial land cover, reflects on-going and often
conflicting claims on land. Some of the land that
is 'taken' for urban development is covered with
an impervious surface, which severely hampers
ecosystem functioning and the related delivery of
ecosystem services. However, when land is 'recycled',
land that was developed in the past and has become
available for redevelopment again is reused. Urban
densification, or infilling, can also prevent the
consumption of land that may be very valuable for
food production or recreation.
In this report, the processes of recycling and
densification are jointly referred to as 'land recycling
in its broad sense'. Land recycling can be considered
a response to the on-going pressures we as a society
apply to our land resources, particularly in the urban
This report was developed in cooperation with the European Environment Information
and Observation Network (Eionet) — a partnership network of the EEA and its member
and cooperating countries involving more than 1 000 experts and 350 national
institutions across Europe.
Drawing on evidence collected from across the network, the report represents an initial
attempt to explore what the concepts of sustainability transitions and transformations
mean in practice, and how the EEA and Eionet can help develop the knowledge needed
to support systemic change in Europe. Case studies are used to explain and illustrate
key concepts and to give a sense of what activities are already under way at local levels.
The report concludes with reflections from the EEA's Scientific Committee and Executive
Director, which provide further insights into the new knowledge needs and the potential
role of the EEA and Eionet in responding to them.
The 2016 edition of the annual EEA report, Trends and projections in Europe, provides an updated assessment of the progress of the EU and European countries towards their climate mitigation and energy targets.
Society depends on the satisfactory and sustainable management of water. This report considers three pieces of EU water legislation targeted at particular sectors: the Bathing Water Directive, the Drinking Water Directive and the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, and looks at common issues in the context of the Water Framework Directive. A review of the implementation of each of the sectoral directives is provided.
This report presents an updated overview and analysis of air quality in Europe. It is focused on the air quality state in 2014 and the development from 2000 to 2014. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the air quality directives. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the trends in concentrations, the effects of air pollution on health and its impacts on ecosystems are also given.
This briefing is a synthesis of the outcomes of a country-by-country analysis that addressed 32 EEA countries: EU-28 Member States, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey (ETC/WMGE, 2016), complemented with some information from the Western Balkan countries.
This report provides estimates of greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU) and its
Member States for 2015, covering the full GHG inventory
(all sectors, except land use, land-use change and
forestry (LULUCF), and all gases). These estimates are
also referred to as approximated ('proxy') estimates or
inventories in this report as they cover the year for which
no official GHG inventories have been prepared yet.
The proxy inventories in this report are based on GHG
emission estimates reported by Member States to the
European Commission under existing EU legislation (1
and on calculations made by the European Environment
Agency's (EEA) European Topic Centre on Air Pollution
and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) using activity
and/or emission data at country level. The official
submission of 2015 inventories to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will
take place in 2017. The proxy estimates greatly improve
the timeliness of information on GHG emissions and
are used for analysis of emission trends and progress
towards EU climate targets.
Most European cities have at least one river or lake crossing their urban landscape. Urbanisation has come at a cost to rivers and lakes, as they have been heavily degraded to enable development, carry waste, supply drinking water and facilitate transport and industry.
This report builds on a food system approach to explore the knowledge base, and the mesh of actors and activities that enable the EU to produce, trade and consume seafood. It then further assesses the implications of such a food system analysis for EU policy and knowledge development as a means to transform Europe's food system in line with sustainability goals. The report identifies three complementary pathways in the current EU food and seafood related policy framework, and the related knowledge base that can help support a more functional system.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/latest or scan the QR code.
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