Section III: Risk Management and New Directions
This final section of the book provides information on risk management and discusses the issues surrounding the use of environmental risk assessment and management as environmental management tools, and initiatives to make them more effective.
Chapter 8 introduces the important concepts in risk management and the tools and techniques which make up the process. The importance of risk evaluation and perception is emphasised, including the significance of the principles of cultural theory which is illustrated by using the greenhouse effect as an example. The three approaches to reaching "acceptable" risk decisions are explained; professional judgement, bootstrapping, and formal analyses such as cost-benefit analysis. Risk reduction techniques and measures are also outlined.
Chapter 9 looks at some of the major issues in environmental risk assessment and management such as data deficiencies and gaps, the need for harmonisation internationally, and the acceleration of the practical process. It also identifies initiatives being taken to address some of the problems.
The section is targeted towards decision-makers contemplating risk-based decisions and requiring a knowledge of the principles of risk management and also the general audience of industry, interest groups and the general public interested in the risk management decision-making process and the concepts which underpin it, and the problems and uncertainties surrounding the use of risk assessment and risk management as environmental management tools.