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You are here: Home / Environmental policy document catalogue / COM(2010) 2020 final, Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

COM(2010) 2020 final, Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

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European Commission, 2010. Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM(2010) 2020 final. 

COM(2010) 2020 final, Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

The link address is: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:2020:FIN:EN:PDF

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Outlook from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Outlook from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) GDP can be calculated in three ways, providing different perspectives on the balance of economic activity. Essentially these three approaches consist of adding up the total value of incomes, spending or production in a country or region during a period of time. More formally they can be defined as follows (OECD, 2015b): the ‘income approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer unit; the ‘expenditure approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured in purchasers' prices, less the value of imports of goods and services; the ‘output approach’ calculates GDP as the sum of the gross values added of all resident institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs). Applying these approaches using current price data will deliver an estimate of nominal GDP. Nominal GDP data are often adjusted to facilitate meaningful comparisons of economic output between different time periods and between different countries. For example, nominal GDP is adjusted to remove the effects of price inflation in order to provide a more realistic measure of changes in the volume of economic production. Constant price estimates of GDP are obtained by calculating the value of production in different periods using the price levels from a single base period. Similarly, nominal GDP growth is converted into real GDP growth using the ‘GDP deflator’ (OECD, 2015a). Price differences between countries can likewise make it hard to compare the volume of national production using nominal price data at market exchange rates. Purchasing power parity (PPP) estimates of GDP compensate for differences in prices between countries to provide a better comparison of the volume of goods and services produced in different countries or regions. They thereby support better comparisons of living standards (OECD, 2015c). The data shown in this indicator are expressed in 2005 US dollars in PPP terms. References OECD, 2015a: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) – constant prices Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1164 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015b: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1163 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015c: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Purchasing power parities (PPPs) – OECD Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=2205 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe The indicator is used to illustrate emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, indicator shows decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from the environmental impact (emission of pollutants).Decoupling indicator displays the percentage of change in emission of pollutants from manufacturing plotted together with the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (between 2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of the GVA. In line with Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33) the following industries : are considered in the „manufacturing“:” Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manu- facture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machineryand equipment n.e.c. Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment   The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered for: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    
Water Use Intensity (WUI) of irrigated crops Water Use Intensity (WUI) of irrigated crops Water use intensity of irrigated crops can be estimated by the use of the following formula: Water Use Intensity (WUI) of irrigated crops (m 3 /€ PPS) Water Use Irrigation crop (m 3 ) / Economic Output crop (€ PPS)   Where, *  Water Use Irrigation crop is the total water used (in m 3 ) for the irrigation of the specific crop in the same area and for the same year (currently 2010). *  Economic Output crop is the production value at producer price in € PPS * (values at current prices) of a specific irrigated crop in a specified area (NUTS 2). * Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is used by Eurostat as a common currency for the European region which accounts for differences in the purchasing power over the 28 Member States and other European countries included in the assessments (e.g. EFTA countries, candidate countries and potential candidates). Theoretically, one PPS can buy the same amount of goods and services in each country. The adjustment for price level differences is done using Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs). Thus, PPPs can be interpreted as the exchange rate of the PPS against the euro. The analysis is conducted using data from the latest available year from the Eurostat Farm Structure Survey -FSS (currently 2010) [1] , while the spatial scale used is the NUTS2 level [2] . In general, lower WUI values reflect more efficient use of water or, in other terms, more benefit is being generated per unit of water used for irrigation. The WUI has been calculated for selected crops irrigated in Europe, namely: cereals (excluding maize and rice), maize, sugar beets, rape and turnip rape, sunflower, potatoes and citrus. Some other categories of crops (e.g. olives, vineyards, fruits and berries), for which data are available, were examined, but practical issues emerged and challenged the analysis. The production value of olives refers to both “table olives” and “olive oil”, yet the irrigated area data do not distinguish among categories. The same applies for the vineyards (“table grapes” vs. “wine”). In the case of fruit and berry plantations, this category represents a great variety of fruits with ranging water needs and various products. For these crops no values of WUI were calculated. [1] Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 of 29 February 1988 on the organization of Community surveys on the structure of agricultural holdings (OJ L 56, 2.3.1988, p. 1); and Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council. Regulation (EEC) No 571/88. For more information consult section 4 – Data Sources. [2] The data currently used also refer to the year 2010 and were sourced from Eurostat economic accounts for agriculture – regional agricultural statistics. For more information consult section 4 – Data Sources.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe This indicator is used to illustrate the emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as the amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of the manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, the indicator shows a decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from  environmental impact (emission of pollutants). The decoupling indicator displays the percentage change in the emission of pollutants from manufacturing against the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing, while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of GVA. In line with the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33)) the following manufacturing industries are considered: Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    

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