COM(2010) 2020 final, Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

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European Commission, 2010. Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM(2010) 2020 final. 

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Population trends 1950 – 2100: globally and within Europe Population trends 1950 – 2100: globally and within Europe Population is defined as the “de facto population in a country, area or region as of 1 July of the year indicated” ( UN, 2015b ). Population changes from one year to another are due to natural population change (the difference between the number of live births and deaths during a given time period) ( Eurostat, 2015 ) and net migration (the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants) ( UN, 2015b ) in a given country or region. The figures presented in this indicator include population estimates for 1950-2015 and eight projection variants for 2015-2100. These projection variants have been developed by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) on the basis of varying assumptions related to fertility rates, mortality rates and international migration (for details see the Methodology section). The table below summarises the eight projection variants as defined in the World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision ( UN, 2015a ). Assumptions Projection variant Fertility Mortality International migration Low fertility Low Normal Normal Medium fertility Medium Normal Normal High fertility High Normal Normal Constant fertility Constant as of 2010–2015 Normal Normal Instant replacement fertility Instant replacement as of 2015-2020 Normal Normal Constant mortality Medium Constant as of 2010–2015 Normal No change Constant as of 2010–2015 Constant as of 2010–2015 Normal Zero-migration Medium Normal Zero as of 2015–2020 Time horizon: 1950-2100 Geographical coverage: global, with specific attention to world regions and Europe. World regions are specified as defined by the United Nations Population Division - Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania. References Eurostat, 2015, ' Glossary: Natural population change ' UN, 2015a, 'World Population Prospects: The 2015 revision'   UN, 2015b, 'World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision — Glossary of demographic terms'  
Population change – Outlook from UN DESA Population change – Outlook from UN DESA Population includes all residents regardless of legal status and citizenship. Population change is defined as the “population increment over a period, that is, the difference between the population at the end of the period and that at the beginning of the period. It refers to five-year periods running from 1 July to 30 June of the initial and final years” ( UN, 2013c ). Within this indicator this includes natural population change (the difference between the number of live births and deaths during a given time period) ( Eurostat, 2015 ) and net migration (the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during a given period) ( UN, 2013c ). The figures presented in this indicator include historical data and eight projection variants. These projection variants have been developed by UN DESA on the basis of varying assumptions related to fertility rates, mortality rates and international migration (for details see the Methodology section). The table below summarises the eight projections variants as defined in the World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision( UN, 2013d ). Assumptions Projection variant Fertility Mortality International migration Low fertility Low Normal Normal Medium fertility Medium Normal Normal High fertility High Normal Normal Constant fertility Constant as of 2005 – 2010 Normal Normal Instant replacement fertility Instant replacement as of 2010 - 2015 Normal Normal Constant mortality Medium Constant as of 2005 – 2010 Normal No change Constant as of 2005 – 2010 Constant as of 2005 – 2010 Normal Zero-migration Medium Normal Zero as of 2010 – 2015 Time horizon: 1950 to 2100 Geographical coverage: global, with specific attention to world regions and Europe. World regions are specified as defined by the United Nations Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Asia; Africa; Europe; Latin America and the Caribbean; Northern America; Oceania. References Eurostat, 2015, ' Glossary: Natural population change ' UN, 2013c, ' World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision — Glossary of demographic terms ' UN, 2013d, ' World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision — Highlights and advance tables ', Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.228, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), New York, US.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe This indicator is used to illustrate the emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as the amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of the manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, the indicator shows a decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from  environmental impact (emission of pollutants). The decoupling indicator displays the percentage change in the emission of pollutants from manufacturing against the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing, while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of GVA. In line with the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33)) the following manufacturing industries are considered: Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Outlook from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Outlook from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) GDP can be calculated in three ways, providing different perspectives on the balance of economic activity. Essentially these three approaches consist of adding up the total value of incomes, spending or production in a country or region during a period of time. More formally they can be defined as follows (OECD, 2015b): the ‘income approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer unit; the ‘expenditure approach’ calculates GDP based on the sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured in purchasers' prices, less the value of imports of goods and services; the ‘output approach’ calculates GDP as the sum of the gross values added of all resident institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs). Applying these approaches using current price data will deliver an estimate of nominal GDP. Nominal GDP data are often adjusted to facilitate meaningful comparisons of economic output between different time periods and between different countries. For example, nominal GDP is adjusted to remove the effects of price inflation in order to provide a more realistic measure of changes in the volume of economic production. Constant price estimates of GDP are obtained by calculating the value of production in different periods using the price levels from a single base period. Similarly, nominal GDP growth is converted into real GDP growth using the ‘GDP deflator’ (OECD, 2015a). Price differences between countries can likewise make it hard to compare the volume of national production using nominal price data at market exchange rates. Purchasing power parity (PPP) estimates of GDP compensate for differences in prices between countries to provide a better comparison of the volume of goods and services produced in different countries or regions. They thereby support better comparisons of living standards (OECD, 2015c). The data shown in this indicator are expressed in 2005 US dollars in PPP terms. References OECD, 2015a: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) – constant prices Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1164 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015b: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Gross domestic product (GDP) Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1163 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015. OECD, 2015c: 'OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Purchasing power parities (PPPs) – OECD Definition' ( http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=2205 ) accessed 19 Jan 2015.
Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe Emission intensity of manufacturing industries in Europe The indicator is used to illustrate emission intensity of manufacturing industries expressed as amount of pollutant discharged in water per unit of production of manufacturing industries (expressed as one million Euro gross value added). Furthermore, indicator shows decoupling of economic growth (GVA) from the environmental impact (emission of pollutants).Decoupling indicator displays the percentage of change in emission of pollutants from manufacturing plotted together with the change in the gross value added (GVA) of the manufacturing industry over the same period of time (between 2004-2010). Absolute decoupling occurs when the environmentally relevant variable is stable or decreasing while the economic driving force is growing. Relative decoupling occurs when the growth rate of the emission is positive, but less than the growth rate of the GVA. In line with Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community NACE Rev. 2 Section C  (divisions 10-33) the following industries : are considered in the „manufacturing“:” Division 10: Manufacture of food products Division 11: Manufacture of beverages Division 12: Manufacture of tobacco products Division 13: Manufacture of textiles Division 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel Division 15: Manufacture of leather and related products Division 16: Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manu- facture of articles of straw and plaiting materials Division 17: Manufacture of paper and paper products Division 18: Printing and reproduction of recorded media Division 19: Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products Division 20: Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products Division 21: Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations Division 22: Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Division 23: Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Division 24: Manufacture of basic metals Division 25: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Division 26: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products Division 27: Manufacture of electrical equipment Division 28: Manufacture of machineryand equipment n.e.c. Division 29: Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Division 30: Manufacture of other transport equipment Division 31: Manufacture of furniture Division 32: Other manufacturing Division 33: Repair and installation of machinery and equipment   The following divisions from NACE Rev. 2 Section C were considered for: Food industry: division 10, 11 Chemical industry: division 20, groups 20.1-20.6 Metal industry:division 24, 25    

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