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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Urban environment — key message 5

Cities can be considered as 'ecosystems', albeit with a high technical component. Their urban metabolism is an open and dynamic system, which consumes, transforms and releases materials and energy, develops and adapts to changes, and interacts with humans and other ecosystems. Therefore they should be analysed and managed as other ecosystems.

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100