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You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Turkey / Freshwater - State and impacts (Turkey)

Freshwater - State and impacts (Turkey)

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Freshwater - State and Impacts ( Turkey )
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011

Last year for identifying the hot points and defining the pressures by the catchment protection action plans, priorities were established including the 25 river catchments of Turkey. In this study the measured results for 2006, provided by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, were used and with the assistance of those data the water quality map of Turkey was prepared as below Figure 1.


Figure 1: Water Quality of Turkey, 2006

Figure 1: Water Quality of Turkey, 2006

Source: General Directorate of Environmental Management



The measured results of heavy metal concentrations in water belonging to 2006 are lower than the measurement results of organic concentration amount in water for the same year.

In various sectors, as 34 billion m3 in irrigation, 7 billion m3 in domestic water supply and 5 billion m3 in industry totally 46 billion m3 of water was consumed in 2008. This sum corresponds to only 41% of the available exploitable potential of 112 billion m3. According to future projections, the share of irrigation use will decrease from 74% in 2008 to 64% by 2030. On the other hand, the domestic and industrial use would increase to 16% and 20% in this period, respectively ( Figure 2).

 Figure 2: Water Amount Abstracted by Sectors  (milion m3)

Figure 2: Water amount abstracted by sector (million m3)

 Source: General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works


During 2007, drought conditions had a sequence of fifth dry period of the last 37 years. Yearly total precipitation of Turkey is 642 mm per m2, normally. But in 2007 this value decreased to 548 mm. and precipitation was 15% less than the normal. It’s shown “Precipitation of Turkey between 1970 – 2007 as water year totals” in Figure 3.



Figure 3: Precipitation of Turkey between 1970 – 2007 as water year totals

Figure 3: Precipitation in Turkey 1970–2007 as water year totals

Source: General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works


Figure 4: Aridity assessment of Turkey based on P/PET relation

Figure 4: Aridity assessment of Turkey based on P/PET relation

Source: General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works


Flood is the second biggest hazard in Turkey, which causes huge economic loss after earthquake. According to the records based on annual flood inventory studies, economic loss related to the flood disasters reaches 100 million US$/year and in the last 15 years, about 500,000 ha urban and agricultural areas were affected by floods.           

The June-July-August months are the most popular season for tourists, as well it is the dryest season. In that period which 42% of the tourists come to Turkey, water use per person increase by 3-4 times.

In the city centers that could get water by 80% of population, 13% of the samples were not up to the standards while in the city centers that could get water by 60% of population, only 5% of the samples were not up to the standards. The number of municipalities that served with drinking and using water network are tend to increase in recent years. The municipality number and the rate of the population served with networks by total population for 2001 and 2006 years are 3092-95% and 3167-98%, respectively.



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The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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