Freshwater - National Responses (Turkey)
“Water Pollution Control Regulation” has provided extensive arrangements on water quality management. There are two basic approaches about “Water Pollution Control Regulation”. First approach is that present quality of water resources should be protected and the second one is that present quality of water resources should be improved. In this context, some regulations have been implemented related to protection areas around drinking water reservoirs and protection of agricultural areas, some restrictions on discharging of domestic and industrial wastewater have been imposed.
Surface water, lakes, ponds and dam reservoirs in Turkey are classified according to the “Classification of Continental Surface Water” in part “Water Pollution Control Regulation”.
According to the “Receiving Environment Standards of Lakes” part in “Water Pollution Control Regulation” some restrictions on the nitrogen and phosphorus amount in the lakes, ponds and dam reservoirs have been imposed against eutrophication.
The regulation became effective in order to bring out the technical and legal principles required for the determination of Water Pollution Control Principles with the purpose of actualizing utilization of the country’s water resources potential protection, ensuring maximum optimized use and prevention of water pollution in harmony with the economic and social development objectives.
It also provides for water quality planning. This Regulation aims at both conserving the quality of water resources in ecosystems and protecting and enhancing water quality to meet national requirements. It prescribes protection zones and land use strategies with regard to reservoirs and lakes used for drinking water. Principles for discharging effluent to ground and surface waters, and for treating waste water, are also included in the regulation.
Last decade's flooding events with their costly results have brought Turkey to a new view-point to reduce and control the susceptibility to the flood damages, namely the "Hazard Mitigation Approach". To prevent and decrease the damages of floods, 4566 environment and flood control structures have been built and by this way 1.000.000 ha area has been protected. Between 2001-2003 years, as a flood forecasting and early warning system, Turkey Emergency Flood and Earthquake Relief (TEFER) Project has been effectuated to remove the damages of 1998 flood in Western Black Sea Region.
In Turkey, parallel to dam construction either for prevention of the floods or for meeting demands, basin water management systems comprising of other activities are being developed for providing balance between resource and demand. As in other countries in the world, irrigation has a great share in water consumption. To minimize water loss through distribution networks, to save water during the operation and to increase irrigation efficiency, modern irrigation methods such as, sprinkler or drip irrigation are mostly preferred in irrigation projects. Since water resources development has significance for country’s growth, various projects have been developed in agriculture, energy, environment and the other sectors in Turkey so far. Beside domestic and industrial water supply, the projects developed in service sector comprise meeting of the tourism water requirements. To prevent the negative effects of tourism on groundwater and service sector, impervious load-bearing walls and transmission lines have been builted.
- *The Booklet of Environmental Indicators-2008, General Directorate of EIA and Planning, Ministry of Environment and Forestry
- *General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Ministry of Environment and Forestry
- *General Directorate of Environmental Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry
- *Wastewater Treatment Action Plan for 2008-2012, General Directorate of Environmental Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry
- *Turkish Statistical Institute