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Air pollution - State and impacts (Turkey)

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This content has been archived on 21 Mar 2015, reason: A new version has been published
Air pollution - State and Impacts ( Turkey)
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 21 Mar 2015

Air pollution is one of the most significant problems in Turkey likewise other countries. The main reasons for this could be summed up as; rapid increase of population, energy consumption due to industry and housing and increasing fuel demand for vehicles.


Trends in sulphur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations in some metropolitan cities of Turkey are given above. While these graphics are examined, in general, decrease in the major pollutants has been observed.


Trends in reducing annual average concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) in cities showed overall progress between 2002 and 2008. In cities such as İstanbul, Ankara, Gaziantep, Samsun, Sivas and Diyarbakir pollutant concentrations decreased, particularly during winter seasons, in some cities from levels over 260 μg/m3. This progress reflects major changes in energy supply for domestic heating, with i) natural gas substituting for coal in a number of cities and ii) prohibition of the use of high-sulphur coal in 2005. Average annual concentrations of SO2 and PM10 are below the long-term target limit value.

However, in cities where industry has continued to expand (e.g. Bursa, Denizli, Kayseri and Kütahya), SO2 and PM10 concentrations have not decreased. Average winter concentrations have exceeded long-term target limit value, and average concentrations of SO2 and PM10 have remained above the WHO guideline of, respectively, 20 and 50 μg/m3.

Energy Supply by Source, 1990-2005

Geographic coverage


The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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