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on the environment

Slovakia

Freshwater (Slovakia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Freshwater Freshwater
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
23 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 

Water is an essential resource for human life, for ecosystems and for the economy. Water quality management became a core environmental issue during the EU accession transition period in Slovakia. Also nowadays, the main policy objectives are to use freshwaters in a sustainable manner, protecting drinking water supply and freshwater ecosystems, and preventing further deterioration of water sources.

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 1 - The surface water bodies in SR 2007

The ecological status/potential assessment of surface water bodies in the Slovak Republic expressed by water body quantities (year 2007) # Source: MoE SR, draft of the river Basin Management Plan
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Water_final.xls
Figure 1 - The surface water bodies in SR 2007
Fullscreen image Original link

Freshwater quantity

In 2009, the natural resources of groundwater in Slovakia were set at 11 042 l.s-1. More than 50 % of this volume represented documented usable volumes of groundwater.

A significant part of the Slovak surface water flows in from the neighbouring states and the usability of this fund is limited. In total, the long-term inflow average is approximately 2 514 m3.s-1 of water, which is about 86 % of our total surface water. In the long term, there is approximately 398 m3.s-1 of water springing in Slovakia, which represents 14 % of the water fund. In 2009, the annual inflow to Slovakia was 71 767 million m3. Run-off from the territory was 85 546  million m3.

Freshwater quality

The groundwater quality is, in the long-term, favourable in Slovakia. In 2009, groundwater pollution observed in objects situated near strong pollution sources was, in most cases, caused by over-limit concentrations of Fe, Mn, NH4, NO3-, Cl-, and SO42-. Sporadically, excessive concentrations of trace elements Al, As, Pb, Hg and Sb occur in the groundwater.

Good chemical status has been classified in 82.7 % of groundwater bodies representing 76.4 % of the total area of groundwater bodies in Slovakia. The major pollutants are sulphates, chlorides, nitrates, ammonia, pesticides, trichloroethene, and tetrachloroethylene.

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=203&id_indikator=4047

Anthropogenic activities realised in river basins may result in a deterioration of surface water quality with detrimental effects on ecosystems.

On the basis of the preliminary evaluation of the monitoring results of surface water status performed in 2007, it is possible to state that 1 139 water bodies out of the total number of 1 761 water bodies (circa 65 %) have been classified as having high or good ecological status (or potential). The remaining water bodies have been classified as having worse than good status. Figure 1 shows the water bodies by number classified into the individual ecological status classes.

The chemical status of surface water bodies has been evaluated on the basis of monitoring results at 67 sampling sites covering 46 surface water bodies in 2007. Sampling sites were situated at the localities of their assumed source and at the borders with neighbouring countries. Twenty-four surface water bodies out of the total number of 46 surface water bodies have been evaluated as failing to achieve good chemical status and 22 surface water bodies have been classified into the good chemical status class.

(see Figure 1): The ecological status/potential assessment of surface water bodies in the Slovak Republic expressed by water body quantities (2007)

Link to SEA information: http://www.sazp.sk/public/index/go.php?id=1779&lang=sk

Link to SHMI information: http://www.shmu.sk/sk/?page=1542 

Link to WRI information: http://www.vuvh.sk/rsv2/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67&Itemid=87

Link to EEA CSI:

http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007131957/IAssessment1202382187208/view_content

State and trends of nutrient concentration

In vulnerable zones, nitrates were observed in the network of 560 groundwater objects. During the period 2004–07, there were observations of exceedances in the nitrate limit value (50 mg /l) in 49 objects, i.e. 8.75 % of objects (Table 1).

Table 1: Groundwater nitrate pollution in vulnerable zones of Slovakia

Depth of groundwater layers (m)

Total number of objects

Number of objects with excess nitrate concentration

%

0–5

54

0

0

5–15

206

30

14.5

5–30

132

13

9.8

> 30

168

6

3.6

Source: SHMI, WRI

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak): 

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=203&id_indikator=4066

Link to SEA information: http://www.sazp.sk/public/index/go.php?id=1167&idl=1167&idf=638&lang=sk

In the case of surface waters in sensitive areas, including vulnerable zones, nitrates were observed in 224 surface water sampling sites and chlorophyll a, as an indicator of trophic status, was observed in 49 sampling sites. During the period 2004–07, the annual average nitrate concentration in the highest number of sampling sites (74 %) ranged from 2–9.99 mg/l. Exceedances over 50 mg/l were observed in none of the sampling sites. As for chlorophyll a, the results showed that the highest numbers of sampling sites were classified into mesotrophic status (46.9 %), eutrophic status was observed in 18.36 % sites. There were no sampling sites classified as having hypertrophic status.

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak): http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?id_indikator=1827#

(Concentration of nutrients and chlorophyll "a" in selected watercourses SR)

Link to EEA CSI:

http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007132031/IAssessment1205412447537/view_content

The key drivers and pressures

Topic
Freshwater Freshwater
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
23 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 4 - Drinking water - public water in SR

Drinking water supplying of the inhabitannts from the public water suplying in SR\n# Source: SO SR
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Water_final.xls
Figure 4 - Drinking water - public water in SR
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5 - inhabitants - public sewerage network in Slovakia

Conecting of the inhabitants to the public sewerage network in Slovakia\n# Source: SO SR
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Water_final.xls
Figure 5 - inhabitants - public sewerage network in Slovakia
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3 - Surface water abstraction in Slovakia

Surface water abstraction in Slovakia\n# Source: SHMI\n
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Water_final.xls
Figure 3 - Surface water abstraction in Slovakia
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2 - Groundwater abstraction in Slovakia

Groundwater abstraction in Slovakia # Source: SHMI
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Water_final.xls
Figure 2 - Groundwater abstraction in Slovakia
Fullscreen image Original link

Socioeconomic development and climate change generate pressures causing negative effects on water quality and quantity in Slovakia. The main impact causes are agriculture, industry and urban activities.

In 2009, customers used approximately 14 % of the documented usable groundwater volume. Nearly 75 % of groundwater abstractions were used for public water supply purposes. Since 1990, groundwater abstractions have had a decreasing tendency (see Figure 2). Similarly, surface water abstraction has had a decreasing tendency (see Figure 3). In 2009, total extracted volume of surface water was 279 million m3. More than 80 % of surface water abstractions were for industrial purposes.

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=2&id_indikator=513
http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?id_indikator=1705
http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?id_indikator=1724#

Link to EEA CSI: 

http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007131848/IAssessment1197887395187/view_content

Waste water

From 1998 to 2009, the volume of discharged wastewater decreased by 54.4 % in Slovakia. In 2009, the total volume of discharged wastewater into watercourses was 620 358 090 m3. The percentage of discharged treated wastewater of the total volume of waste water discharged into watercourses in 2009 was 94.67 %.

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=2&id_indikator=482#

Link to EEA CSI:

http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007132045/IAssessment1196343193294/view_content

Sewerage system and public water supply

In 2009, 3 225 000 inhabitants were connected to the public sewerage system, which represents 59.4 % of the population (see Figure 5). The development of public sewerage systems significantly lags behind the development of public water supplies. In 2009, the number of inhabitants supplied with drinking water from the public water supply reached 4 682 000 which represents 86.3 % of the population (see Figure 4).

Link to Enviroportal - Environmental Indicators (in Slovak):

http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=1&id_indikator=468
http://enviroportal.sk/indikatory/detail.php?kategoria=1&id_indikator=449

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Some of the main issues concerning environmental objectives of surface water and groundwater status, as well as wastewater in Slovakia are:

  • to ensure the connection to the public sewerage network of all inhabitants living in agglomerations with more than 10 000 inhabitants by the end of 2010,

  • to ensure the discharge and full biological treatment of wastewater in agglomerations with more than 2 000 inhabitants by the end of 2015,

  • to implement measures with the aim to reduce pollution by priority substances gradually and to cease or phase out emissions, discharges and losses of priority hazardous substances by December 2020.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

The most important documents reflecting the response on freshwater pressures and impacts are river basin management plans, programmes of measures and monitoring programmes implemented in line with requirements of the Water Framework Directive. They will be published for the first planning cycle in 2009 and will be legally binding. Other examples of the country’s response are the adoption of the Code of Good Agricultural Practice, the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources, a programme to decrease pollution caused by certain dangerous substances, the plan for the public water supply and sewerage system development, etc.

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100