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Slovakia

Climate change mitigation (Slovakia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Climate change Climate change
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
23 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
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SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

 Climate change caused by the increasing anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases represents the most serious environmental issue in the history of humankind. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Other greenhouse gases included in the GHG inventory are halogenated hydrocarbons (PFCs, HFCs) and SF6, which are not covered by the Montreal Protocol. There is continuous pressure to formulate effective strategies and policies for the further reduction of emissions.

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 2: development GDP TPES FEU CO2 SO2 2 base year 1990

The development of GDP, total primary energy use (TPES), fuel energy use (FEU) and CO2 and SO2 emissions trend comparable to the base year 1990 # Source: SHMI with cooperation of Ecosys, 15 April 2009, GDP in constant prices 2000
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Climatechange_final.xls
Figure 2: development GDP TPES FEU CO2 SO2 2 base year 1990
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 1: GHG emission trend - Kyoto target in SR

Figure 1: The GHG emission trend compared with the Kyoto target (%) in the Slovak Republic # Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, National Inventory Report, 15 April 2010
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Climatechange_final.xls
Figure 1: GHG emission trend - Kyoto target in SR
Fullscreen image Original link

The GHG emissions presented in the National Inventory Report of the Slovak Republic, 2010 1, were updated and converted using the latest available methods, national conditions and data published by the Slovak Statistical Office. Total GHG emissions were 48 831.11 Gg in 2008 (without LULUCF). This represents a reduction of 33.92 % in comparison with the reference year 1990. In comparison with 2007, the emissions increased by 2.2 %. Figure 1 shows the current trend in GHG emissions compared with the 8 % Kyoto target.

Table 1 shows figures for aggregated GHG emissions expressed as CO2 equivalents. In the period 1990–2008, the total greenhouse gas emissions in the Slovak Republic did not exceed the 1990 level.

Table 1: The total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (Tg of CO2-eq.)

 

year:1990

year:1991

year:1992

year:1993

year:1994

year:1995

year:1996

year:1997

year:1998

year:1999

Gases

 

 CO2 equivalent (Gg)

CO2 with LULUCF

60 164,74

52 738,68

48 504,53

44 053,92

42 890,13

42 011,17

40 755,37

40 686,54

40 752,76

40 614,13

CO2 without LULUCF

62 571,33

56 246,23

52 655,67

48 338,08

46 206,63

44 707,17

43 177,00

42 088,30

42 692,24

42 250,07

CH4 with LULUCF

4 825,56

4 676,72

4 412,82

4 112,04

4 098,48

4 283,60

4 243,50

4 275,27

4 536,66

4 736,62

CH4 without LULUCF

4 810,88

4 667,50

4 403,16

4 101,96

4 089,87

4 273,96

4 232,79

4 263,93

4 525,46

4 723,81

N2O with LULUCF

6 245,31

5 044,52

4 227,93

3 583,49

3 931,05

4 168,58

4 297,36

4 189,92

3 786,40

3 335,11

N2O without LULUCF

6 241,90

5 042,23

4 225,95

3 581,51

3 929,09

4 166,32

4 295,10

4 187,66

3 784,14

3 332,01

HFCs

NA,NO

NA,NO

NA,NO

NA,NO

2,91

22,15

37,58

61,13

40,96

65,12

PFCs

271,37

266,94

248,42

155,42

132,06

114,32

34,51

34,62

25,40

13,60

SF6

0,03

0,03

0,04

0,06

9,27

9,91

10,76

11,34

12,24

12,69

Total (with LULUCF)

71 507,02

62 726,90

57 393,74

51 904,93

51 063,89

50 609,74

49 379,09

49 258,81

49 154,43

48 777,28

Total (without LULUCF)

73 895,51

66 222,93

61 533,24

56 177,02

54 369,83

53 293,83

51 787,74

50 646,98

51 080,44

50 397,30

 

year:2000

year:2001

year:2002

year:2003

year:2004

year:2005

year:2006

year:2007

year:2008

Difference

Gases

 

 CO2 equivalent (Gg)

%

CO2 with LULUCF

38 694,52

37 050,65

35 500,18

37 249,95

37 713,05

40 609,58

37 715,42

35 743,97

37 662,16

-37,40

CO2 without LULUCF

41 097,89

42 275,80

40 743,12

42 083,11

41 866,41

41 389,39

40 668,68

38 865,79

39 763,66

-36,45

CH4 with LULUCF

4 462,96

4 507,43

5 217,86

4 977,04

4 885,70

4 674,81

4 750,71

4 631,78

4 749,74

-1,57

CH4 without LULUCF

4 448,89

4 493,15

5 203,94

4 961,71

4 868,43

4 652,37

4 731,81

4 612,75

4 728,85

-1,71

N2O with LULUCF

3 541,72

3 714,12

3 775,82

3 795,74

3 839,00

3 831,05

4 192,67

3 998,29

4 024,93

-35,55

N2O without LULUCF

3 538,62

3 711,02

3 772,72

3 792,64

3 835,53

3 825,71

4 189,50

3 994,41

4 020,69

-35,59

HFCs

75,59

82,43

102,35

131,96

152,88

172,34

198,90

226,99

263,24

100,00

PFCs

11,65

15,59

13,75

21,65

19,91

20,25

35,82

24,88

36,16

-86,67

SF6

13,25

13,84

14,78

15,39

15,89

16,61

17,15

17,44

18,51

60 407,81

Total (with LULUCF)

46 799,69

45 384,06

44 624,74

46 191,72

46 626,43

49 324,65

46 910,67

44 643,35

46 754,74

-34,62

Total (without LULUCF)

49 185,89

50 591,83

49 850,65

51 006,45

50 759,05

50 076,68

49 841,85

47 742,26

48 831,11

-33,92

Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, National Inventory Report, 15 April 2010

Figure 2 shows historical data for interlinkages of macroeconomic, energy and emission indicators in the Slovak Republic. In 2008, the consumption of brown coal was only 6% of the consumption in 1990, light fuel oil consumption decreased by 92% and heavy fuel oil by 72% compared to 1990. An example of the Slovak Republic is as follows: the production of liquid steel increased by 27.7% from 1990 to 2005, while the consumption of coal energy production decreased by 2.3%. Carbon intensity per metric ton of liquid steel has been improved by 5.2% during the same period. There is a lot of further technological and innovation steps made by individual operators to increase production intensity and to meet strict environmental requirements.

1 National Inventory Report of the Slovak Republic, 15 April 2010, (http://ghg-inventory.shmu.sk and www.unfccc.int).

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 4: energy intensity - 1994\u20132008 - after formation of SR

The trend in energy intensity (right y axis) in the period 1994\u20132008 (after the formation of the Slovak Republic) # Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, 15 April 2010, GIS = Gross Inland Consumption in PJ
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Climatechange_final.xls
Figure 4: energy intensity - 1994\u20132008 - after formation of SR
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3: carbon intensity per GDP - absolute - in SR - 1990\u20132008

The carbon intensity per GDP in absolute values in the Slovak Republic in the period 1990\u20132008 # Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, 15 April 2010, y axis left = emissions in Tg, y axis right = GDP in bio \u20ac, The values are absolute, GDP after recalculation in 2009 up to 1997, data before 1994 are not available.
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Climatechange_final.xls
Figure 3: carbon intensity per GDP - absolute - in SR - 1990\u20132008
Fullscreen image Original link

Comparison of the trend in GDP growth and the trend in aggregated GHG emissions shows that the Slovak Republic is one of the few countries where GDP growth does not follow the trend of GHG emissions, which has been stable since 1997. This shows that decoupling is feasible. But, in international terms, the level of GHG emissions per inhabitant still remains high.

Carbon intensity defined as CO2 emissions per GDP is a similar indicator. The carbon intensity has reduced fourfold since 1994. This trend was maintained even during the period of high economic growth and it peaked on the decreased share of high energy-intensive industry in GDP generation and increased share of services.

Table 2: The carbon intensity per GDP in absolute values in the Slovak Republic in the period 1990–2008

Year

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Real GDP in bio €

13,50

14,20

15,10

29,44

30,72

30,73

31,15

32,24

33,72

35,33

37,11

39,58

42,94

47,49

50,42

Emissions in Tg

46,21

44,71

43,18

42,09

42,69

42,25

41,10

42,28

40,74

42,08

41,87

41,39

40,67

38,87

39,76

Carbon intensity

3,42

3,15

2,86

1,43

1,39

1,37

1,32

1,31

1,21

1,19

1,13

1,05

0,95

0,82

0,79

Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, 15 April 2010, y axis left = emissions in Tg, y axis right = GDP in bio €, The values are absolute, GDP after recalculation in 2009 up to 1997, data before 1994 are not available.

(Figure 3): The carbon intensity per GDP in absolute values in the Slovak Republic in the period 1990–2008

According to statistical information from the Ministry of Economy, the energy industry reached a 2.7 % share of the total GDP of the Slovak Republic in 2008. Energy intensity is still 1.8 times higher than the average in EU15, despite its continual decrease. The reason for this is the adversely high share of energy-intensive industry in the GDP. This trend can be seen also in the indicator comparing the primary consumption of energy resources (which is approximately at the same level as 1994) with the GDP growth. Energy intensity is expressed in PJ/billion euro.

(Figure 4): The trend in energy intensity (right y axis) in the period 1994–2008 (after the formation of the Slovak Republic)

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

Figures

Figure 5: Impact of policies and measures on emissions trends within 3 scenarios

Impact of policies and measures on emissions trends within the three scenarios # Source: Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Biennial Report to the EC, 15th May 2009.
Data source
http://www.sazp.sk/ludia/jendrichovsky/sense/Slovakia_Climatechange_final.xls
Figure 5: Impact of policies and measures on emissions trends within 3 scenarios
Fullscreen image Original link

The Slovak Republic regularly updates and provides emission projection scenarios for three possible scenarios until 2020. The energy and industry projections are modelled by the programme MESSAGE. Emission scenarios are developed according to international guidelines. According to the Kyoto Protocol, the Slovak Republic is committed to reduce GHG emissions by 8 % during the period 2008–12 related to the base year (1990) level. Following the UNFCCC guidelines the Slovak Republic has prepared emission projections for all three scenarios:

  • WM: with measures

  • WOM: without measures

  • WAM: with additional measures

Possible impacts of the EU ETS (the price of allowances) and an increasing share of renewable energy resources in the energy balance of the Slovak Republic have been investigated by modelling with existing measures (WM) and with additional measures (WAM) scenarios. There is an urgent need to diversify the importation of primary energy sources and to decrease our dependency on imports by using a higher share of domestic renewable energy sources (RES), namely by biomass in the Slovak Republic 1. The quantitative information are available in the document Strategy for higher use of renewable energy resources in the Slovak Republic.

Table 3: Electricity production in GWh from RES 2002–2007

 

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Sources

 

GWh

Hydro power plants

5 483

3 671

4 207

4 741

4 399

4 451

Wind power plants

0

2

6

7

6

8

Biomass

159

84

3

4

2

2

Biogas

1

2

2

4

6

8

Total

5 643

3 759

4 218

4 756

4 413

4 469

Share on total electricity consumption

18.6%

12.4%

14.4%

16.3%

14.1%

16.0%

Source: Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic, Energy statistics of the Slovak Statistical Office

(see Figure 5): Impact of policies and measures on emissions trends within the three scenarios


1 Fifth National Communication of the Slovak Republic on Climate Change, 2009 www.unfccc.int

Existing and planned responses

Topic
Climate change Climate change
more info
SAZP
Organisation name
SAZP
Reporting country
Slovakia
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
23 Nov 2010
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
SAZP
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 23 Nov 2010 original

The economic measures and restructuring of industry including the energy sector played the most important role in achieving current decoupling of GHG emissions in the Slovak Republic. The role of national environmental legislation for air quality protection which was adopted in the Slovak Republic in 1991 could be important, if not decisive.

Provisions of Act No 137/2010 on air protection:

  • focused on the regulation of basic pollutants emissions as SO2, NOx, CO and solid particles from middle and large-scale sources,

  • allowed the use of only operators using BATNEEC (best available technology not entailing excessive costs) for the establishment of new and retrofitting old units,

  • defined charges for non-compliance with concentration emission limits.

  • the classification of emission sources into Categories A and B by introducing Category B for existing sources not meeting emission limits by the originally announced deadline,

  • higher charges for non-compliance and dynamic increases,

  • a domestic cap and trade system with SO2 emission quotas on country, district and individual source level,

  • by ministerial decree in 2000, quotas for district level for the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 were first issued,

  • district competent authorities have further quotas to distribute to source operators.

The basic legal framework for climate change was gradually expanded in 2008 by other new as well as existing revised legal instruments, in particular Directive 2004/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC, expanding the emission trading scheme, which will also cover aviation since 2012. At the national level transposed to the Act 117/2007 Coll. changing and amending Act 572/2004 Coll. on emission trading and on the change and the amendment of certain acts, as amended by Act 733/2004 Coll. The Act amends several provisions of the Act 572/2004 Coll. regarding terms and definitions, rights and obligations of the Ministry of Environment, the administrator of the Registry and traders with emission allowances. In relation to the transposition of Directive 2004/101/EC, the act defines conditions for the use of certified emission reduction (CER) and emission reduction units (ERU) within the trading scheme.

As a follow-up to its commitment, the European Commission put forward in January 2008 the climate change and energy package 1 including new legislative measures covering the main sectors of the EU economy. The Climate and Energy Package was officially approved in 2009 as a complex framework for compliance with the ambitious goals of the European Union by 2020. A parallel process of the transposition of approved standards into national legislation is progressing, as well as the development of new legislative instruments at the level of the European Commission. The Slovak Government established in their Resolution No 190/2008, 26 March 2008, the Climate-Energy Package Committee at state-secretary-level of ministries of the environment, transport, finance, economy, regional development, agriculture and foreign affairs to implement policies and measures into national circumstances. In November 2009, the Committee will present their final report of planned policies and measures inside the sectors, with their impact on national emission and energy saving level up to 2020 2, to the Slovak Government.

1 Communication from the Commission: Progress Towards Achieving the Kyoto Objectives, Brussels, 7 August 2008.

2 The Slovak Government Resolution No 190/2008 (http://www.rokovania.sk/appl/material.nsf/0/A874BB1EE211E046C1257516004A39B6/$FILE/Zdroj.html).

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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