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You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Slovenia / Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Slovenia)

Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Slovenia)

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Air pollution is largely dependent on the speed of economic development and pressures caused by transport and energy.
Topic
Air pollution Air pollution
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Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Organisation name
Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Reporting country
Slovenia
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Last updated
03 Jan 2011
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CC By 2.5
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Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Published: 05 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011 Feed synced: 03 Jan 2011 original
Key message

The largest sources of outdoor air pollution are energy and transport sectors. The cause of this is mainly (too) slow restructuring of the Slovenian economy and unsustainable consumption patterns, which are heavily influencing the increase of final energy consumptions.

Figures

Figure 10: Average annual growth of energy end-use by sector

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009; Jo\u017eef Stefan Institute, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, EN10)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=264&lang_id=94
Figure 10: Average annual growth of energy end-use by sector
Fullscreen image Original link

The slow restructuring of the Slovenian economy and unsustainable consumer patterns are putting great pressure on the air in terms of pollution, especially from the transport and energy sectors, which are the main sources of air pollution. The last ten years have seen the relatively slow restructuring towards the strengthening and growth of services, together with a rapid decline in the importance of farming and a moderate decline in the share of industry in Slovenia’s economy. In the period 1995–2005, the proportion of services increased to 63.2 % of total value added. The reduced share of industry – 27.4 % in 2005 – was relatively smaller. Among the EU countries, Slovenia has a high proportion of manufacturing activities – 22.1 % – and within that the energy-intensive sectors – chemicals, non-metallurgical, metallurgical and paper – have a significant share. Particularly prominent are metal production with 4.4 % and the chemical industry contributing 3.1 %, ranking Slovenia, at 9.9 %, second amongst EU countries. In 2000–2008, Slovenia saw a reduction of 3.7 percentage points in the proportion of manufacturing and 0.4 percentage points in energy-intensive activities, indicating that in this period there were no major structural shifts in Slovenian industry (IMAD, 2009).

A consequence of the existing economic structure and non-sustainable consumer patterns is reflected in the increased end-use of energy. This rose from 1992 to 2008, mainly from growth in transport and broad consumption, but fell in industry. The high growth in energy end-use in transport is a consequence of the growing level of motorisation, the increasing number of kilometres driven per private vehicle, and, following entry into the EU, the pronounced growth of transit traffic. In 2007, with 37 % of energy end-use, the transport sector became the largest consumer of energy, and in 2008 it consolidated this position with a share of over 40 % (EN10). The reduction in the consumption of energy in industry was aided by lower energy consumption in the production of metals, fibres and paper, the result of changes to the quality system and reduced output. The reduced intensiveness continued in 2008, mainly through the adaptation of production to the Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC) Directive, causing the production of primary aluminium to fall by a quarter (IMAD, 2009).

Key message

The largest sources of outdoor air pollution are energy and transport sectors. The cause of this is mainly (too) slow restructuring of the Slovenian economy and unsustainable consumption patterns, which are heavily influencing the increase of final energy consumptions.

Figures

Figure 11: Index of the trends of total emissions of pollutants from the energy sector \u2013 emissions of SO<sub>2</sub>, NO<sub>x</sub>, NMVOC, NH<sub>3</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub>

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, EN09)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=267&lang_id=94
Figure 11: Index of the trends of total emissions of pollutants from the energy sector \u2013 emissions of SO<sub>2</sub>, NO<sub>x</sub>, NMVOC, NH<sub>3</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub>
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 12: Index of trends for emissions of air pollutants from transport \u2013 emissions of substances that cause acidification, ozone precursors and solid particles

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, PR08)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=252&lang_id=94
Figure 12: Index of trends for emissions of air pollutants from transport \u2013 emissions of substances that cause acidification, ozone precursors and solid particles
Fullscreen image Original link

Despite the increased energy consumption, emissions from the energy and transport sectors have fallen. In 2007 emissions of NOx and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) fell below the target values, while SO2 and ammonia (NH3) emissions remained below the target values for 2010. This contributed to a reduction in the emissions of substances that cause acidification, ozone precursors and solid particles. NOx is the only pollutant that is present in all three groups in significant proportions. The main source of NOx emissions is transport, followed by electricity and heat generation (EN09,PR08).

Emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication fell in 1990–2007 by 73 %, due mainly to reduced emissions of SO2 (ZR09).

Key message

The largest sources of outdoor air pollution are energy and transport sectors. The cause of this is mainly (too) slow restructuring of the Slovenian economy and unsustainable consumption patterns, which are heavily influencing the increase of final energy consumptions.

Figures

Figure 14: Structure of the emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication by source, 2007

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, ZR09)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=286&lang_id=94
Figure 14: Structure of the emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication by source, 2007
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 13: Trends of emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, ZR09)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=286&lang_id=94
Figure 13: Trends of emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication
Fullscreen image Original link

By 2006, SO2 emissions had been reduced by 92 % relative to 1980. The reduction is chiefly a result of lower emissions from thermal power stations – start-up of a desulphurisation unit at block 4 of Šoštanj power station, and start-up of a desulphurisation unit at Trbovlje and start-up of a desulphurisation unit on block 5 of Šoštanj in 2000 – the introduction of liquid fuels with lower sulphur content in 1995, the use of higher-quality fuels and implementation of the LCP, in 2002, and IPCC, 2004, directives. In 2006, emissions of SO2 were 33 % lower than the target value (ZR01).

Annual emissions of NOx in Slovenia fell by almost 20 % up to 2007 relative to 1987. The fall is a result of the increased proportion of vehicles with catalytic converters. In 2007, NOx emissions were 1 % lower than the target value (ZR02).

Annual emissions of NH3 fell by 36.5 % up to 2006 relative to 1990. The reduction is a result of a reduction in cattle numbers. In 2006 emissions of NH3 were 7 % below the envisaged target value. In 2007 total NH3 emissions in Slovenia amounted to 18.5 kt. The major share, 17.7 kt, comes from the agriculture sector, accounting for 95.7 % (ZR03).

Key message

The largest sources of outdoor air pollution are energy and transport sectors. The cause of this is mainly (too) slow restructuring of the Slovenian economy and unsustainable consumption patterns, which are heavily influencing the increase of final energy consumptions.

Figures

Figure 16: Structure of the emissions of ozone precursors by source of pollution in 2007

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, ZR10)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=287&lang_id=94
Figure 16: Structure of the emissions of ozone precursors by source of pollution in 2007
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 15: Emission trends of ozone precursors

Source: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009. (Ref: Environmental Indicators in Slovenia, ZR10)
Data source
http://kazalci.arso.gov.si/?data=indicator&ind_id=287&lang_id=94
Figure 15: Emission trends of ozone precursors
Fullscreen image Original link

Emissions of ozone precursors fell between 1990 and 2007 by 34 %, mainly as a result of increased use of vehicles with catalytic converters and, to a lesser extent, from the increased use of diesel vehicles (ZR10).

Up to 2007, annual emissions of NMVOC fell by 39 % compared to 1990. The reduction may be ascribed to lower emissions from motor vehicles owing to the increased number of vehicles fitted with catalytic converters, and implementation of two regulations on VOC emissions in the air. In 2007, NMVOC emissions were 1.7 % lower than the target value (ZR04).

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