Personal tools


Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Sound and independent information
on the environment

You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Climate change mitigation (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

Why should we care about this issue

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

The Balkan sub-region is part of the IUCN initiative, under which the Balkan Green Belt (BGB) was established, and the Republic of Macedonia takes active participation through the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planing.

The wealth and diversity of species and ecosystems represents unique heritage of biodiversity. This results from the geopgrahical position, climate, geological, geomoprphological, hydrographical and pedological characteristics of the Republic of Macedonia.

The presence of various fosils and relict ecosystems proves the significant impact of geological and anthropogenic effects on the biodiversity in historical perspective.

The wealth of biodiversity can be recognized, with more than 16,000 species and numerous endemic plants, fungi, flora and fauna. With more that 37% land covered in forests, hydrograpical network and agrobiodiversity with imperative economic context, the Republic of Macedonia has recognized the needs for participation in the efforts to mitigate Climate Change effects on a gobal level.  

The mitigation of Climate Change effects has become one of the key priorities in the Republic of Macedonia. Such effects have negative impact on the health and wellbeing of the people and have continuous impacts on the state of biodiversity, indegeneous habitats, agriculture and numerous social segments that define the country in wealth of natural habitat, forestry or rivers and lakes. Negative effects from Climate change impacts are continuouisly signalled from various domestic institutions, such as Hydrometeorological Centre or Public Health Institutut, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planing, as well as numerous Civil Sector organizations that follow the changes in our environment. 




The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011
Key message


Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in atmosphere


  • The main source of GHGs emission is the energy sector

  • The most significant among the key emission sources in Macedonia is the energy transformation sector, where the total emission actually originates from thermal power plants based on lignite.




 Evaluation of the status


  • Total CO2-eq emissions in Macedonia in the period 1990-2002 range from 11.9 to 14.4 Mt CO2-eq .

  •  Emissions in 2000 equaled 14.318 kt CO2-eq or 7.16 t CO2-eq per inhabitant.

  •  GHGs emission for the period 1990-2002 had decreasing trend, namely by 35% in industrial processes sector and by 22% in agriculture, while it was variable in LUCF sector and unchanged in the waste sector.

  •  Growth in GHGs emission has been noted only in energy sector (by 6%).

  • Falling trend in industrial processes and agriculture sectors is due to reduced activities of the national economy during the reporting period.

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011


Figure 4 Projections of total GHG emissions [kt CO2 – eq] – Second mitigation scenario

Data source
Figure 4 Projections of total GHG emissions [kt CO2 – eq] – Second mitigation scenario
Fullscreen image Original link

Evaluation of pressures

Considerable increase in the total GHG emissions by the year 2025 will occur compared to the projected value for the year 2008 (in absolute value of 9,900 kt CO2-eq, or relatively about 71%) if the usual practice is applied without imposing the constraint for GHG emissions reduction (basleine scenario).

The major rise in the electricity-related emissions (absolute difference of 6,400 kt CO2-eq and 78% relative increase to the 2008 value) reflects the so-called black, lignite-based baseline scenario for the national power sector. Under baseline scenario, the other sectors also exhibit significant rise in the GHG emissions, as the 2025 values compared to the 2008 values are 75% (transport), 71% (heating and industry), 60% (agriculture) and 6% (waste).

Evaluation of responses

The situation can be improved if the developmental paths integrate practices/measures leading to GHG emissions reductions. Hence, the first mitigation scenario (as defined in the sectoral analyses) leads to 46% increase of 2025-value of the total emissions compared to 2008- total emissions or absolute difference of 6,400 kt CO2-eq. This increase in the total emissions is further reduced to 32% (absolute difference of 4,000 kt CO2-eq) if the developmental paths follow the second mitigation scenario.

By implementing predicted climate change mitigation measures into development paths of national economy, the  average annual  growth rate will decrease from 3.6% at 1,4%

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Policy context and solution and actions taken by the country

The state could improve if development paths include activities/measures to result in GHG emission reduction.

The greatest benefit with mitigation scenarios is related to energy sector. Namely, relative increase of emission in this sector is reduced to 14% under the second mitigation scenario as a result from the introduction of gas based plants for combined production, reduced consumption of electricity for the value of major consumers and increased use of renewable energy sources. Currently, the Government of the Republic of Macedonia works on the development of the National strategy for comprehensive energy development by 2025 with a vision by 2050 and National strategy for renewable energy sources. The Second National Communication on Climate Change has been adopted.

With regard to other sectors, the result in waste sector is notable, where the relative increase of 6% under the baseline scenario is brought to negative relative increase (-13%) under the two mitigation scenarios; this means that the GHG emission values for 2005 under the mitigation scenario amount 13% less compared to the corresponding values for 2008, due to the introduction of technology for landfill gas combustion at several landfills in the country. Other sectors contribute insignificantly to total emission reduction, considering that relative difference between baseline and mitigation scenarios ranges between 2 and 4%.

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planing is the body of the state administration responsible to coordinate activities concering Climate Change. In the Republic of Macedonia, these activities are divided on a strategic level, legislative and institutional levels, and bilateral, regional and international cooperation.

With efforts to emphasize the importance,devotion and obligations for activities towards Climate Change actions, basic documents which are developed are addressing the climate change issues as part of the First and the Second National Communication on Climate Change. They include data on GHGs emission by sources and sinks (GHG Inventory), climate change scenarios, analysis of the most vulnerable sectors in relation to climate change, proposed measures and actions for climate change abatement and adaptation, activities of public awareness improvement, education, etc. The Second National Communication on Climate Change was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in December 2008, and the First in 2005.

National Strategy for the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol for the first period of commitments 2008-2012 was adopted in February 2008 and it contains institutional and technical recommendations for projects implementation under this mechanism.

One of the most important strategic documents on national level - National Strategy for Sustainable Development - identifies the climate change issue as one of the key cross-cutting issues affecting several sectors, such as energy, agriculture, industry. Other strategic documents dealing with climate change include the Second National Environmental Action Plan, National Strategy for Approximation with EU in the area of environment, National Strategy for Environmental Investments, draft Strategy for Comprehensive Energy Development, etc.

National climate change indicators have been developed and the issue is subject of analysis in the state of the environment report 2010.

Climate change issues are treated among global environmental issues in the Law on Environment which provides legal basis for the developemnt of the National Communications on Climate Change and plans for mitigation and adaptation. Specific article on Clean Development Mechanism has been introduced to specify the competences of the MEPP in implementing coordination activities in accordance with the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.

For the purpose of implementing the projects based on the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, three Memoranda of Understanding have been signed (with the relevant ministries of Italy and Slovenia and UNDP Carbon Fund). Cooperation with the Governments of the Kingdom of Norway, Austria and cooperation at regional level with the Regional Environmental Centre, Energy community, Regional council for cooperation, etc.

The Ministry takes part as partner in the implementation of project and programme activities of other institutions as well, such as Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy and academic institutions in the frames of the EU Programme for research.


Second National Communication on Climate Change, 2008. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia

Second National Environmental Action Plan of the Republic of Macedonia, 2006. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia,%20en,%20finalen%20dokument%20za%20pecatenje,juni%202007.pdf


The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100