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Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

Common environmental theme
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SOER Common environmental theme from Macedonia the former Yugoslavian Republic of
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 13 Apr 2011


Data sources

The three sectors largely responsible for air emissions are: energy production, especially electricity production; road traffic and industry.

Combustion for energy, especially electricity production, is of particular relevance. Figure 4 indicates that overall electricity consumption has grown over the past five years at an annual rate of 4.46 %. The high growth rate is due to re-starting of the ferro-nickel, ferro-silicon and the steel industry, all major consumers of electricity.

Industrial electricity consumption is significant and rather variable. Variations in electricity consumption correspond with oscillations in the steel and ferro-alloy industry. Such oscillations are shown on Figures 4.


Trend of emissions

 An inventory of air pollutants based on CORINAIR methodology expressed by Selected Nomenclature for air pollution-SNAP sectors (see key to Figure 8) was established and assessment was made for the period 2002-2008. This means that the trend has some uncertainty. Namely before 2002 the emission calculation have been performed according to National methodology which in some section was not compatible with CORINAIR methodology. The analysis and correction of data from the 2002 have not been performed according to CORINAIR methodology.

SO2 emissions by sector for the period 2002-2008 are presented in Figure 6.

In 2002-2008, SO2 emissions were almost constant, other than in 2005 when they fell. This was mainly due to the reduced number and/or closing of production processes in metallurgy industry, a major source of pollution.

Electricity production is the biggest source of SO2 emissions: more than 85 % of its emissions result from electricity production using low quality and low calorific value lignite. 

Most of the emission sources are located in south-western part of the country where the largest electricity production plant is situated. The quality of solid and liquid fuels is low, with high sulphur content.

NOx emissions by sector for the period 2002-2008 are presented in Figure 7.

With regard to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), a varying trend was also seen in the period from 2002 to 2008, with falling emissions in 2005 and rising or almost constant trend in other years.

The highest contributors are electricity production, 35 %, and transport, 33 %, owing to poor quality of fuels and an obsolete vehicles fleet.

The drop in 2005 was due mainly to the reduced number and/or closure of production processes in metallurgy. Considering the instability of the transition period in the country, variations in the amounts of emission up to 2008 are not surprising. This, however, indicates that no continuous falling trend in the amounts of emission in the short or longer term can be achieved in the absence of specific measures and programmes for the reduction of polluting emissions.

Total Suspended Particle (TSP) emission distributions by sector for the period 2002-2008 are presented in Figure 8.

TSP emissions in the period 2002-2008 come mostly from the production of ferro-silica alloys, open quarries and stone-pits. As can be seen from Figure 8 TSP emissions grew for 2002-2006 and have fallen since then. This is largely due to a reduced amount of work allowed at the installation for the production of ferro-silicon. The apparent small amount of TSP emissions in 2002 results from the small amount of processed air emission data available for that year.

Geographic coverage


The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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