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Hungary

Waste (Hungary)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Waste Waste
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

The economic production processes and services, as well as the daily activities of citizens all generate waste.

Some of these have a polluting effect, so the absence of adequate treatment has a negative impact on the environment. However, much of the waste generated can be reused for the same purpose or can be recycled for other purposes. In order to prevent and reduce the adverse effects of satisfying human needs, and to provide raw materials for economic activities, we need a comprehensive waste management policy, where modern waste management principles and priorities prevail.


For Hungary, waste management is also of particular importance since the country is not rich in raw materials and energy sources. Modern waste management - while preserving human health - can contribute to the wise use of natural resources in many ways. It includes - among others - the use of material- and energy-efficient, low-waste technologies and products, the reuse of products and spare parts, processing of waste materials, and energy recovery from waste.

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Over the past ten years, ‘deposit-oriented’ solutions have been increasingly replaced by prevention and recycling. Municipal and hazardous wastes are in focus in waste management planning: the former is mainly due to the development of consumption trends, the latter is due to the adverse effects on human health and to environmental media. We also have to mention here the significant amount of potentially hazardous wastes generated by the economic activity of earlier decades at a number of sites. The elimination of harmful effects caused by polluting wastes requires costly remediation measures.

The total amount of waste had decreased significantly by 2008 (56 % of the level in 2000) mainly due to the economic restructuring of this period, the reduction of industrial and agricultural production waste.

Table 1. : Generated waste according to main waste categories (source: MoRD-NEIS, WIS)

(thousand tons)

 

2000

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Municipal solid waste

4 552

4 592

4 646

4 711

4 594

4 553

Municipal liquid waste

5 500

4 569

4 939

4 514

4 165

3 925

Hazardous waste

3 393

970

1 203

1 367

1 082

715

Wastes from agriculture and food processing industry

5 000

6 215

4 857

3 940

4 858

1 188

Industrial and other production waste

16 455

9 639

8 784

8 079

7 489

7 386

Construction and demolition waste

5 100

4 060

4 129

3 996

3 670

4 882

Total amount of waste (without sewage sludge)

40 000

30 045

28 558

26 607

25 858

22 647

 

The amount of municipal solid waste increased up to 2006 – contrary to the decreasing trend of total waste generation. This can be explained by two main reasons: first, the change in consumption structure, secondly the extension of statistical records.

Municipal solid waste collection as a public service is available at almost all settlements except in some villages with only a few inhabitants. The share of households involved in regular waste collection and transport increased to 92.4 % in 2008 from 85.1 % in 2000. Households not included in this service are mostly farms and resort properties.

The volume of municipal liquid waste collected is decreasing in parallel with the increasing level of canalisation, while the amount of construction-demolition waste mainly depends on the number of construction projects.

 

The quantity of hazardous waste generated each year has decreased significantly. However, in some years, wastes arising from remediation have to be taken into account. 

The quantity of hazardous waste generated each year decreased significantly, however, in some years, wastes arising from remediation. Have to be taken into account (In the years 2004-2007, 300-400 thousand tons of hazardous wastes arising from remediation had to be treated). The total amount also depends on the evolution of classification. The very significant decrease of the figure in 2002-2003 is primarily explained by the introduction of the EU waste list.  According to the new waste list, which has been in force since early 2002, some types of waste – e.g. red mud from aluminium production, the considerable amount of animal waste and hospital waste - are not considered as hazardous waste.

Figure 1. Amount of hazardous waste per year (Source: CSO, MoRD-NEIS/WIS, HWIS, Vituki)

Figure 1. Amount of hazardous waste per year

 

In accordance with the related environmental policy objectives, the rate of waste disposal has decreased significantly, by approximately 20 %, since 2000. The recycling rate is improving steadily with the parallel decrease of the waste volume to be treated (recycling rate for the total quantity of waste ranges between 25-35 % per year* – see Table 2.), although somewhat lower than the EU average.

Table 2.: Waste treatment - without sewage sludge  (source: MoRD-NEIS,WIS)

Name 

2000

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

1000 tonnes

%

1000 tonnes

%

1000 tonnes

%

1000 tonnes

%

1000 tonnes

%

1000 tonnes

%

Amount of waste

40 000

30 045

28 558

26 607

25 858

22 647

Recycling

10 190

25.5

9 087

30.2

7 832

27.4

6 698

25.2

5 341

20.7

6 142

27.1

Energy recovery

800

2.0

911

3.0

1 271

4.5

1 627

6.1

1 355

5.2

765

3.4

Incineration

190

0.5

170

0.6

53

0.2

101

0.4

78

0.3

65

0.3

Disposal

21 175

52.9

17 416

58.0

13 603

47.6

13 594

51.1

11 326

43.8

9 563

42.2

Other

7 645

19.1

2 461

8.2

5 799

20.3

4 587

17.2

7 759

30.0

6 112

27.0

 

*It should be noted that the overall recycling rate is significantly degraded by the account of the municipal liquid waste treatment. Recycling rate for municipal liquid waste is low because it is essentially treated as sewage.

Table 3. The status of recycling and recovery in 2008 - without sewage sludge (Source: MoRD)

2008

Total amount of waste (thousand tons)

Recycling

Energy Recovery

Total (recycling and recovery)

(thousand tons)

(%)

(thousand tons)

(%)

(thousand tons)

(%)

Wastes of agriculture and food industry

1 188

553

46.5

168

14.2

721

60.7

Non-hazardous industrial and other production waste

7 386

2 495

33.8

163

2.2

2 658

36.0

Construction-demolition waste

4 882

2 231

45.7

0

0,0

2 231

45.7

Municipal solid waste

4 553

692

15.2

393

8.6

1.086

23.8

Municipal liquid waste

3 925

5

0.1

-

-

5

0,1

Hazardous waste

714

167

23.3

40

5.6

207

28.9

Total

22 647

6 143

27.1

764

3.4

6 908

30.5

 

According to the types of waste, the recycling rate of municipal waste and construction-demolition waste is increasing continuously (in 2007 approximately 33 %, in 2008 45 %). The results of the measures taken to bolster selective waste collection and recycling are most noticeable in the case of municipal solid waste.

Table 4. Treatment of municipal solid waste (source: CSO, MoRD)

(thousand tons)

Name

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008.

Amount of municipal solid waste

4 552

4 603

4 646

4 693

4 591

4 646

4 711

4 594

4 553

Recycling

350

360

400

490

540

444

490

554

692

Energy recovery

340

350

280

240

155

303

389

383

393

Disposed

3 760

3 800

3 890

3 900

3 857

3 859

3 792

3 428

3 341

Other

-

-

-

-.

40

40

40

229

126

 

Figure 2. The composition of municipal solid waste in percentage, 2007

 

(Source: MoRD)

 
Figure 3. Trends in selectively collected packaging waste according to origin

 

 

In connection with changing consumption patterns, increased attention has to be paid to the issue of packaging waste. The quantity of packaging waste generated has varied in terms of trends according to the different types. The recycling rate is crucially dependent on economic rationality, but the progress shown is still considerable, the recycling rate is increasing in both absolute quantity and in proportion.

Table 5. Trends in packaging waste generation and treatment, 2002-2008 (source:MoRD)

 

 

 

2002

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Glass

Generated amount [thousand tons]

165

172

126

139

144

138

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

20

26

26

29

30

39

 

 %

12.1

15.0

20.5

20.7

20.7

27.8

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

20

26

26

29

30

39

 

 %

12.1

15.0

20.5

20.7

20.7

27.8

Paper**

Generated amount [thousand tons]

370

393

296

304

348

348

 Total recycling

[thousand tons]

216

275

275

301

321

335

 

 %

54.3

70.0

93.0

99.0

92.1

96.2

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

201

263

254

287

301

316

 

 %

54.3

67.0

85.8

94.2

86.5

90.6

Metal

Generated amount [thousand tons]

95

85

63

61

67

78

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

35

41

43

39

44

52

 

 %

36.8

48.0

67.9

64.2

65.2

66,4

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

35

41

43

39

44

52

 

 %

36.8

48.0

67.9

64.2

65.2

66.4

Plastic

Generated amount [thousand tons]

160

165

188

199

218

215

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

29

33

65

42

97

91

 

 %

18.1

20.0

34.7

21.4

43.8

42.3

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

15

23

36

40

37

54

 

 %

9.3

14.0

19.2

20.4

17.0

25.1

Wood**

Generated amount [thousand tons]

n.a.

n.a.

178

181

188

223

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

n.a.

n.a.

37

40

38

51

 

 %

n.a.

n.a.

20.8

22.1

20.3

22.9

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

n.a.

n.a.

33

37

37

50

 

 %

n.a.

n.a.

18.3

20.6

19.7

22.6

Other

Generated amount [thousand tons]

0

0

2

1

2

2

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

0

0

-

-

-

-

 

 %

-

-

0.0

5.4

2.1

-

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

0

0

-

-

-

-

 

 %

-

-

0.0

5.4

2.1

-

Total

Generated amount [thousand tons]

790

815

853

885

968

1 005

Total recycling

[thousand tons]

300

375

446

452

528

568

 

 %

37.9

46.0

52.3

51.1

54.6

56.5

Recycled as the same material

[thousand tons]

271

353

392

433

449

510

 

 %

34.2

43.3

45.9

48.9

46.4

50.8

On-site selective collection is a prerequisite for the recycling of packaging waste. The largest proportion of selective waste is currently coming from institutional, industrial and commercial selective waste collection. Non- household packaging waste is almost entirely selectively collected.

Figure 3. Trends in selectively collected packaging waste according to origin

(within the activities of the coordinating organisations), 2003-2008. (Source: Öko-Pannon Ltd.)

Figure 3. Trends in selectively collected packaging waste according to origin
  • blue line: selective collection of household packaging waste
  • red line: selective collection of industrial or commercial packaging waste

 

Selective collection of household waste has increased during the last couple of years, to 11 % of all recycled waste, but it is still far behind the potential, taking into account that the household selective waste collection is currently based on the less efficient ’selective waste collection island‘ solution.

As a result of the previous developments, the selective waste collection system is available at more than 1 200 settlements countrywide, for 55 % of the population. The number of selective collection islands is almost 8 000, together with almost 100 waste yards, and 40 regional composting plants.

The disposal rate of municipal solid waste is declining, and a further positive development is that through the upgrading of landfills and through the establishment of new regional landfills, deposition can be managed without environmental pollution. In addition to this, in recent years - mostly under EU co-financed projects - 328 landfills have been recultivated (the recultivation of the remaining, abandoned and unclosed landfills is still ongoing).

Table 6. Status of waste treatment in 2008 - without sewage sludge (source: MoRD)

2008

Total amount of waste (thousand tons)

Incineration

Deposition

Total treatment

(thousand tons)

(%)

(thousand tons)

(%)

(thousand tons)

(%)

Wastes of agriculture and food industry

1 188

1

0.1

7

0.6

8

0.7

Non hazardous industrial and other production wastes

7 386

5

0.1

3 349

45.3

3 354

45.4

Construction-demolition waste

4 882

0

0.0

2 650

54.3

2 650

54.3

Municipal solid waste

4 552

0

0.0

3 341

73.4

3 341

73.4

Municipal liquid waste

3 925

-

-

0

0.0

0

0.0

Hazardous waste

714

60

8.4

216

30.2

276

38.6

Total

22 647

66

0.3

9 563

42.2

9 629

42.5

 

 

Table 7. Trends in hazardous waste treatment (Source: MoRD-NEIS, WIS)

 (thousand tonnes)

 

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Total amount of hazardous waste

958

1201

1367

1053

714

Recycling

362

156

278

164

167

Energy recovery

50

93

121

42

40

Incineration

63

44

94

57

60

Disposal

101

190

771

552

215

Other

382

718

104

238

232

 

The inspection of incinerators was finalised in 2005. Incinerators that did not meet the environmental criteria were closed or modernised. As a result, pollutant emissions from incinerators decreased by 30 %. Every incinerator operating currently meets regulations. Moreover, all have some kind of energy or heat recovery system. Incineration - in particular because of the social image – is typically aimed at hazardous waste. 40 % of thermally treated hazardous waste is used directly for energy recovery (usually by co-burning).
The recovery of hazardous and industrial non-hazardous waste has decreased together with the decline in production, so even existing capacities are not fully utilised.

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

An important result of the last period is that decoupling can be seen between economic development and the amount of waste. It is partly due to economic restructuring and improving competitiveness, and partly due to the development and enforcement of the environmental regulatory framework.

While the amount of waste generated since the year 2000 (although at a slower rate) significantly decreased by about 40 %, GDP has doubled during the same period

Table 8. Trend of waste generated and of GDP, 2000–2008. (Source: MoRD, CSO)

Name

2000

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Amount of waste*,

thousand tons/year

40 000

30 045

28 558

26 607

25 858

22 647

Amount of waste compared to that of the previous year, %

90.4

93.9

95.1

93.2

97.2

87.6

GDP on current prices, billion HUF

13 345.3

20 803.8

21 988.6

23 755.5

25 408.1

26 543.3

*Without sewage sludge

Waste production of 3 kg per HUF 1000 gross domestic product decreased to 1.02 kg in 2007 and to 0.85 kg in 2008.

 

Table 9. : Trends in municipal solid waste generation, 2000-2008

 (Source: MoRD, CSO)

Name

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Municipal solid waste

thousand tons/year

4 552

4 603

4 646

4 693

4 591

4 646

4 711

4 594

4 553

Amount of municipal solid waste compared to that of the previous year, %

101.1

101.1

100.9

101.0

97.8

101.2

101.4

97.5

99.1

Wages compared to that of the previous year, %

101.5

106.4

113.6

109.2

98.9

106.3

103.6

95.4

100.7

Mixed collection and deposition still has a significant share within the treatment of municipal solid waste in Hungary in comparison with other EU Member States.

 

Figure 4.: The amount and treatment of municipal solid waste in EU Member States

(Source: European Commission, Eurostat), kg per person

 

Figure 4.: The amount and treatment of municipal solid waste in EU Member States

 

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/pdf/policy/EPR%202009_SEC_2010_0975_Part%202.pdf

Household waste represents the largest problem within municipal solid waste, despite the results achieved so far in selective collection and recycling.

The increase in the amount of municipal solid waste is caused mainly by the change in consumption patterns and consumption levels. The amount of municipal solid waste followed the development of real wages – which has a strong influence on household consumption levels - a 2 % increase in wages resulted in 1 % in waste quantity. In the years of income stagnation or decline, waste generation decreased as well.

 

Figure 5. Amount of municipal solid waste compared to GDP and real wages

(Source: CSO,MoRD)


Figure 5. Amount of municipal solid waste compared to GDP and real wages

 

 

Another important factor is that the number of single households - where per capita resource consumption and emissions is higher than in family households - has increased significantly.

Almost half of the waste generated in the residential sector is packaging waste. Hygienic and food health requirements have resulted in an increasing amount of packaging materials in household waste. In addition to that, in order to increase their market share, manufacturers transport their products over increasingly greater distance and, to reduce the transported weight, they use increasingly lighter packaging materials. As a result, the proportion of plastics (which has low weight and big volume) has increased recently within household waste and constitutes an ever growing volume in landfills.

The consumption of disposable, short-lived products is growing, despite encouraging reusable packaging and deposit charge regulations. The increased use of packaging is a particularly characteristic trend in the food industry (e.g. cups and portion products), and reusable packaging is losing ground to one-way packaging.

It should be noted, however, that the quantity of municipal solid waste is influenced by the extension of the waste collection public service (mandatory public service, a growing number of homes involved in the collection, extension to recreational areas). Therefore, the data actually indicate not only the increase in the quantity of waste generated, but also the growing traceability of generated waste in the statistical data collection system.

The decline in the production waste played a major role in the decrease in the total quantity of waste, (see Table 1). This was mainly due to the degradation of the large waste-producing industrial sector and due to the shift to modern production methods, new technologies and conscious product design. The application of corporate environmental management systems also contributed to the rationalisation of waste management. There is a further potential in technology development, in the use of low-waste technologies, recycling of production residues. By encouraging these we can expect further progress.

Since the closing down of the previously characteristic large agricultural holdings (a process which resulted in the decrease of waste), the amount of agricultural and food industry waste varies yearly according to production levels.

The amount of construction-demolition waste depends on the current economic situation and the volume of construction investments. In recent times a number of inert (construction, demolition) waste recycling plants were established, but a considerable part of inert waste - with the absence of a recovery operation, and because of financial interests related to deposition - is still going to landfills. (Deposition is still the least expensive waste treatment procedure, since in many cases, the costs of preparation for recycling are higher than collection, transport and dumping costs altogether, especially in modern landfills with significantly higher operating costs than previously).

The amount of municipal liquid waste is decreasing - mainly due to the progress of the wastewater collection and treatment programme and to the economical use of drinking water.

Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances and the application of the EU waste list largely contributed to the significant reduction in hazardous wastes. In recent years, however, we had to manage the proper treatment of 300-400 thousand tonnes/year of contaminated soil (as hazardous waste), excavated during the implementation of large remediation projects. This quantity is indicated in the statistics as hazardous waste.

http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/remediation2002/index.htm


Despite the measures taken, the improper management of municipal liquid waste is still causing significant environmental pollution, such as soil contamination, deterioration of surface and ground water quality (endangering water resources). Air quality deterioration caused by legal and illegal incineration, illegal waste deposition, the historical ‘waste heritage’ and wastes illegally imported from abroad, or wastes entering via floods as well as the increased transportation load to new regional waste treatment plants also pose considerable environmental problems.

It is difficult to quantify the environmental and social impacts of waste, especially if we consider  landscape alteration, changes in water, air and soil quality due to the lack of proper monitoring, the lack of interest and the non-application of modified indicators (HDI, ISEW, NEW).

A few examples where quantifying the effects might be less difficult are the operating expenses shifted to consumers, producers and changes in the value of real estate. Higher level of waste management services and higher transportation costs to the modern regional waste treatment facilities are basically shifted to the consumers.

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Experiences and trends of recent years predict that in the next six years, the decreasing waste trend will continue. The target is that, with preventive measures, by 2014, less than 20 million tonnes of waste should be generated and waste production per HUF 1000 GDP should be less than 0.7 kg; the per capita waste generation should be less than 2000 kg/year.

Table 10. Estimation of future generated waste - without sewage sludge

Name

2009*

2010*

2011

2012

2013

2014

Amount of waste compared to that of the previous year, %

97.14

97.73

100.00

97.67

97.62

97.56

Amount of waste, thousand tons/year

22.000

21.500

21.500

21.000

20.500

20.000

 

Realisation of the stated goals depends largely on the change of drivers - including the standard of living or a change in the attitude. Due to the complexity of waste management, its long-term effectiveness might be influenced by various sectoral strategies. Thus, harmonisation of various sectoral policies is of crucial importance

The National Sustainable Development Strategy also aims at waste reduction, sustainable use of resources, and re-use of natural and manufactured materials - including packaging materials.

As a result of preventive measures, the amount of municipal waste can decrease compared to the trend in consumption. Within certain fractions, different growth rates seem to be plausible: the amount of organic waste by 2014 is expected to remain almost constant, and the overall rate of paper, plastic, glass and metal follows the changes of the total volume. More than 60 % of the total amount will come from households.

 

Table 11. Forecast of the amount of municipal waste until 2014 (Source: MoRD)

(thousand tons)

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Total amount of municipal waste

4 502

4 457

4 413

4 457

4 502

4 547

of which organic without paper

1 306

1 293

1 280

1 293

1 306

1 319

of which paper, plastic, glass, metal

1 666

1 649

1 633

1 649

1 666

1 682

Total recyclable

2 972

2 942

2 913

2 942

2 971

3 001

Household waste

2 727

2 700

2 673

2 699

2 726

2 754

of which paper, plastic, glass, metal

1 009

999

989

999

1 009

1 019

 

With the progress of the municipal sewage programme, the treatment of municipal liquid waste is shifted to sewage treatment facilities and municipal liquid waste will no longer be part of the waste regime. However, the increasing amounts of sewage sludge have to be taken into account, and the environmentally sound treatment of this represents new challenges.

In the economic sector, the quantity of waste generated should be kept under 16 million tonnes. Within this, the quantity of hazardous waste is expected to decline further, although it acts as a disincentive that more and more material is on the list of prohibited or restricted hazardous materials. The trend is also significantly influenced by remediation activities, where hazardous wastes are generated.

The fundamental goal of waste management is the implementation of the 2008/98/EC Directive on waste. It has to be ensured that 50 % of the waste generated is prepared for re-use, recycling or recovery. Within this, 40 % should be prepared for reuse and recycling, and 10 % should be used for energy recovery.

In order to reduce the organic matter content of deposited waste, the separate collection and treatment of biodegradable components must be solved in a way that in 2016 max. 820 thousand tonnes are deposited (in order to achieve this in 2014, pro rata up to 950 thousand tonnes can be deposited).

At least 70 % of the construction-demolition waste should be materially recycled by 2020.

Based on the target set by Governmental decree 94/2002 (V. 05.) dealing with packaging and packaging waste, 60 % of the packaging waste should be recycled by 2012 (within this, a 55 % average recycling rate; for paper, cardboard and glass 60 %, for metal 50 %, for plastic 22.5 %, and for wood 15 % minimum recycling requirements should be met).
For 2020, a 50 % recycling obligation is prescribed by the 2008/98/EC Directive for household paper, plastic, glass and metal waste.

To achieve the objectives of recycling, the selective collection system of municipal waste should be accessible for 80 % of the population.

It must be ensured that only non-recyclable waste is deposited.

Municipal solid waste disposal rates should not exceed 60 %. The percentage of hazardous waste should not exceed 3-4 % of the total amount of municipal waste by the end of 2014.

The more detailed objectives will be elaborated in the forthcoming second National Waste Management Plan. http://www.mkmconsulting.hu/skv/OHT%20II%20SKV.pdf.pdf

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

In Hungary, waste management tasks are regulated by the Act on Environmental Protection (Act LIII of 1995) and by the Waste Management Act (Act XLIII of 2000). The medium- and long-term tasks are defined by the National Environmental Programme (NKP) and by the associated National Waste Management Plan (OHT).  http://www.mkmconsulting.hu/skv/OHT%20II%20SKV.pdf.pdf

In the first period of the NKP2 (2003-2008) and OHT, full EU law harmonisation was achieved in the waste management sector. National programmes and regional and local waste management plans were prepared according to various waste types.

At the start of NKP2, 85 % of municipal landfills did not meet modern requirements, therefore in the field of waste management the development directions were driven primarily by the availability of waste management services and the increase of safe waste treatment.

Therefore, the first actions taken aimed at the disposal of generated wastes, and less attention was paid to the prevention, recycling and recovery. However, considerable results were achieved in the field of supply, level of service, modernisation, re-cultivation, and selective collection, which are the basis for the developments of the coming period.


The municipal waste management public service is now available at almost 100 % of the settlements.
Beside the extension of the public service, the most important development was - typically co-financed by the EU - the preparation and implementation of complex regional waste management systems.

 

The main results for municipal solid waste:

  • The number of dwellings involved in the regular collection reached the 93 % rate in 2008, which virtually means full coverage, and it is carried out by modern, closed, dust-free technologies.
  • The non-compliant municipal solid waste landfills were closed by 15 July 2009.The disposal is carried out by 80 regional landfills, which were implemented mostly with the support of EU-funded projects, or private funds.
  • The implementation of the recultivation programme for old landfills is ongoing.
  • The (only) one mixed municipal waste incinerator was upgraded, its energy efficiency improved. In addition, the co-burning of the combustible components of municipal waste combined with energy recovery started for example in the Matra Power Plant and in some cement factories.
  •  Today, the selective collection system is available at more than 1 200 municipalities nationwide, for 55 % of the population.
  •  Selective waste collection rates increased to 12 % of the total volume of municipal solid waste by 2008. Taking into account the amount of organic waste collected separately, the rate exceeds 15 %.Together with energy recovery in the capital, the overall recovery rate is 23-24 %, which means more than 1 million tonnes of municipal waste.
  •  In the case of priority waste streams, the EU standards have been achieved. Separate waste collection systems were established for wastes belonging under the responsibility of the producers (batteries, electronic devices, fluorescent tubes, pharmaceuticals, tyres), thereby reducing the risk and quantity of mixed waste.

 

In many cases, restrictions in the use of hazardous substances (e.g. toxic metals) happened. In order to strengthen environmental awareness, the consumers are adequately informed about the composition of the products which become hazardous waste after use.

The National Environmental Programme for the period of 2009-2014 was adopted by Parliament with the Parliament Resolution 96/2009 (XII. 9.). It is expected that the second National Waste Management Plan will also be adopted in 2010. After the adoption of this, the second phase of regional waste management plans for the same period will enter into force.

http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/96_2009_OGY_hatarozat_NKP_3.pdf


Basic principles and long-term goals of waste management have not changed compared to the early 2000s, but the new plan must be adapted to the different social and economic environments, taking into account changes in the production, transformation of technologies, improved service levels, and the consequences of the economic crisis of 2008.

Objectives of the plan were defined based on past experiences and expected changes and enforcing the waste management hierarchy. The emphasis is placed on waste prevention, and stimulating selective waste collection and recycling in order to increase resource savings. In addition, the safety of treatment, recultivation, and the elimination of illegal waste disposal continue to play an important role.


Significant progress is most likely for residential household waste. The goal is waste reduction, collection network development, improvement of recycling rates and the further reduction of the share of disposal through incentives.

A number of comprehensive measures are required for waste prevention – and for recycling, recovery and disposal – in the area of product, technology and infrastructure development. LINK

Preventive measures:

  •  technological development (higher rate of recycling in case of production residues, introduction of low-waste technologies, and new technologies excluding hazardous materials) and further dissemination of environmental management systems;
  •  product development: promote eco-design, to increase the useful life of products, reusable products;
  •  infrastructure development (for domestic goods encourage the development of service network and the creation of centres for re-use of products, the development of services, to organise the taking back and re-sale of used products, to ensure the possibility of domestic and local (community) composting of organic waste, on-site recycling of green waste. By 2015, the infrastructure of selective collection has to be ensured for 80 % of the population. Development of the household waste collection system for wastes under the responsibility of producers with the establishment of waste yards and with the involvement of commercial firms.


Other measures:

  •  The recycling rate of the total amount of municipal waste should be increased to above 30 % and in the case of recyclable (paper, plastic, metal, glass and organic) fractions, the recycling rate should be increased to above 40 %.
  •  The expansion of energy recovery from municipal solid waste, separation and energy recovery of the combustible fraction of mechanical-biological waste preparation with inter-regional solutions, with the use of power plants, cement factories, waste energy recovery facilities.
  •  The recultivation and monitoring of the old, abandoned and closed landfills is a continuous task.

 

The majority of waste management projects (in the most recent planning period) can be implemented via EU co-financed projects or by using domestic budgetary sources. In the Environment and Energy Operational Programme (EEOP) for the period 2007-2013 - beside the development of waste management systems, and recultivation of landfills - significant sources are available (following the change of priorities) for the environmentally oriented and waste recycling development of enterprises, for domestic and local composting, development of re-use centres, as well as for PR activities and training for prevention and selective collection of wastes.

The environmentally conscious approach and the development of sustainable production and consumption habits require active government participation. For the success of this, the involvement of civil society, public, academic and civil society organisations, farmers and local governments is essential.

Environmentally appropriate behaviour has to be acquired from an early age. The Waste Management Act provides waste management skills to be taught in all educational institutions as part of the National Curriculum. 

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Environmental and waste management education starts at nursery school. In recent years, several hundreds of pre-school teachers have taken part in training, and a board game (’Where to put’) and manual have been developed. http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/hulladekgazd/oktatas/tankonyv.html

Further information and manuals are available at www.zoldovoda.hu

As regards primary and high school education, a new, broader version of a learning package at www.hulladek-suli.hu has been developed, as well as publishing new study books and teacher manuals. Selective collection campaigns occur at schools regularly.

All economic and technical universities offer specialisation in environmental studies and waste management. PhD education is developing increasingly.

Leaflets facilitate knowledge sharing and offer detailed information in specific areas for municipalities, for other organisations and for those interested in this topic.

Regarding corporate responsibility, coordinating organisations also play a significant role in awareness raising, producing numerous brochures, advertisements, education materials, and games to promote selective collection of packaging waste, batteries, accumulators, tyres, electrical and electronic equipment. They also organise events such as exhibitions and competitions.

’Product from waste’ exhibition http://www.hulladekboltermek.hu/ displays the possibilities and the results of waste reuse.

Civil organisations with an environmental profile are abundant. Those specialised in waste management have achieved major results in detecting illegal waste disposal. The Waste Reduction Alliance (HuMusz, http://www.humusz.hu/tematika/angol) has always been a cornerstone of waste-related civil activities in Hungary. ’Landscape surgery’ action coordinated by them and carried out in cooperation with other organisations and the broad public, lasted several years and resulted in mapping thousands of spots and recultivating many of these. (A relevant IT-based monitoring project led by EMLA http://emla.hu/englishsite/index.shtml is in progress. See http://webmap.viamap.hu/emla/). The ministry provides resources for local communities for collecting, treating and eliminating waste. Complex programmes with a wide range of elements, including awareness raising, are being promoted.

The promotion of organic waste recycling is also facilitated by civil organisations by providing practical advice, leaflets, brochures, displays, on-site education  -see. e.g. http://www.szike.zpok.hu/

The most important activity of these organisations is the presentation of techniques, tools for preventing waste generation, as well as for the reuse of waste. In the framework of the ‘No Waste is Good Waste’ programme, a study was carried out (with the subtitle ’shift of paradigm’) - and as part of a set of recommendations - aiming at all actors and all fields of life (http://www.humusz.hu/onkormanyzat/az-kincs-ami-nincs-paradigmav-lt-s-hullad-kgazd-lkod-sban) emphasising common responsibility in terms of waste prevention.

The ’O waste’ programme defines local, regional and national level tools and gives recommendations regarding product design and product management guidelines in order to reduce the amount and the hazardous elements of waste, with the main goal of preventing waste generation. (http://humusz.hu/nullahulladek/complete-life-zero-waste/4656).

Further tools such as expert forums, exhibitions at events such as fairs and festivals help steer both citizens and economic actors towards developing the most adequate waste management attitudes. The successful examples show that results are best achieved in a wide cooperation.



List of abbreviations:

  • MoRD - Ministry of Rural Develeopment
  • NEIS/WIS -  National Environmental Information System/Waste Information System
  • HWIS – Hungarian Water Information System
  • CSO - Central Statistical Office
  • VITUKI - VITUKI Environmental Protection and Water Management Research Institute Nonprofit Ltd.
  • HuMusz - Waste Reduction Alliance
  • NKP – National Environmental Programme
  • OHT – National Waste Management Plan
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The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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