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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Croatia

Waste (Croatia)

Why should we care about this issue

Topic
Waste Waste
Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Waste management is in Croatia considered to be one of the priority issues affecting all the components of the environment. The Waste Management Strategy for the Republic of Croatia [1] and the Waste Management Plan [2] as its implementation document are elements of a continuous waste management planning process which reflects on all the levels, from local to national, and appears as a segment in other sectors (e.g. water resources management, mining, veterinary medicine, health care,  land-use planning, building, etc.).

The Waste Act [3] and the Waste Management Plan [2] have set up a concept that focuses on for waste avoidance, increase in waste recovery and use in power generation, reduction in quantity of material for final disposal and consequently lowering risks for the environment, climate and human health. It is planned to establish an integrated waste management system with planned completion of remediation and closure of official landfills and illegal dump sites, to carry out remediation of the highly waste-loaded sites in the environment, and to establish maximum 21 regional/county waste management centres.

 

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 1. Amounts of municipal waste generated in Croatia, 1995–2008 (t)

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 1. Amounts of municipal waste generated in Croatia, 1995–2008 (t)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2. Coverage of population by organised municipal waste collection, 1995-2008 (%)

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 2. Coverage of population by organised municipal waste collection, 1995-2008 (%)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3. Separately collected types of municipal waste as reported by municipal operators in the EPR (Environmental Pollution Register), 2008

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 3. Separately collected types of municipal waste as reported by municipal operators in the EPR (Environmental Pollution Register), 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4. Number of end-of-life vehicles in Croatia, 2001- 2009

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm
Figure 4. Number of end-of-life vehicles in Croatia, 2001- 2009
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 5. Share of individual types of EE waste in the total waste collected in 2008 (%)

Data source
http://www.fzoeu.hr/hrv/index.asp
Figure 5. Share of individual types of EE waste in the total waste collected in 2008 (%)
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 6. Lubricating and edible oils collected and recovered in 2007 and 2008

Data source
http://www.fzoeu.hr/hrv/index.asp
Figure 6. Lubricating and edible oils collected and recovered in 2007 and 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 7. Collected, treated and exported waste batteries and accumulators

Data source
http://www.fzoeu.hr/hrv/index.asp
http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm
Figure 7. Collected, treated and exported waste batteries and accumulators
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 8. Collected and recovered waste tyre quantities, 2006–2008

Data source
http://www.fzoeu.hr/hrv/index.asp
Figure 8. Collected and recovered waste tyre quantities, 2006–2008
Fullscreen image Original link

In order to remove and prevent certain detrimental environmental impacts caused by inappropriate waste management practices, particularly on the dump sites which are not environmentally sound, numerous activities have been initiated and completed and significant results accomplished. Setting up of a strategic/planning and legislative framework, capacity building of relevant authorities and development of the information system resulted in improvement of the existing system of separate waste collection and waste recycling/recovery. New systems have been developed for management of special types of waste (including construction of recycling/recovery facilities). Such developments enabled remediation and closure of landfills and illegal dump sites, remediation of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, all in line with the EU regulations applicable to the waste management. Intensive preparations for construction of a certain number of waste management centres are under way.

 

Quantities and disposal of municipal waste

Although there is growing awareness of the need to avoid and reduce arising waste, the quantities of municipal waste (household waste and similar waste from manufacturing and services) continue to grow and in 2008 amounted to 1,788,311 tonnes or annually 403 kg per capita (1.1 kg per day).

Coverage of population and municipalities/towns by organised municipal waste collection increased from 86% in 2004 to 93% in 2008, which fulfilled the quantitative target for 2015 set by the Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia [1].

Out of a total of 1,788,311 tonnes of municipal waste in 2008, 86% was mixed municipal waste (1,541,053 tonnes). Most of the municipal and a portion of process waste is landfilled.

The amount of separately collected types of municipal waste is continually growing and in 2008 it accounted for 14% (247,252 tonnes). However, only part of this quantity ends up being recovered while the rest is landfilled.

 

Packaging waste

Return and/or collection of used disposable PET packaging is organised through points of sale against the payment of refund to consumers pursuant to the Ordinance on Packaging and Packaging Waste [4]. The quantities collected are steadily increasing in line with the trend of growing quantities of packaging on the market.

 

Table 1. Amount of collected packaging waste, 2006-2008 (t)

Type of packaging

Amounts collected in 2006 (t)

Amounts collected in 2007 (t)

Amounts collected in 2008 (t)

PET AND OTHER POLYMERS

19,034

25,395

25,096

GLASS CONTAINERS

59,354

63,429

59,116

Al/Fe

1,164

1,757

1,189

CARDBOARD AND COMPOSITE PACKAGING

118,642

155,742

181,189

WOOD

31

1,821

1,353

TOTAL:

198,225

248,144

267,943

Source: Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund, http://www.fzoeu.hr/hrv/index.asp

 

End-of-life vehicles

Number of end-of-life vehicles has been growing rapidly during the last ten yeas, and an estimate for 2009 was 97,957 road vehicles, and 65,580 passenger cars, which causes increase in annual quantity of the end-of life vehicles.

Pursuant to the Ordinance on End-of-Life Vehicle Management [5], collection licence holders reported 17,935 t of collected vehicles, which is a considerable increase compared to the data for 2008 and 2007 when the weight of collected end-of-life vehicle of vehicles did not exceed 8,000 t.

 

Electrical and electronic waste

Following the adoption of the Ordinance on the Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Appliances and Equipment (6), the EE waste management system was established following contemporary European standards and requirements.

In 2009, 13,521.94 t of EE waste was collected and 13,613.53 t treated. During the first year of the Ordinance enforcement, annual EE waste collection rate was 1.29 kg per capita, and in 2009 it increased to 3.05 kg per capita. The data indicate that there is a significant improvement in functioning of the introduced system and that the results are getting closer to the annual quantity stipulated by the Ordinance of 4 kg of EE waste collected per capita.

 

Waste oil

The Ordinance on Waste Oil Management [7] has established a system for waste lubricating and edible oils collection for recovery and/or disposal. Since the Ordinance has been passed, a positive change in waste oil management was noticed. Licence holders deliver almost complete quantity of lubricating oil collected for thermal treatment, while waste edible oils are recovered as raw material in biodiesel production.

 

Waste batteries and accumulators

The Ordinance on of Waste Batteries and Accumulators Management [8] set up a system for collection, treatment and high level of recycling and controlled recovery and/or disposal of the waste battery and accumulator treatment residuals. The data for 2007. and 2008. indicate the increase in quantity of collected and treated waste batteries and accumulators, and consequently a considerable decrease in export of this type of waste.

 

Waste tyres

The Ordinance on Waste Tyre Management [9] sets up a system for waste tyres management. An increase of almost 30% in waste tyres collection and almost 60% in recovery was recorded in the period 2006-2008. Since 2007, it has been allowed to use up to 30% of collected quantities of waste types in energy production, while the remaining quantities are recovered. In 2008, 76% of total waste tyres collected was recovered.

 

Ordinances regulating in detail management of other types of waste have been passed, including: construction waste, asbestos-containing waste, medical waste, waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCBs and PCTs), waste from prospecting and exploitation of ores, wastewater treatment plants sludge management and its use in agriculture, and titanium-dioxide production waste.

 

 

 

 

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 9. Amount of municipal waste generated per capita, 1995-2008

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 9. Amount of municipal waste generated per capita, 1995-2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 10. Landfills by quantity of waste and operational status

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 10. Landfills by quantity of waste and operational status
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 11. Priority locations contaminated with hazardous process waste

Data source
http://www.azo.hr/Default.aspx?sec=275
Figure 11. Priority locations contaminated with hazardous process waste
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 12. CH4 emissions from disposal of solid municipal waste [10]

Data source
http://www.mzopu.hr/default.aspx?id=3967
Figure 12. CH4 emissions from disposal of solid municipal waste [10]
Fullscreen image Original link

The amount of waste separated from the municipal waste is growing but most municipal waste is still being disposed of in landfills without pretreatment and the required reduction in disposed quantities of biodegradable municipal waste is not achieved.

Out of 299 official landfill remediation projects that have been pursued since 2004, remediation of 64 sites has been completed.

Out of 767 recorded illegal dump sites, remediation of 549 sites has been completed.

The remediation activities are being carried out on all eleven priority sites contaminated with hazardous process waste determined by the Plan [2].

In 2007, greenhouse gas emissions from waste management activities (disposal and treatment of solid municipal waste, wastewater management and waste incineration) amounted to 868 Gg CO2 eq. or 2.7% of total greenhouse gas emissions, and waste disposal accounted for 69.5% of the sectoral emission [10].

 

 

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

The Waste Management Strategy [1] set quantitative targets for waste amounts and waste landfills and recovery and recycling allowances for certain types of waste. Improvement of the separate collection and recycling/recovery systems, increase in population coverage by organized municipal waste collection, and activities related to construction of a number of waste management centres are some of indicators of a progress towards the achieving the set targets. Fulfilling the target that only residual waste is disposed will be greatly contributed by construction of the waste management centres which will provide for adequate treatment of municipal waste and considerably reduce its biodegradable fraction.

 

 Table 2. Quantitative targets for waste quantities [1]

Targets

Share (%) / year

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

Population included in organised collection of municipal waste

80

85

90

95

99

Amount of separately collected and recycled municipal waste

6

8

12

18

25

Amount of treated municipal waste

2

10

20

25

30

Amount of disposed municipal waste

95

80

68

58

45

Amount of disposed biodegradable municipal waste out of the amount generated in 1995

95

85

75

55

35

 

 Table 3. Quantitative targets for landfills [1]

Targets

Year

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

Regional waste management centres

0

1-2

2-3

3

4

County waste management centres

0

3-7

7-10

10-14

14-21

Official landfills

(legal disposal sites, sites in the process of being legalised, official sites, negotiated sites)

187

100

50

30

14-21

{0>Udio saniranih odlagališta<}0{>Share of remedied landfills

{0>(% od broja ustanovljenog za 2000.)<}0{>(% of number established for 2000)<0}

5

65

75

85

100

  

Table 4. Recovery and recycling allowances for some types of waste [1]

Waste

Deadline

Allowance (% of weight)

recovery

recycling

Packaging waste

2010

2015

50 – 60

65

25 – 45

55 – 60

End-of-life vehicles

2015

2025

85

95

80

85

EE waste 4 kg/capita/year

2015

70 – 80

50 –80

Waste vehicle tyres

2010

2015

70 – 80

90

60 – 70

70

Waste oil

2010

90

-

 

Table 5. National targets for the share of returnable packaging in the total quantity of packaging put on the market by product [4]

Type of product:

Annual targets for returnable packaging in %

2008

from 2009 to 2013

Wine

25

Other alcoholic drinks

25

Beer

75

Juices and other soft drinks

25

Spring and table mineral water

25

 

The target set by the Ordinance on Waste Batteries and Accumulators management [10] is to achieve:

·         collection rate of at least 25% by 26 September 2012, and 

·         collection rate of at least 45% by 26 September 2016.

The amount of construction waste generated in the 2001-2005 period is estimated at 1,254,152 tonnes, and for the 2006–2015 period the estimate is 2,345,273 tonnes [11].

 

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 22 Dec 2010

Croatia has adopted all the necessary strategic/planning documents and also, by the end of 2008, all the by-laws that needed to be adopted pursuant to the Waste Act [3], so a total of two regulations and 19 ordinances are currently in force. This completed harmonisation with EU regulations in the field of waste management, except for the new Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC. As far as implementation is concerned, significant progress was made in the introduction of economic measures – a series of charges were introduced such as the fee for burdening the environment with waste which includes the fee for municipal waste and/or non-hazardous process (industrial) waste and the fee for hazardous waste.

Charges were also introduced for manufacture/import of products which, at the end of their useful life, fall into one of the ’difficult' special waste categories (packaging, oils, batteries, accumulators, EE equipment, vehicles, tyres). In addition, ordinances on special categories of waste introduce measures relating to ‘producer’s responsibility’, e.g. duties as to the design and manufacturing of a product, duty to inform the retailer and the consumer, in order to facilitate the collection, dismantling and recycling of products and packaging when they have turned into waste

 

Table 6. Co-funded capital waste-related projects

Investment projects in the area of waste management – state co-financing (Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund) in the period 2004-2009

Number of projects

Realized / EUR Mil

Remediation of municipal waste landfills

299

48.7

Remediation of illegal dump sites

646

5.5

Remediation of hazardous waste landfills

18

22.1

Source: Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund

 

Funds for construction of the Bakarac County Waste Management Centre, Šibensko-Kinska County of EUR 6 million were provided from the ISPA program. Funds for construction of county centres in the Primorsko-Goranska, Istarska and Splitsko-Dalmatinska counties for the period 2007-2009 from the IPA Program were planned in the amount of EUR 24.5 million. The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund budget for 2009 plans to invest EUR 51.452 million into construction and organization of the county waste management centres during the period 2010-2011. Implementation of the country centres construction projects is planned to be finished by the end of 2018.

The City of Zagreb has planned a Waste-to-Energy incineration plant which should considerably contribute, along with the planned mechanical and biological waste treatment plants, to reduction in the biodegradable fraction in waste by 2018-2020.

 

 

 References:

[1] Waste Management Strategy (Official Gazette 130/05)

[2] Waste Management Plan for the Republic of Croatia 2007 - 2015 (Official Gazette 85/07)

[3] Waste Act (Official Gazette 178/04, 111/06, 60/08, 87/09)

[4] Ordinance on Packaging and Packaging Waste (Official Gazette 97/05, 115/05, 81/08, 31/09, 156/09)

[5] Ordinance on End-of-life Vehicles Management (Official Gazette 136/06, 31/09, 156/09

[6] Ordinance on the Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Appliances and Equipment (Official Gazette 74/07, 133/08, 31/09, 156/09)

[7] Ordinance on Waste Oil Management (Official Gazette 124/2006)

[8] Ordinance on of Waste Batteries and Accumulators Management (Official Gazette 133/06, 31/09, 156/09)

[9] Ordinance on Waste Tyre Management (Official Gazette 40/06 , 31/09 , 156/09 )

[10] Croatian Greenhouse Gas Inventory for the Period 1990 – 2007 (NIR 2009)

[11] LIFE -THIRD COUNTRIES 2005 Project – Development of Sustainable System of Construction Waste Management in the Republic of Croatia

[12] Croatian environment agency: www.azo.hr

[13] Ordinance on the Environmental Pollution Register (Official Gazette 35/08)

 

 

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

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