Personal tools

Notifications
Get notifications on new reports and products. Frequency: 3-4 emails / month.
Subscriptions
Sign up to receive our reports (print and/or electronic) and quarterly e-newsletter.
Follow us
Twitter icon Twitter
Facebook icon Facebook
YouTube icon YouTube channel
RSS logo RSS Feeds
More

Write to us Write to us

For the public:


For media and journalists:

Contact EEA staff
Contact the web team
FAQ

Call us Call us

Reception:

Phone: (+45) 33 36 71 00
Fax: (+45) 33 36 71 99


next
previous
items

Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Sound and independent information
on the environment

Croatia

Air pollution (Croatia)

Why should we care about this issue

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 23 Nov 2010

Air quality affects the quality of life of the people and the whole ecosystem alike, so the air protection is one of the top priorities in the national environmental policies. Air pollution is generally the most important cause of damage inflicted to the forest ecosystem, while tropospheric ozone, same as the emission of particulate matter and NO2, particularly in large agglomerations, could pose a risk for physical health of population, vegetation and ecosystems. Eutrophication caused by excessive deposition of nitrogen is also identified as one of threats to biodiversity.

Air pollution travels over great distances and across the state borders, so this problem demands an international cooperation at the highest level. Croatia works hard in the area of air quality management.

Emission of all pollutants into the air (with exception of particulate matter) is generally on decrease in Croatia, as a result of accomplishing the basic goals in air protection during the period under consideration: improvement in air quality by reduction in harmful emissions to the levels where they do not affect physical health of population and environment, and upgrading and improving the air quality monitoring systems.

 

The state and impacts

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 1. Air quality in urban areas: total PM10 in percentages, 2005 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 1. Air quality in urban areas: total PM10 in percentages, 2005 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2. Trend for mean annual H2S concentrations in the air, 1990 - 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 2. Trend for mean annual H2S concentrations in the air, 1990 - 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 3. Trend for mean annual NH3 concentrations, 1990 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 3. Trend for mean annual NH3 concentrations, 1990 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 4. Spatial distribution of mean annual concentrations (mg/l) in precipitation and mean annual deposition (kg/ha) of sulphate ions (SO ), nitrate (NO ) and ammonia (NH ), 2005-2008.

Kriging Interpolation Method (Matheron, 1963). [2]

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 4. Spatial distribution of mean annual concentrations (mg/l) in precipitation and mean annual deposition (kg/ha) of sulphate ions (SO ), nitrate (NO ) and ammonia (NH ), 2005-2008.
Fullscreen image Original link

Air quality in settlements

Air quality is monitored in settlements and cities or their parts where a more significant pollution occurs. In rural areas the air is generally clean, and pollution is transported there from polluted urban or industrial areas.

Clean or slightly polluted air (first category air) was recorded in 60 % of cities and settlements or their parts in Croatia in the period from 2005 to 2008 [1]. Moderately polluted air, or second category air, was recorded in 20 % of cities and settlements or their parts, while excessively polluted air, or third category air, was also recorded in 20 % of cities and settlements or their parts.

The pollutants which excessively or moderately contaminate the air include sulphur dioxide,  nitrogen dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), suspended particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), benzo-a-pyrene in PM10, hydrogen sulphide, ozone, benzene, ammonia, total deposited matter, lead, nickel, cadmium and thallium in total deposited matter.

Atmospheric pollution of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) is the most widespread problem in Croatia. The particles primarily come from traffic, large combustion plants and large point sources (Figure 1).

Targeted measurements of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are done in Rijeka, Kutina and Sisak. The air quality was of second and third category due to too many exceedances of hourly concentration of limit values and margins of tolerance. Mean annual concentrations were mainly below the allowable limit value (Figure 2).

Air pollution with ammonia (NH3) has been reduced in Croatia (Figure 3).

Ozone

Tropospheric ozone is the key ingredient of so-called summer smog, the main pollution problem in almost all big cities worldwide. In Zagreb and Rijeka agglomerations, air quality with respect to ozone was of second and third category respectively. The ground-level ozone is the most important photochemical oxidising agents in troposphere. It is a secondary pollutant since it is not emitted directly, but generated by photochemical reactions (with solar irradiation) from nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds which comprise the urban atmosphere.

 Acidification and eutrophication

The spatial distribution of mean annual concentrations (mg/l) and mean annual deposition (kg/ha) of sulphate, nitrate and ammonia is shown in Figure 4. Precipitation pollution by sulphates is the most prominent in Osijek, eastern Croatia, and in areas with increased SO2 emissions (City of Rijeka area).

Ammonia concentrations in the region of Slavonia, eastern Croatia, are twice the national average. Significant sources of ammonia emissions are agriculture and animal husbandry, which are dominant in the eastern Croatia (Slavonia) region. Transboundary air pollution movement from neighbouring countries, particularly from Serbia and Hungary considerably contributes to increasing values acidification and eutrophication compounds in the area of eastern Croatia.

The largest deposition of acidification and eutrophication compounds is recorded around the City of Rijeka and in Gorski Kotar region, and in eastern Croatia. Although ammonia concentrations in precipitation are greatest in eastern Croatia, the highest level of deposition has been recorded in Gorski Kotar, which is due to increased precipitation rates in this area. Climate in areas with particularly high levels of deposition is characterised by increased precipitation, but there is also an important contribution of local sources of sulphate, especially in the area of the City of Rijeka.

 

The key drivers and pressures

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 5. SO2 (Gg/yr) emissions in the air in Croatia, 1990 - 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 5. SO2 (Gg/yr) emissions in the air in Croatia, 1990 - 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 7. NMVOC emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 – 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 7. NMVOC emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 – 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 8. NH3 emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 8. NH3 emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 9. Pb emissions in the air (t/yr) in Croatia, 1990-2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 9. Pb emissions in the air (t/yr) in Croatia, 1990-2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 10. Hg and Cd emissions in the air (t/yr) in Croatia, 1990-2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 10. Hg and Cd emissions in the air (t/yr) in Croatia, 1990-2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 11. PCDD/PCDF and PAH emissions in the air in Croatia, 1990-2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 11. PCDD/PCDF and PAH emissions in the air in Croatia, 1990-2008
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 12. TSP, PM10 & PM2.5 emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 2008

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 12. TSP, PM10 & PM2.5 emissions in the air (Gg/yr) in Croatia, 1990 2008
Fullscreen image Original link
Data sources
Source

Air pollutant emissions in Croatia, 2008

The energy production industry is the main source of major part of the air pollution in Croatia. The energy sector includes emissions from fuel combustion and fugitive emissions. The energy sector contributes with 88.4 % of total SO2 emissions, 88.9 % of NOx, 27.1 % of NMVOC, 73.6 % of PM2.5, 61.2 % of PM10, 94.6 % of CO, 57.3 to 91.8 % of the main heavy metals and 99.2 % of dioxins/furans.

Production processes also contribute to the emissions into the air. The industries with the highest emissions are mineral production (cement, lime), production of inorganic chemical substances (ammonia and nitric acid) and metal industry. Production processes contribute to particulate matter emissions with 64.4 %, NOx emissions with 9.8 %, heavy metal emissions from 7.9 % to 42.7 %, and PCB emissions with 100 %. The use of solvents and solvent-based products is only relevant for NMVOC emissions (58.4 %). Agriculture is the main source of NH3 emissions (82.6 %).

Air pollution emission trends in Croatia, 1990‑2008

Emission of all air pollutants is generally decreasing, except for particulate matter. Croatia is a party to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and eight associated protocols (hereinafter LRTAP Convention), thus it will endeavour to additionally reduce future emissions, which by the end of 2020 must not exceed the prescribed emission ceilings for 2010. (Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, hereinafter the Gothenburg Protocol).

Air pollution emission trends in Croatia for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia (NH3), heavy metals (Pb, Hg and Cd), and persistent organic pollutants and particles (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) for the period 1990-2008 are shown in Figures 5 - 12 [3].

Link to the annual emission inventory (LRTAP) for 2008:

http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/hr/un/UNECE_CLRTAP_HR/envs6hosg

NMVOC emission in Croatia has been slightly increasing since 2001 due to an increase in sector Solvent and other product use and fuel consumption. Under the Gothenburg Protocol Croatia committed to maintain total NMVOC emission below 90 Gg. Projections [4] for NMVOC  envisage that emissions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 will be below the ceiling emissions if Croatia implemented a scenario with measures and/or scenario with additional measures (Table 1).

Under the Regulation on Emission Ceilings for Certain Pollutants [5], Croatia committed to reduce NH3 emission to the limit value of 45 Gg by 2010. The commitment under the Gothenburg Protocol is more stringent, i.e. 30 Gg. The difference between the limit values prescribed by these two documents results from repeated calculation carried out for the 2003 Report on Emission of Air Pollutants on the Territory of the Republic of Croatia, which resulted in increase in NH3 emission trend.

The 2020 outlook

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 08 Apr 2011

Figures

Figure 13. Relative trends for total emission of main air pollutants in Croatia in the 1990-2008 period and projections for 2010, 2015 and 2020 with measures taken

Data source
This figure has no data source. For further information contact  EEA enquiry service.

Figure 13. Relative trends for total emission of main air pollutants in Croatia in the 1990-2008 period and projections for 2010, 2015 and 2020 with measures taken
Fullscreen image Original link

Projections [4] for four main pollutants show that 2010 emissions of SO2, NOx and NMVOC will be below the emission ceilings as defined by the Gothenburg Protocol while the NH3 emission is expected to be above the emission ceilings. As far as Croatian legislation is concerned, it is expected that the requirements of the Regulation on Emission Ceilings for Certain Pollutants [5] will be met. Under the Regulation on Emission Ceilings for Certain Pollutants, Croatia has to reduce the NH3 emission to stipulated limit value of 45 Gg. The commitment under the Gothenburg Protocol is more stringent, i.e. 30 Gg.

It is expected that, in 2015 and 2020, Croatia will also meet the Gothenburg Protocol requirements for SO2, NOx and NMVOC emissions, while in the case of NH3 it will probably not meet these requirements unless additional measures are taken (Figure 13).

It should be pointed out that these projections are based on future energy consumption according to the Energy Strategy for the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 130/09) and the relevant legislation (Table 1), but without taking into account the economic crisis which may affect the implementation of the Strategy.

If the measures from the Programme for Gradual Emission Reduction of Certain Pollutants [4] were implemented, reduction in pollutant emission should be expected and consequently probable mitigation of their impact on human health and the environment.

 

Table 1: Targets according to the Gothenburg Protocol and the Regulation on Emission Ceilings in comparison with projected emissions in the no measures taken (NM), measures taken (M) and additional measures (AM) scenarios for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020

 Pollutant

Target year

Target emission

Gg

Relative target emission in relation to emission in 1990 (1990=100%)

Projections Gg/year

2010

2015

2020

NM

M

AM

NM

M

AM

NM

M

AM

NOx

2010

87

99%

81.8

80.5

74.2

81.8

89.0

82.4

98.7

91.5

84.9

SO2

2010

70

41%

47.5

45.9

-

46.3

48.8

-

53.5

42.5

-

NMVOC

2010

90

75%

103.7

88.8

80.5

103.7

46.7

38.3

118.3

44.4

34.5

NH3

2010

30

53%

41.4

41.4

41.4

46.0

38.7

36.9

49.9

42.0

40.3

45

80%

                                     

Existing and planned responses

Published: 26 Nov 2010 Modified: 22 Dec 2010

The main targets for the protection and improvement of air quality [6] and the long-term measures for the achievement of these targets have been adopted within the Environmental Strategy and the National Environmental Action Plan (Official Gazette 46/02). Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan for the Period 2008-2011 [7], as an implementation document of the national environmental strategy, elaborates the targets and mid-term measures by sectors with priorities, deadlines and actors (http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/339583.html).

The Programme for Gradual Reduction in Emissions of Certain Pollutants in the Republic of Croatia to end of 2010 with Emission Projections for the Period 2010-2020 (Official Gazette 152/09) specified measures by key sectors and emission projections for the 2010-2020 period with measure proposals by key sectors, and sets 2020 pollutant emission ceilings for Croatia.

(http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2009_12_152_3712.html)

 

References:

[1] Croatian Environment Agency: Annual Report on Air Quality Monitoring on the Territory of the Republic of Croatia for 2005-2008

[2] Meteorological And Hydrological Service: Draft Report on the State of the Environment in the Republic of Croatia 2005-2008, Air Section.

[3] Croatian Environment Agency: Emission of Air Pollutants on the Territory of the Republic of Croatia in 2008 (according to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution)

[4] Programme for Gradual Emission Reduction of Certain Pollutants in the Republic of Croatia for the period until the end of 2010 with Emission Projections for the Period 2010-2020 (Official Gazette 152/09)

[5] Regulation on Emission Ceilings for Certain Pollutants in the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 141/08)

[6] Air Protection Act (Official Gazette 178/04, 60/08)

[7] Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan of the Republic of Croatia for the Period 2008-2011 (Official Gazette 61/08)

[8] Croatian Environment Agency: Emission of Air Pollutants on the Territory of the Republic of Croatia in 2003

 

Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100