Air pollution - Drivers and pressures (Croatia)
- Air pollution
Air pollutant emissions in Croatia, 2008
The energy production industry is the main source of major part of the air pollution in Croatia. The energy sector includes emissions from fuel combustion and fugitive emissions. The energy sector contributes with 88.4 % of total SO2 emissions, 88.9 % of NOx, 27.1 % of NMVOC, 73.6 % of PM2.5, 61.2 % of PM10, 94.6 % of CO, 57.3 to 91.8 % of the main heavy metals and 99.2 % of dioxins/furans.
Production processes also contribute to the emissions into the air. The industries with the highest emissions are mineral production (cement, lime), production of inorganic chemical substances (ammonia and nitric acid) and metal industry. Production processes contribute to particulate matter emissions with 64.4 %, NOx emissions with 9.8 %, heavy metal emissions from 7.9 % to 42.7 %, and PCB emissions with 100 %. The use of solvents and solvent-based products is only relevant for NMVOC emissions (58.4 %). Agriculture is the main source of NH3 emissions (82.6 %).
Air pollution emission trends in Croatia, 1990‑2008
Emission of all air pollutants is generally decreasing, except for particulate matter. Croatia is a party to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and eight associated protocols (hereinafter LRTAP Convention), thus it will endeavour to additionally reduce future emissions, which by the end of 2020 must not exceed the prescribed emission ceilings for 2010. (Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, hereinafter the Gothenburg Protocol).
Air pollution emission trends in Croatia for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia (NH3), heavy metals (Pb, Hg and Cd), and persistent organic pollutants and particles (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) for the period 1990-2008 are shown in Figures 5 - 12 .
Link to the annual emission inventory (LRTAP) for 2008:
NMVOC emission in Croatia has been slightly increasing since 2001 due to an increase in sector Solvent and other product use and fuel consumption. Under the Gothenburg Protocol Croatia committed to maintain total NMVOC emission below 90 Gg. Projections  for NMVOC envisage that emissions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 will be below the ceiling emissions if Croatia implemented a scenario with measures and/or scenario with additional measures (Table 1).
Under the Regulation on Emission Ceilings for Certain Pollutants , Croatia committed to reduce NH3 emission to the limit value of 45 Gg by 2010. The commitment under the Gothenburg Protocol is more stringent, i.e. 30 Gg. The difference between the limit values prescribed by these two documents results from repeated calculation carried out for the 2003 Report on Emission of Air Pollutants on the Territory of the Republic of Croatia, which resulted in increase in NH3 emission trend.