Personal tools

next
previous
items

Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Sound and independent information
on the environment

You are here: Home / The European environment – state and outlook 2010 / Country assessments / Bulgaria / Nature protection and biodiversity - State and impacts (Bulgaria)

Nature protection and biodiversity - State and impacts (Bulgaria)

SOER Common environmental theme from Bulgaria
Topic
Nature and biodiversity Nature and biodiversity
more info
Executive Environment Agency
Organisation name
Executive Environment Agency
Reporting country
Bulgaria
Organisation website
Organisation website
Contact link
Contact link
Last updated
15 Jul 2011
Content license
CC By 2.5
Content provider
Executive Environment Agency
Published: 16 Sep 2010 Modified: 10 Jul 2011 Feed synced: 15 Jul 2011 original
Key message

The diversity of Bulgarian flora and fauna has a significant economic dimension as a biological resources of importance to the Bulgarian people and the national economy.

Figures

Figure 3

Index of farmland birds in Bulgaria (17 species), (%)
Data source
http://bspb.org
Figure 3
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 2

Protected areas and Natura 2000 sites in Bulgaria
Data source
http://www.natura2000bg.org/natura/eng/index1.php
Figure 2
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 1

Changes in the size of protected areas between 1991 and 2007 (in hectares) ( SEBI 2010\u20147 indicator)
Data source
http://biodiversity-chm.eea.europa.eu/information/indicator/F1090245995/
Figure 1
Fullscreen image Original link

 

Figure 1. Changes in the size of protected areas between 1991 and 2007 (in hectares) ( SEBI 2010—7 indicator).

 

Table 1. Numbers and sizes of Natura 2000 sites (Source: MoEW, Project “Natura 2000” - http://www.natura2000bg.org/natura/eng/index1.php; the table contain information from the SEBI 2010 — 7 indicator):

Natura 2000 conservation areas Number Area (ha) Percentage of national territory Average European percentage
Habitats Directive conservation areas 228 3342962 29.53 13
Birds Directive conservation areas 114 2321653 20.43 10
Total for the two directives 332   33.89 17

Under national legislation, protected areas fall into six categories similar to those designated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): national parks, reserves, maintained reserves, nature parks, protected sites and natural monuments. By late 2007, there were 941 conservation territories with an overall area of 566 701.2 hectares. The trend is towards an increase in protected areas, which almost doubled between 1991 and 2007. By late 2007, a total of 30 protected area management plans had been adopted.

Bulgaria’s Council of Ministers has approved 332 Natura 2000 Sites covering 33.89 % of national territory: 114 Natura 2000 Sites for wild birds (20.3 % of territory) and 228 Natura 2000 Sites for habitats (29.5 % of territory). Ten Natura 2000 Sites are exactly the same size and carry an identical code under both Directives.

At a bio-geographic seminar in 2008, the current delineation of Bulgaria's designated habitat areas was assessed by the EU as being adequate to guarantee the conservation of priority species and  significant habitat types.

 

Figure 2. Protected areas and Natura 2000 sites in Bulgaria.

 

The diversity of Bulgarian flora and fauna has a significant economic dimension as a biological resources of importance to the Bulgarian people and the national economy. The most important source of flora and fauna is Bulgaria's forests which cover a third of the country. Although there is still no economic assessment of the ecosystem services they offer, they play a vital environmental role as a source of oxygen, water, timber and non-timber products, including grassland, forest fruit and herbs, habitats for plant and animal species and a place for tourism, sports and recreation.

Bulgaria's genetic plant and animal resources play an important economic, cultural and biological role. They represent a variety of wild and semi-wild relatives of crops, local types and breeds, many of which are under threat.

Table 2 “(Source: the table contains information on indicators SEBI 2010–1, SEBI 2010 –2- and MoEW- http://www.moew.government.bg).

Numbers of species by biological group

Number of species and habitat types included in the Bulgarian Red Book[1]

 

Mushrooms: 5 200

Mushrooms: 215

Lichens: 933

Algae: 6

Algae: 3 063

Mosses: 102

Mosses: 705

Higher plants: 553

Higher plants: 3 900

Animals: 287

Invertebrates 27 000

Habitat types: 159

Amphibians – 17

 

Reptiles: 36

 

Fish: 218

 

Birds: 421

 
Mammals:100  

[1]The degree of threat to species is defined in accordance with International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria.

There are a total of 498 species of plant endemic to Bulgaria, representing around 12.8 % of the national species diversity. In all there are 186 species endemic to Bulgaria and 312 endemic to the Balkans.

Bulgaria has some of the most diverse cave fauna in Europe, with 33 species of bat.

The first ever trend projections for 38 common bird species were published in 2007, along with an index of birds in agricultural habitats – an important indicator of sustainability in farmland management (SEBI 2010 – 1). Of the 38 species tracked in the period 2005-2007, a total of 17 were classified as farmland birds. In the first three years of its existence, the index declined.

 

Figure 3. Index of farmland birds in Bulgaria (17 species), (%).

 

Under national legislation, protected areas fall into six categories similar to those designated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): national parks, reserves, maintained reserves, nature parks, protected sites and natural monuments. By late 2007, there were 941 conservation territories with an overall area of 566 701.2 hectares. The trend is towards an increase in protected areas, which almost doubled between 1991 and 2007. By late 2007, a total of 30 protected area management plans had been adopted.

Bulgaria’s Council of Ministers has approved 332 Natura 2000 Sites covering 33.89 % of national territory: 114 Natura 2000 Sites for wild birds (20.3 % of territory) and 228 Natura 2000 Sites for habitats (29.5 % of territory). Ten Natura 2000 Sites are exactly the same size and carry an identical code under both Directives.

At a bio-geographic seminar in 2008, the current delineation of Bulgaria's designated habitat areas was assessed by the EU as being adequate to guarantee the conservation of priority species and  significant habitat types.

 

Figure 2. Protected areas and Natura 2000 sites in Bulgaria.

 

The diversity of Bulgarian flora and fauna has a significant economic dimension as a biological resources of importance to the Bulgarian people and the national economy. The most important source of flora and fauna is Bulgaria's forests which cover a third of the country. Although there is still no economic assessment of the ecosystem services they offer, they play a vital environmental role as a source of oxygen, water, timber and non-timber products, including grassland, forest fruit and herbs, habitats for plant and animal species and a place for tourism, sports and recreation.

Bulgaria's genetic plant and animal resources play an important economic, cultural and biological role. They represent a variety of wild and semi-wild relatives of crops, local types and breeds, many of which are under threat.

Table 2 “(Source: the table contains information on indicators SEBI 2010–1, SEBI 2010 –2- and MoEW- http://www.moew.government.bg).

Numbers of species by biological group

Number of species and habitat types included in the Bulgarian Red Book[1]

 

Mushrooms: 5 200

Mushrooms: 215

Lichens: 933

Algae: 6

Algae: 3 063

Mosses: 102

Mosses: 705

Higher plants: 553

Higher plants: 3 900

Animals: 287

Invertebrates 27 000

Habitat types: 159

Amphibians – 17

 

Reptiles: 36

 

Fish: 218

 

Birds: 421

 
Mammals:100  

[1]The degree of threat to species is defined in accordance with International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria.

There are a total of 498 species of plant endemic to Bulgaria, representing around 12.8 % of the national species diversity. In all there are 186 species endemic to Bulgaria and 312 endemic to the Balkans.

Bulgaria has some of the most diverse cave fauna in Europe, with 33 species of bat.

The first ever trend projections for 38 common bird species were published in 2007, along with an index of birds in agricultural habitats – an important indicator of sustainability in farmland management (SEBI 2010 – 1). Of the 38 species tracked in the period 2005-2007, a total of 17 were classified as farmland birds. In the first three years of its existence, the index declined.

 

Figure 3. Index of farmland birds in Bulgaria (17 species), (%).

 

Geographical coverage

[+] Show Map

Document Actions
Disclaimer

The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing.

Filed under: ,

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100