Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country profile - Distinguishing factors (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a total surface area of 51 209.2 km², composed of 51 197 km² of land and 12.2 km2 of sea (Source: Agency for Statistics of BiH, www.bhas.ba). According to its geographical position on the Balkan Peninsula, it belongs to the Adriatic basin and the Black Sea basin. Therefore, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Danubian countries group as well as to the Mediterranean countries.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has common frontiers with the Republic of Croatia (931 km), the Republic of Serbia (375 km) and the Republic of Montenegro (249 km). To the north, BiH has access to the Sava River, and to the south to the Adriatic Sea (23.5 km of sea border). The land is mainly hilly to mountainous, with an average altitude of 500 meters, (0 m at the seacoast and 2 387 m at the highest peak, Maglić mountain). Of the total land area, 5 % is lowlands, 24 % hills, 42 % mountains, and 29 % karst region. Forest lands cover about 2.5 million ha, or 49 % of the total land area, which is among the highest forest coverage in Europe. Forest ecosystems cover 41 % of the territory, and a relatively high number of species are endemic. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks among the territories with the highest level of biological diversity in Europe. Therefore, forestry in BiH is a very important industrial sector, and the sustainable management of forest resources is a significant factor in environmental, climate and biodiversity protection.