2.6.1. Characteristics of Groundwater
Not provided at this stage. The first part of the MW2 questionnaire has not been provided in time because of the decentralised structure of the 16 Länder of Germany. The questionnaires were distributed to the Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser -(LAWA)" in the 16 German Länder to collect groundwater quality and quantity data. Finally 4 questionnaires were answered and they are recommended to be a representative choice of the whole country .
But a national report on nitrate
monitoring programmes in the whole of Germany co-ordinated by the
Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser -(LAWA)" was sent. In this report called
Bericht zur Grundwasserbeschaffenheit Nitrat, Stand 1995 (Report on Groundwater
Quality -Nitrate-, Status 1995)" the monitoring activities are described. In relation
with the increasing problems of nitrate pollution within groundwater resources caused by
agricultural fertilisation all 16 German Länder have special nitrate monitoring
programmes. Groundwater data concerning nitrate pollution are gained by using existing
groundwater monitoring sites in the current Länder networks. The report also gives a
brief overview about current groundwater quality monitoring networks in the 16 Länder.
2.6.2. Structure of the Administrative Organisations Concerning Groundwater Quality
No information is available on this aspect at this stage.
2.6.3. Monitoring of Groundwater Quality
22.214.171.124. Bayern (Bavaria)
The Free-state of Bavaria has a groundwater monitoring network of its own which is called Meßnetz Grundwasserbeschaffenheit Bayern". The monitoring activities are partly determined in the national drinking water ordinance. The monitoring network is installed to support the responsible authorities with regular data in selected sampling sites so that they are able to visualise middle and long range changes in groundwater quality.
The groundwater monitoring is run by the Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft", a kind of water management and technical authority. It is responsible for the programme co-ordination, data treatment and storage, chemical analyses as well as quality management for the chemical analyses and finally for publishing reports. The Landesamt co-operates closely with 24 local offices of water management (Wasserwirtschaftsämter").
In Bavaria there are groundwater resources in porous media, karst media and fractured rock media. The sampling sites are spread evenly in order to get a representative pattern of groundwater quality data with regard to public water supply. The sampling sites are mostly defined as baseline stations. The majority of the sampling sites is situated in observation wells. The area (area in km²/number of sampling sites) investigated is composed of 28,000 km²/118 in porous aquifers; 8,000 km²/40 in karst aquifers and 35,000 km²/121 in fractured rock aquifers. The measuring programmes for the different groundwater parameters are split in 4 types. A broad selection of parameters is observed by the Landesamt. To obtain good quality of analysed data the laboratory work has to be done under the regulations of the German Industry Norm Procedure (DIN) like DIN 38 402 A 13 for taking groundwater samples or DIN 38 402 A 51 for the calibration of analytical methods. The limits of detection are fixed by the Landesamt.
In 1985 the network was installed. The raw data collected are loaded on to a ADABAS database. The used hardware is a VAX/VMS, the used language, software, query and reporting tool is NATURAL. Thereupon computerised data have been available since 1985, data are for water resource management and administration authorities only. But annual reports of the Landesamt popularise selected information of the groundwater situation.
126.96.36.199. Nordrhein Westfalen (North Rhine Westfalia)
The North Rhine Westfalia State Environment Agency co-ordinates the regional monitoring activities and runs the database for the sampling site data. It is assisted by 12 offices of the Environmental Protection Service/Water Works in reporting the data collected. These 12 offices undertake the local sampling and analysing of groundwater. The greatest groundwater resources can be found in porous media, where 2,256 observation points are distributed evenly in an area of 17,000 km². It is followed by fractured rock area of 16,705 km², which is investigated by means of 310 sampling sites. In karst media 20 sampling sites are locally spread over 300 km². The distribution of the sampling sites should guarantee representative data.
For the basic programme more than 40 determinants are observed 1-2 times a year. Public and private institutions share both sampling and chemical analyses. The German Industry Norm Procedure (DIN) standardises monitoring procedures as well as the analytical methods. Other assurance procedures are laid down in the so called "Good laboratory practice -Gute Laborpraxis".
The network was established in 1984. The average length of records are 5 years. The State Environment Centre uses a DB2 database for raw data storage. The hardware-operating system therefore is IBM-MVS and the language, software, reporting and query tools used are SQL, SAS and QMF. The data have been electronically stored since 1984 and are available on floppy disks, paper sheets and reports at the North Rhine Westfalia State Environment Agency and the 12 offices of the Environmental Protection Service/Water Works. Reports are published every 5th year. They are free for administrative authorities, universities, experts or the general public.
In Thüringen the monitoring network was installed to get data about groundwater quality, to survey the development of the groundwater resources and to assess the influence of agricultural pollution sources as well as acidification. Due to national and European Community legal obligations the monitoring activities have to be reported too. The legal basis are the Water Act (§ 34), the Water Household Act (§ 104) of Thüringen and three regional ordinances concerning nitrate, hazardous substances and general guidelines for groundwater quantity monitoring procedures. The Environment Agency of Thüringen has the full responsibility for the network and the data obtained, for programme co-ordination up to sampling and analysing. The main objectives for groundwater monitoring in Thüringen are for example:
size of temporal and areal changes in the groundwater quantity/quality due to anthropogenic and geogenic water subject matters
size temporal and areal changes in the groundwater quantity/quality due to different kind of land use such as agriculture
surveillance of groundwater aquifers for drinking water supply management
basic data collection
water quality trend identification
quick identification of hazardous substances and other pollution sources to take counter measurements.
The observation points are situated in porous media, karst media and joint aquifers. The criteria for their distribution were to get representative data, to take account of the different hydrogeological units and to seize anthropogenic influences. Consequently 96 observation points are spread over 10,540 km² joint aquifers, about 20 over 4,900 km² of karst aquifers and finally 4 over 900 km² in porous media. The observation points are defined as characterisation stations, mainly situated in drinking water, and observation wells.
The variables observed are taken from 1 up to 6 times a year and analysed in the laboratory of the Environment Agency of Thüringen. To ensure that sampling procedures of groundwater are made correctly and reproducibly they have to be done under the consideration of:
DIN (German Industry Norm Procedure) 38 402 (Sampling of groundwater aquifers)
LAWA -Directive for observation and evaluation of Groundwater T3
DVWK Guidelines for taking groundwater samples and extent of monitoring
AQS (Analytical quality assurance) - for taking groundwater samples
Data are analysed in the laboratory due to DIN and DEV Norms.
At the Environment Agency the raw data are loaded onto an ORACLE database and a LIM or a LAB database (which is specially designed for laboratory data) or are stored in EXCEL. Further treatment is made with special software; language, reporting, query and software tools are PASCAL; FORTRAN and CLIPPER. The earliest record was taken in 1979, the average record length is 4 years. Data are available on floppy disks, paper sheets or reports. There are restrictions for data availability, data have to be paid for. The Environment Agency publishes monthly and annual reports mostly for local administrative bodies, scientific institutions and environmental organisations.
In Sachsen-Anhalt the Act on Hydrography (§§ 149, 54, 55) is the legal basis for the monitoring activities undertaken by the Agency for Environmental Protection (Landesamt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt") and state-offices for environmental protection (Staatliche Ämter für Umweltschutz"). They co-operate in the fields of programme co-ordination, chemical analyses and database management; reporting is only done by the agency. The monitoring network takes also account of the EC Nitrate Directive 91/676/EEC and the Directives 80/778 EEC (quality of water for human consumption). The network is a programme to fulfil general surveillance purposes and to detect changes in the water quality. The geographical coverage of the network is about 20,444 km²; about 14,000 km² with 82 sampling sites are in porous media and about 6,000 km² with 30 sampling sites in solid rock media. Baseline and characterisation stations are the types used for the monitoring.
The investigation of parameters differs from 1 to 2 times a year for basic programmes. The determinands are analysed in 4 public laboratories of the agency and the offices and are treated due to the German Industry Norm Procedure (DIN) and the AQS (Analytical Quality Assurance). The network started working in 1990 with an average record length of 4 years.
The database at the Agency is an INFORMIX database. The user interface is WINDOWS. ASCII date files are used with Targa Computers . Language, software, query and reporting tools are e.g.: ESQL-C; MSC7,0; SDK 3,1. Data are accessible on floppy disks or paper sheets. More details about reporting can be requested at the responsible agency.
2.6.4. Structure of the Administrative Organisations Concerning Groundwater Quantity
No information is available on this aspect at the present time.
2.6.5. Monitoring of Groundwater Quantity
The Bavarian groundwater quantity monitoring aims at collecting regularly groundwater hydrological data in order to recognise middle and long range changes within groundwater resources as early as possible. The groundwater monitoring is run by the Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft", a kind of water management and technical authority. It is responsible for the programme co-ordination, data treatment and storage, and finally for publishing reports. The Landesamt co-operates closely with 24 local offices of water management (Wasserwirtschaftsämter") which take the local samples.
The monitoring network is extended throughout Bavaria and observes groundwater resources in porous, karst and in fractured rock media. There are 1,520 sampling sites operating in porous media area of 28,000 km², 107 sites in 8,000 km² karst area and 559 sites in 35,000 km² fractured rock area. The observation points, mostly bored wells, measure the water level weekly (for basic programmes) or continuously (for special programmes), water temperature is measured weekly in special programmes. No standardised methods for the monitoring are used but plausibility control helps to obtain high quality data. In 1915 the first record was taken, the average length of the record is 60 years. The Directive on Groundwater for the Landesämter of whole Germany 1/82 determines the storage of variables. The technical equipment consists of ADABAS databases with VAX/VMS, and NATURAL as software tool. Computerised data have been available since 1915 and are accessible on floppy disks or paper sheets without any restrictions at the Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft".
188.8.131.52. Nordrhein Westfalen
The Hydrological Service of North Rhine Westfalia is the regional groundwater monitoring network. Its main objectives are to manage the water supply for consumption and to gain information about the groundwater situation. The North Rhine Westfalia State Environment Agency co-ordinates the regional monitoring activities and runs the database for the sampling site data. It is assisted by 12 offices of the Environmental Protection Service/Water Works in reporting the data collected. These 12 offices undertake the local sampling too. The greatest groundwater resources can be found in porous media where 42,900 observation points are distributed evenly in an area of 17,000 km². It is followed by fractured rock area with 16,705 km² which is investigated by means of 100 sampling sites. In karst media 100 sampling sites are spread locally over 300 km². The main type of observation points are 36,176 bored wells dug followed by 6,625 wells. The sampling frequency differs from case to case, but most sites measure weekly or monthly. The network has been in operation since 1909 and its average length of records is 35 years.
The groundwater data collected is managed with a DB2 database. Computer hardware comes from IBM with MVS as operating system. Software tools are SQL, SAS and QMF. Computerised data have been available since the beginning of the network. Data can be made accessible on floppy disks, paper sheets or reports. These media are free of charge and only partly restricted. The North Rhine Westfalia State Environment Agency delivers the reports to interested audience. Reports are published every 5th year. They are free for administrative authorities, universities, experts and the general public.
The Network in Thüringen covers the whole area and has been installed in order to get basic information on the status of the groundwater resources. One of the most important purposes for the monitoring procedures is the obligatory report. Actual data are necessary for the following reports
Hydrological Report of Thüringen (monthly)
State of Groundwater Reports (quality and quantity)
IHP Yearbook (UNESCO)
German Hydrological Yearbooks for Rivers Elbe 1, Rhine/Main, Weser/Ems
Reports for the European Communities
The Environment Agency of Thüringen is responsible for the network and the data obtained, for programme co-ordination, database management and reporting. In addition 4 governmental environment agencies (Staatliche Umweltämter") co-operate with the agency in the fields of database management and reporting.
Typical regional aspects for this network are to get information about:
the communication between groundwater and surface water
the communication between the different groundwater aquifers
the status quo of groundwater and the hydrogeological units
the borders of groundwater aquifers
the groundwater relations in urbanising areas
Groundwater resources in porous, karst and joint aquifers are observed by 1,225 sampling sites. The majority of the sampling sites is represented with bored wells, 116 are situated at springs. The area investigated is composed of 900 km² in porous media, 4,900 km² in karst media and 10,540 km² in joint media. Variables observed are water level and discharge. Measurements are made 4 times a month for both variables in basic programmes; a special programme measures the water level 4 times a day. Ordinances for groundwater monitoring determine the procedures. Plausibility control ensures the quality of analysed data. The network has been in operation since 1915 and has an average record length of 25 years. The Agency manages the data with the help of an ORACLE database or by using EXCEL. Further treatment is made with special software, reporting and software tools are PASCAL; FORTRAN and CLIPPER. The Thüringer Agency publishes monthly and yearly reports, the data can be made available without restrictions and are free.
In Sachsen-Anhalt monitoring activities are undertaken and co-ordinated by the Agency for Environmental Protection of Sachsen-Anhalt (Landesamt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt") as well as three state-offices for environmental protection (Staatliche Ämter für Umweltschutz"). They co-operate in the fields of programme co-ordination and reporting, the database management is made by the state-offices only. The monitoring network is in operation both for managing groundwater resources and collecting basic data. The whole monitoring system covers 12,000 km² with 1200 sampling sites in porous media and 8,000 km² with 650 sampling sites in solid rock areas. About 1,200 sampling sites are bored wells for observation purpose only. There water level is recorded 2-4 times a month in basic and special programmes. The network is in operation since 1907 and has an average length of record of 20-70 years. Information on data treatment has not been provided. But computerised data have been available since 1907, and can be made accessible on floppy disks, paper sheets and reports. Target audience for reports are administrative bodies and citizens.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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