8. Ammonia NH3

Page Last modified 20 Apr 2016, 02:32 PM

8. AMMONIA - NH3

8.1 NH3-emissions by countries

The 1990 annual total NH3-emissions for EUROPE were estimated to be 5.7 million tonnes. These emissions broken down by EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 countries are shown in figure 8.1. The largest contributor were the EU-12 countries with 63%, second largest the PHARE-10 countries with 28%; the EFTA-5 countries contributed 6% and Germany (former East) and Malta 3%.

Figure 8.1: Contribution in % to the European total NH3-emissions

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Figure 8.2 shows the relative contribution of individual countries to the total of 5.7 million tonnes. In 1990 the largest contributing countries were France (12%), Poland (10%) and Germany (former West 10%); the smallest contributing countries were Malta (0.10%), Luxembourg (0.1%) and Slovenia (0.5%). These differences are due to different size of population, different per capita emissions (see also paragraph 8.3) and differences in emissions from natural sources.

Figure 8.2: Contribution in % of each country to the EUROPEAN total NH3-emissions

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8.2 NH3-emissions per group

More than 90% of the NH3-emissions for EUROPE resulted from agriculture (group 10) in 1990. Group 4 (production processes) contributed with 3% and both group 9 (waste treatment and disposal) and group 11 (nature) each produced 2% of the total NH3-emissions of EUROPE. All other groups were not relevant for NH3-emissions.

The split of the NH3-emissions into groups for EU-12 countries, PHARE-10 countries and EFTA-5 countries is quite similar compared to the split for EUROPE with the exception of the larger contribution of group 9 (waste treatment and disposal) with 12% in the EFTA-5 countries and of the smaller contribution of group 10 (agriculture) with 82% in the EFTA-5 countries and with 88% in the PHARE-10 countries.

The differences of contributions especially of the main source group 10 to the total emissions are larger between countries than these groups (see also table 8.1). The relative contribution of the NH3-emissions of group 10 ranges from 100% (Malta and others) to 60% (Sweden).

It is intended to explain these significant differences in a special NH3-report. However it is evident already from these differences in the relative contribution of sourcegroups to a countries total emissions that strategies for reduction of NH3-emissions will need individual solutions as well as common elements.

Figure 8.3: Contribution in % of source groups to the EUROPEAN NH3-emissions

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8.3 NH3-emissions per capita

Only anthropogenic emissions are expected to be related to population for these calculations. Therefore group 11 (nature) has been excluded.

For EUROPE the average NH3-emissions per capita were 12 kg/capita. Compared to this number the per capita NH3-emissions were smaller for the EU-12 countries with 11 kg/capita and the EFTA-5 countries with 10 kg/capita and larger for the
PHARE-10 countries with 15 kg/capita. This comparison is also shown in figure 8.4 and table 9.

Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared. The largest NH3-emissions per capita were estimated for Greece (47 kg/capita) and Ireland and Bulgaria (each 36 kg/capita); the smallest per capita emissions for NH3 were calculated for Hungary (6 kg/capita), Italy (7 kg/capita) and Finland, Belgium (Flemish region) and the United Kingdom (each 8 kg/capita). Figure 8.5 shows the countries ranked according their per capita emissions. The smallest per capita emissions is a factor of 8 smaller compared to the largest number.

Figure 8.4: NH3-emissions per capita for EUROPE

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Figure 8.5: NH3-emissions per capita for individual countries

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8.4 NH3-emissions per km2

The emissions per km2 have been calculated from the total emissions, the emissions of group 11 (nature) having been included in this case.

For EUROPE the average NH3-emissions per km2 were estimated as 1 205 kg/km2. Compared to this number the per km2 NH3-emissions were 32% larger for the EU-12 countries with 1 586 kg/km2, 25% larger for the PHARE-10 countries with 1 501 kg/km2 and 79% smaller for the EFTA-5 countries with 257 kg/km2. This comparison is also shown in figure 8.6 and table 10.

Figure 8.6: NH3-emissions per km2 for EUROPE

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Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared: the largest NH3-emissions per km2 were for Malta (17 364 kg/km2) and the next largest ones for the Netherlands (4 930 kg/km2) and Belgium, Flemish region (3 601 kg/km2); the smallest emissions per km2 for NH3 were for Norway (118 kg/km2), Finland (121 kg/km2) and Sweden (164 kg/km2). Figure 8.7 shows the countries ranked according their NH3-emission per km2. The differences in the emissions per km2 between countries are much larger compared to the per capita emissions. The smallest number being 147 times smaller than the largest number. Another report will investigate the local differences in emissions per km2 in more detail.

Figure 8.7: NH3-emissions per km2 for individual countries

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Table 8.1: Ammonia emissions per country and group

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