Appendix D

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Appendix D

Summary of basic monitoring requirements for inland waters

List of Tables

Table D.1
Summary of monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements according to water type and matrix

Table D.2
Summary of monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements for groundwater

Table D.3
Summary of monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements for surface water

Table D.4
Summary of monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements requiring measurement of water quantity

Table D.1. Summary of monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements according to water type and matrix


Table D1 continued

COMMITMENT WATER TYPE
- GW RIVERS LAKES AND RESERVOIRS ESTUARIES COASTAL WATERS
- W W S B W S B W S B W S B
1. DIRECTIVES - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Surface Water (75/440/EEC) and 79/869/EEC) - X - - x - - - - - - - -
Bathing Water (76/160/EEC) - X - - x - - x - - x - -
Dangerous Substances (76/464/EEC)a - X - - - - - - - - - - -
- Mercury from Chlor_alkali (82/176/EEC) - X x x x x x x x x x x x
- Mercury from Other Sectors (84/156/EEC) - X x x x x x x x x x x x
- Cadmium (83/513/EEC) - x x x x x x x x x x x x
- Carbon tetrachloride (86/280/EEC) - X xb xb x xb xb x xb xb x xb xb
- Hexachlorocyclohexane (84/491/EEC) - X x x x x x x x x x x x
- Aldrin, etc (88/347/EEC) - X xc xc x xc xc x xc xc x xc xc
- Dichloroethane, etc. (90/415/EEC - X xd xd x xd xd x xd xd x xd xd
Titanium Dioxide (82/883/EEC) x X x x x x x x x x x x x
Freshwater Fish (78/659/EEC) - X - - x - - - - - - - -
Shellfish Waters (79/923/EEC) - - - - - - - x - xe x - xe
Groundwater (80/68/EEC)l x - - - - - - - - - - - -
Drinking Water (80/778/EEC)g x X - - x - - - - - - - -
UWWT (91/271/EEC)n - X - - x - - x - - x - -
Nitrates (91/676/EEC)l x X - - x - - x - - x - -
Exchange of Information (77/795/EEC)(86/574/EEC) - X - - x - - - - - - - -
NUMBER OF DIRECTIVES 5 15 8 8 15 8 8 12 8 9 12 8 9
2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS - X - - - - - - - - - - -
CATEGORY A 1 9 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 5
Moselle 1961j - X - - - - - - - - - - -
North East Atlantic (Oslo) 1972n - - - - - - - - - - (x) (x) (x)
North East Atlantic (Paris) 1974n - X - - - - - x x x x x x
Baltic Sea (Helsinki) 1974/1992 - - - - - - - x x x x x x
Mediterranean (Barcelona) 1976m - - - - - - - x x x x x x
Rhine 1976k - x x x xl xl xl - - - - - -
North Sea (NSTF) 1987 - - - - - - - x x x x x x
Rhine (hydrology) 1989 - X - - - - - - - - - - -
North Sea (Conference) 1990 - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Arctic Sea (AMAP) 1991 - X x x x x x x x x x x x
North East Atlantic (OSPAR) 1992o - (X) - - - - - (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)
Transboundary Waters 1992q X X - - X - - - - - - - -
Meuse 1994o - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Scheldt 1994o - X - - - - - - - - - -
CATEGORY B - 9 0 3 6 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0
Foyle Fisheries 1952 - X - X X - X X - X - - -
Lake Inari 1959 - Xt - - X - - - - - - - -
Lake Constance 1960 - - - - X - - - - - - - -
Sarre 1961 j - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Lake Constance (water withdrawal) 1966 - - - - X - - - - - - - -
Frontier rivers (Fi/S) 1971 - Xt - - X - - X -  - - - -
Boundary watercourses (Fi/N) 1980 - Xs - - Xs - - - - - -   - -
Danube (Bucharest) 1985 - X - Xp - - - - - - - -
Moselle (industry) 1986j - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Danube (Regensburg) 1987 - X - Xp - - - - - - - - -
Elbe 1990 - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Danube (Sofia) 1994 o - (X) - - - - - - - - - - -
CATEGORY C - 10 0 5 7 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Drava 1954 - X - X - - - - - - - - -
Mura 1954 - X - X - - - - - - - - -
Lake Lugano 1955 j - - - - X - - - - - - - -
Water Economy (Hu/Au) 1956 - X - X - - - - - - - - -
Lake Geneva 1962 j - - - - X X - - - - - - -
Frontier waters (Fi/Ru) 1964 - X - - X - - - - - - - -
Frontier waters (Au/Cz/Sl) 1970 - X - X - - - - - - - - -
Vuoksa 1972/83 (Fi/Ru) - Xt - - Xt - - - - - - - -
Italo-Swiss waters 1972/1985 j - X - - X - - - - - - - -
Adriatic 1974 j - - - - - - - - - - X - -
Lake Geneva (navigation) 1976j - - - - X - - - - - - - -
Frontier Waters (It/Sv) 1978 j - X - - - - - - - - - - -
Lake Geneva (phosphorus) 1980j - X - - X - - - - - - - -
Technical Co-operation (Bu/Gr) 1991 - X - X - - - - - - - - -
Black Sea   -   - -   - - - - - - - X - -
NUMBER OF AGREEMENTS 1 28 2 10 16 3 3 6 4 5 6 5 5
TOTAL NUMBER OF COMMITMENTS 6 43 10 18 31 11 11 18 12 14 18 13 14





































 



































Notes:

Water types GW Groundwater

Matrix B Biota

S Sediment

W Water column

() Figures in brackets are not included in the calculation of totals as they are either covered by another agreement or have yet to come into place

a The provisions of this directive relating to groundwater are superseded by Directive 80/68/EEC.

b Only for DDT and pentachlorophenol (PCP).

c Only for aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and isodrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD).

d Only for trichlorobenzene (TCB).

e For metals and organohalogenated compounds only. The requirement for faecal coliforms superseded by Directive 91/492/EEC.

f For prior investigation before granting an authorisation. The prior investigation include examination of the hydrogeological conditions of the area concerning and possible purifying powers of the soil and subsoil and the risk of pollution and alteration of the quality of groundwater form the discharge and shall establish whether the discharge of substances into groundwater is a satisfactory solution from the point of view of the environment.

g An initial analysis to be carried out before exploitation of the source. The determinands listed above plus various toxic or undesirable substances presumed present.

h For identifying sensitive areas. Member States must also monitor waters subject to discharges from STW and direct discharges from industrial sectors in cases where the receiving environment may be significantly affected. For discharges to less sensitive areas and for disposal of sludge, Member States must monitor and carry out any relevant studies to verify that the discharge or disposal does not adversely affect the environment.

i For designating vulnerable zones, Member States must monitor the nitrate concentration in fresh surface and groundwater and review the eutrophic state of fresh water, estuaries and coastal waters. In addition, the nitrate content of waters must be monitored (surface and groundwater) to assess the effects of action programmes.

j Copy of the convention could not be provided. Water only, other matrix not specified.

k The International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution (ICPR) has established a monitoring programme reviewed periodically

l Only one sampling station on Lake Constance

m The contracting parties shall establish in close co-operation with the international bodies complementary or joint programmes for pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean sea area. The contracting parties may be required to prescribe common procedures and standards for pollution monitoring.

n Since 1978, the two Commissions have established a Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The Declaration of the second International Ministerial Conference on the protection of the North Sea (London 1987) advocated the setting up of a co-ordinated scientific programme for the North Sea. As requested by the Declaration, the Oslo and Paris Commissions and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea established a North Sea Task Force to co-ordinate this work. One of the main objectives of the Task Force was to prepare a new Quality Status Report of the North Sea by the end of 1993. To achieve this, a monitoring master plan (MMP) for the whole of the North Sea environment was developed and implemented. This built on the monitoring carried out under the JMP.

o Under preparation

p Saprobic index

q The Riparian countries shall establish and implement a joint monitoring programme on the condition of transboundary waters including floods and ice drifts as well as transboundary impacts.

r Only flow

s Water quality but not specified

t Water level and flow

 

Table D.2 Summary of basic monitoring requirements in directives and international agreements for groundwater

COMMITMENT Sampling location/timing Determinands
1. DIRECTIVES
Groundwater (80/68/EEC) Once prior to authorising discharges Not specified- assume general composition
Drinking Water (80/778/EEC) Once before exploitation of the source for drinking water Faecal coliforms, total coliform, total count of 22 and 37oC, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, pH, residual chlorine, taste, temperature, turbidity, conductivity
Titanium Dioxide (82/883/EEC) 1 per year where waste discharges are disposed of to land Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, pH, SO4, Ti, Vn, Zn
Nitrates

(91/676/EEC)

Within two years of notification of directive over a period of a year. Then every four years to identify vulnerable zones. If concentration below 25 mg NO3/l then repeat only every 8 years. Nitrate
Proposed Landfill

(COM(93)275)

Every six months Based on leachate composition determined in operational phase and on List 1 and 2 of Directive 80/68/EEC. Groundwater level.
2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS - Category A
Transboundary Waters 1992 a Harmonised rules for monitoring, analytical techniques, data processing often required. To be agreed by riparian states

Notes: a Applies to all countries except Ireland and Greece


Table D.3 Summary of basic monitoring requirements made in directives and international agreements for surface water

Commitment Sampling location/timing Determinands
FRESHWATER ONLY
1. DIRECTIVES
Surface Water (75/440/EEC) and (79/869/EEC) Designated sites

4-12 times per year

pH, turbidity, colour, temperature, total suspended solids, conductivity, odour, DO2, BOD52, COD,2 substances extractable with chloroform2, total organic carbon1, residual organic carbon1, ammonium2 ,nitrogen kjeldahl2, nitrates, fluorides, total extractable organic chlorine, dissolved Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Bo2, Be1, Co1, Ni1 ,Vn1 , As, Cd, total Cr, Hg, Se, Pb, Ba, CN, sulphates, chlorides2 , surfactants2 , phosphates2, phenols, dissolved/emulsified hydrocarbons, PAHs, total pesticides, total coliforms2, faecal coliforms2, faecal streptococci2, salmonella2
Exchange of Information (77/795/EEC) as amended by (86/574/EEC) Selected sites flow, temperature3, pH, conductivity, chlorides nitrates, ammonia, DO, BOD5, COD, total phosphorous, surfactants, total Cd, Hg, faecal coliforms, total coliforms, faecal streptococci, salmonella, biological quality
Freshwater Fish (78/659/EEC) Agreed sites in designated areas

Weekly-Monthly

Temperature, DO, pH, suspended solids2, BOD52, total phosphorus1, nitrites2, phenolic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, non-ionised ammonia, total ammonium, total Zn, dissolved Cu2, total residual chlorine
Drinking Water (80/778/EEC) Initially before source exploited Odour, pH, taste, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, residual chlorine, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, total counts of 22 and 37° C
2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS - Category A
Moselle 1961 NI Monitoring of water, biota, sediments, no details provided.
Rhine 1976 Varies depending on media and determinand.

Water at 9 designated sites 26 times per year (fortnightly) to continuously

Suspended sediment at 6 sites 26 times per year (fortnightly)

Sediment (1995) at 10 sites

Biota (fish) at 39 sites

Water (86 determinands): Flow, temperature, DO, oxygen saturation, pH, conductivity, suspended sediment, total organic carbon 12, dissolved organic carbon, absorbable organic carbon, inhibition of cholinesterase, total P12, orthophosphate, ammoniacal N, nitrate N, total N11, silica, chloride, sulphate, sodium, potassium, calcium11, magnesium, radioactivity (total alpha, total beta, total potassium 40, caesium 137, strontium 90, tritium), iron12, mercury13, nickel12, zinc12, copper12, chromium12, lead13, cadmium13, manganese12, arsenic12, aluminium11, titanium11, atrazine, azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, bentazone, chloridazon, dichlorvos, diuron, endosulphan11, fenitrothion, fenthion, alpha HCH13, beta HCH13, gamma HCH12, 6 HCH13, isoproturon, malathion, parathion ethyl, parathion methyl, pentachlorophenol, simazine, trifluralin, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichlorethene, trichloromethane, tetrachloroethene, tetrachloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, 2-chloranilin, 3-chloranilin, 4-chloranilin, 3,4- chloranilin, 1-chlor-2-nitrobenzene12, 1-chloro-3-nitrobenzene12, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene12, nitrobenzene, benzene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene13, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene13, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene13, hexachlorobutadiene15, 2-chlortoluene, 4-chlorotoluene, EDTA, NTA.

Suspended solids: (46 + 4 non-mandatory determinands) as for water (noted 12) + granulometry, DDT (pp,op)14, DDD (pp,op) 14, DDE (pp,op) 14, DDT (total) 14, alrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins, benzo(b) fluoranthrene, benzo(k)fluoranthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(gh)pyrene,

Table D.3 continued

Commitment Sampling location/timing Determinands
Rhine 1976 (cont.)   fluoranthrene, indenopyrene, PCBs( 29, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 188)

Sediments: (74 + 4 non-mandatory determinands) as for suspended sediments + water (noted 11 and 12) + exchangeable organic halogens, organic silver, barium, hexachloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene16, pentachloroanisole16, octochlorostyrene16, heptachloroepoxide, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, napthalene, pyrene, PCBs (17016 and 194)

Fish: (27 + 7 non-mandatory determinands) for water (noted 13 and 15), for suspended sediment (noted 14) and for sediment (noted 16)

Rhine (hydrology) 1979 NI NI
Transboundary Waters 1992 In progress Condition of transboundary waters including floods and ice drifts
Meuse 1994 Monitoring programme under preparation.
Scheldt 1994 Monitoring programme under preparation.
FRESH WATER, ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WATERS
1. DIRECTIVES    
Bathing Water (76/160/EEC) Designated sites,

Fortnightly in bathing season

Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci4, salmonella4, enteroviruses4, pH5, colour, mineral oils2, surfactants, phenols, transparency, DO4, tarry residues and floating materials, ammonia6, nitrogen kjeldahl6, pesticides6, As6, Cd6, CrVI6, Pb6, Hg6, CN6, nitrates6, phosphates6
Dangerous Substances (76/464/EEC) and daughter directives Areas affected by discharges

Monthly for water, annually for sediments

Cd, hg, HCCH, HCBD, PCP, chloroform, dichloroethane, drins, DDT, HCB, carbon tetrachloride, trichlororethene, perchloroethylene, trichlorobenzene
Titanium Dioxide (82/883/EEC) Areas affected by discharge and neighbouring zones,

3 times for water, annually for sediment and biota

pH, temperature7, salinity8, DO7, turbidity7, or suspended matter, conductivity9, SO410, Ca10, Cl, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Ti, Vn, Zn, hydrated oxides and hydroxides of iron, biota diversity
UWWT (91/271/EEC) Areas affected by discharges  
Nitrates (91/676/EEC) Designated sites

Initially regularly or 12 times per year- repeated every four years

NO3

Table D.3 continued

Commitment Sampling location/timing Determinands
2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS -Category A
North East Atlantic (Paris) 1974 1. For estuaries:

Lowest freshwater influence on estuarine/coastal waters (usually harmonised sites)

At least 12 per year. Reduced sampling frequency for individual determinands at sites not contributing to 95% of the total National Low Mean Annual Load

2. For coastal waters (JMP): 44 sample locations for fish and 83 for water, sediment and shellfish monitored once every five years

Mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, PCBs (the following congeners: IUPAC No.s 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), g -hexachlorocyclohexane, nitrate as N, total nitrogen (taken in UK as total inorganic N), orthophosphate as P, suspended particulate matter



Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, dieldrin, DDT, DDE, TDE, g -hexachlorocylohexane, PCBs (IUPAC No.s 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), PCB -arochlor

Arctic (AMAP) 1991 1. Sites in small lakes and rivers to determine loadings - location and sampling frequency to be agreed but suggested as, 62-75 lake sites for sediment and fish, and 1 site for major rivers


2. Sites in 21 areas in the Arctic Sea, sampling frequency being decided, max of 5 years for sediment and biota

1. Freshwaters (essential determinands for baseline study)

Lake sediments: cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, zinc, nickel, arsenic, selenium, organic matter (loss on ignition), total organic carbon, Pb-210, PAH, PCBs(28,31,52,101,105,118,138, 153,156, 180), DDT, DDE, HCHs, HCB, chlordanes (cis and trans), dieldrin.

Fish: Mercury, PCBs, DDT, DDE, HCHs, HCB, chlordanes, dieldrin, toxaphene.

Water: Cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, arsenic, selenium, iron, suspended solids, particulate inorganic matter, particulate organic matter, acid neutralisation capacity, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, persistent organic pollutants (as for fish)

2. Marine waters (essential determinands for baseline study)

Sediments: Cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, zinc, aluminium, lithium, total organic carbon, grain size (<63um), PCBs (28,31,52, 101,105,118,138,153,156,180), HCH, HCB, p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, PAHs(napthalene, c1, c2 and c3 alkyl derivatives, anthracene, phenanthrene, and c1 and c2 derivatives, dibenzothiophene and C1 and C2 derivatives, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, perylene, benzo(ghi)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyren, dibenzo(a,h) anthracene), oil hydrocarbons, caesium 134/137.

Water: Caesium 134/137 and strontium90 + recommended determinands mostly as for sediments

Biota: cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium, lipids, PCBs, HCH, HCB, DDTs, PAHs (all as for sediments), caesium 134/137

North East Atlantic (OSPAR) 1992 In progress In progress

Table D.3 continued

Commitment Sampling location/timing Determinands
ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WATERS ONLY
1. DIRECTIVES    
Shellfish Waters (79/923/EEC) Designated waters

2-12 times per year

pH, temperature2, colour, suspended solids, salinity2, dissolved oxygen2, petroleum hydrocarbons, faecal coliforms2, organohalogenated substances, Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, substances affecting taste, saxitoxin
2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS - Category A
North East Atlantic (Oslo) 1972 Monitoring for marine water quality. The requirements were co-ordinated with those of the Paris Convention in 1978 in a joint monitoring programme (JMP) see North Sea (Paris) 1974.
Baltic Sea (Helsinki) 1974/1992 For temperature measured on board Water (25 physicochemical determinands + 10 biological) Alkalinity, arsenic, cadmium, copper, DDT, dissolved inorganic phosphate, dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, lead, lindane, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, organo-tin, PCB, petroleum hydrocarbons, pH, total phosphorus, salinity, silicate, temperature, tin, water density, zinc, 3 measures of phytobenthos, 3 measures of phytoplankton, 4 measures of micro-organisms (not pathological)

Sediment (6 measures of benthos)

Biota (16 determinands in female fish length stratified and also for 1-3 year olds) copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, zinc, temperature, a-HCH, chlordanes, dieldrin, g-HCH, HCB, PCBs, polychlorinated camphenes, DDD (pp), DDE (pp), DDT (pp)

Mediterranean (Barcelona) 1976 5844 coastal sites + 186 estuarine sites Water: drins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), antimony, aromatics, arsenic, beryllium, BOD, cadmium, caesium, chromium, cobalt, COD, conductivity, copper, dichlorop-diphenyl dichloroethane (op and pp), dichlorop-diphenyl dichloroethene (op and pp), dichlorop-diphenyl trichloroethane (op and pp), detergents, dissolved oxygen, fluorides, halogenated hydrocarbons, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorohexane, iron, lead, lindane, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, total nitrogen, ammonia (as N), ammonium, nickel, nitrates, nitrites, total oxidised nitrogen, organic nitrogen, DDD (op and pp), DDE (op and pp), DDT (op and pp), total DDD+DDE+DDT (op and pp), organic mercury, total phosphorus, PAHs, PCBs (as arochlor 1254 and 1260), petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, phosphates, organic phosphorus, rubidium, selenium, silicates, silver, sodium, tin, tar ball collections, total organic carbon, suspended solids, vanadium, zinc, 7 microbiological determinands (total coliforms, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, faecal streptococci, faecal coliforms, enteroviruses, E coli)

Suspended solids: 43 determinands including 18 metals and 25 organics

Sediment: 59 determinands including 21 metals (+ calcium and calcium carbonate), 28 organics and 8 microbiological measures

Biota: 48 determinands including 15 metals (+ sodium), 24 organics and 8 microbiological measures.

Table D.3 continued

Commitment Sampling location/timing Determinands
North Sea (Conference) 1990 Lowest freshwater influence on estuarine/coastal waters (usually harmonised sites)

Reduced sampling frequency for individual determinands at sites not contributing to 95% of the total National Low Mean Annual Load

Mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, chromium, nickel, drins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, pentachlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorobutadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trifluralin, endosulfan, simazine, atrazine, tributyltin compounds, triphenyltin compounds, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, fenitrothion, fenthion, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, dichlorvos, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethane
North Sea (NSTF) 1987 Sites in agreed estuaries representative of the sites; annually for the 0-10 ppt, 10-20 ppt, 20-30 ppt salinity ranges; agreed intermediate coastal water sites

Quarterly for water quality at estuarine sites; annually for water quality at intermediate sites; annually for sediment samples; annually (between Nov. & Feb.) for biota sampling

In situ quality

Filtered water sample: ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite (as N), orthophosphate (as P), silica (as Si), total P, total N, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, chromium, arsenic

Unfiltered water sample: salinity, *temperature, *oxygen, suspended solids, chlorophyll a, *secchi depth, oDDT, hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated biphenyls, g and a hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, pentachlorophenol

Suspended sediment: cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, chromium, arsenic, oDDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin

Biota: cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, oDDT, hexachlorobutadiene, ·polychlorinated biphenyls, g and a hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, pentachlorophenol

Suspended sediment <63 µm size fraction: cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, chromium, arsenic

Notes: NI No information available

1 No values specified

2 Guide determinand

3 Weekly

4 Guide value and only to be checked if substance suspected

5 To be checked only if substance suspected

6 No value and to be checked only if substance suspected

7 Not in groundwater

8 Only in coastal waters

9 Only in fresh surface water

10 Only when waste disposed or injected to land

11 For water and sediment

12 Water, suspended sediment and sediment

13 Water, suspended sediment, sediment and fish

14 Suspended sediment, sediment and fish

15 Water and fish

16 Sediment and fish

+ Further clarification needed from NSTF, no samples to be taken yet

on an individual basis congener numbers 28, 52, 101, 118,153, 138, 180

op DDE, pp DDT, pp TDE, op DDE, op DDT



Table D.4 Summary of directives and international agreements requiring measurement of water quantity

Commitment Measure Water type Analytical method Sampling frequency & period Sampling location
1. DIRECTIVES
Exchange of Information (77/795/EEC) Flow Surface freshwater Flowmeter Not specified Not specified
Proposed Landfill Directive

(COM(93)275) final

Level 1 Groundwater ns Every six months during operating and after-care period 2 Inflow

2 measuring points at outflow

2. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
Mura 1954 Flow River ni Minimum of every two weeks - to every three years, according to sampling station. Intensive sampling between October and March Fixed stations
Water Economy (Au/Hu) 1956 Level

Flow

Lake

River

ni 12 over whole year Fixed stations
Lake Inari 1958 Flow

Level

River

Lake

Hydropower plant

water level station

Continuous Fixed stations
Frontier Waters (Fi, Ru) 1964 flow River Flowmeter continuous Fixed stations
Frontier Waters (Au/Sl) 1970 Flow River ni 6-12 over whole year, lowest frequency for Danube, highest for March ns
Frontier Rivers (Fi, S) 1971 Flow River River flow station Continuous Fixed stations
Vuoska 1972/83 Flow

Level

River

Lake

Hydropower plant

Water level station

Continuous Fixed stations
Rhine 1976 Flow River ni Variable according to determinand but over the whole year Fixed stations
Danube (Bucharest) 1985 Flow River ni Minimum of 12 per over whole year. Monitoring started in 1988  
Rhine (hydrology) 1989 Flow

Level

River ni Frequency not specified but over whole year. Also variable according to country Fixed stations
Elbe 1990 Flow River ni Variable according to determinand but over the whole year Fixed stations
Technical Co-operation (Bu/Gr) 1991 Flow

Level

River ni Minimum 12 per year over the year

Mean value for 1 hour, more frequently during flood

Fixed stations
Agreement between Finland and USSR Level

River

Lake

Flow

Water level station

Hydropower plant

Continuous

Continuous

Fixed stations

fixed stations

Notes: 1 Substances to be analysed depend on the leachate composition. Special surveillance should be made on substances in lists 1 and 2 of Directive 80/778/EEC

2 In cases where there are weaving ground water levels the sampling intervals shall be decreased

ns Not specified

ni No information

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