Directives concerning common rules for the internal market in gas
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Overview of the European energy system Energy flows in European Union The Sankey diagram (Fig.1) shows the energy conversion from primary energy (coal, oil, natural gas, etc) to secondary energy commodities such as heat, electricity and manufactured fuels, through transformation plants (power stations, district heating, CHPs, oil refineries and other transformation plants) and the associated conversion losses. The right hand side of the diagram shows the final mix of energy consumption by different EU27 energy users (including: industry, transport, domestic, other final consumers and non-energy use). Note that renewables in transport for ENER 36 include all biofuels whether sustainable or not. Only a proportion of the primary energy entering the energy system of a country flows through to the end user for consumption. There are various diversions and losses incurred before energy reaches the final consumer due to distribution losses and use in the energy sector. The Sankey diagram is useful in capturing the situation in a certain year but other indicators are needed to show the change in energy use over time. Energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production Output from conventional thermal stations consists of gross electricity generation and also of any heat sold to third parties (combined heat and power plants) by conventional thermal public utility power stations as well as autoproducer thermal power stations. The energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity production (which includes both public plants and autoproducers) is defined as the ratio of electricity and heat production to the energy input as a fuel. Fuels include solid fuels (i.e. coal, lignite and equivalents, oil and other liquid hydrocarbons, gas, thermal renewables (industrial and municipal waste, wood waste, biogas and geothermal energy) and other non-renewable waste. Units: Fuel input and electrical and heat output are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Efficiency is measured as the ratio of fuel output to input (%) Energy losses in transformation and distribution Numerator: Share of energy losses is the sum of own consumption of the energy industry, distribution losses and transformation losses (difference between transformation input and output). Denominator: Numerator plus final energy available for final consumption in primary energy. EU-27 Share of primary energy by fuel type and, share of final energy consumption by sector Total energy consumption or gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year (Fig.2). Units: Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage. EU27 net energy imports of solid fuels, oil, and gas from outside the EU27 was calculated as follows: total imports by fuel minus the sum of imports by fuel from other EU Member States minus total exports (Fig.1)
CO2 intensity of electricity and heat generation Annual emissions of CO 2 in UNFCCC reporting format (In Mt = million tonnes). For CO 2 only, the (national) totals do not include emissions from biomass burning or emissions or removals from land-use change and forestry (LULUCF – CFR 5). The energy sector (CFR 1) is responsible for energy-related emissions, such as those arising from fuel combustion activities and fugitive emissions from fuels. Fuel combustion activities include: energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, other sectors and other stationary or mobile emissions from fuel combustion. Fugitive emissions from fuels include: solid fuels and oil and natural gas.
CO2 intensity of heat and electricity generation Annual emissions of CO 2 in UNFCCC reporting format (In Mt = million tonnes). For CO 2 only, the (national) totals do not include emissions from biomass burning or emissions or removals from land-use change and forestry (LUCF). The energy sector is responsible for energy-related emissions, such as those arising from fuel combustion activities and fugitive emissions from fuels. Fuel combustion activities include: energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, other sectors and other stationary or mobile emissions from fuel combustion. Fugitive emissions from fuels include: solid fuels and oil and natural gas.
Emissions from public electricity and heat production - explanatory indicators (ENER 009) Historical emissions of CO2, NOX and SO2 from the common reporting format category 1A1a Public electricity and heat production. Output from public thermal power stations covers gross electricity generation and any heat also produced by public thermal power stations. Public thermal power stations generate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties, as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.
Energy efficiency in transformation EU-27 Share of primary energy by fuel type and, share of final energy consumption by sector and energy losses Share of energy losses, own consumption of the energy industry and final energy available for final consumption in primary energy, by Member State Structure in the efficiency of transformation and distribution of energy from primary energy consumption to final energy consumption, EU-27, 2009 Structure of CO 2 emissions from thermal power plants in EU-27, 2009 % share of input fuels into conventional thermal power plants Implied emission factors by fuel type – total fuel input by type to conventional thermal power plants (TJ) divided by CO 2 emissions from plants by fuel type Average efficiency for conventional thermal plant (total fuel inputs divided by total electricity and heat output) Share of CO 2 emissions by input fuel type. CO 2 emission savings per year for EU-27 at different transformation efficiencies compared to current 2009 efficiency