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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Total primary energy intensity / Total primary energy intensity (CSI 028/ENER 017) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Total primary energy intensity (CSI 028/ENER 017) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Topics: ,

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
gdp | soer2010 | energy consumption | csi | energy | energy intensity
DPSIR: Response
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 028
  • ENER 017
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2010
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Has there been a complete decoupling in Europe between economic growth and energy consumption?

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2007, economic growth in Europe required increasing but less and less energy inputs. Total energy consumption increased until 2004 and stabilized all the way through 2006. In 2008 there was an absolute decoupling of economic growth and energy consumption, with the latter decreasing by 0.5% compared to 2007 while GDP continued to grow.  Over the period 1990-2008, GDP grew at an annual average rate of 2.1% and total energy consumption at an annual average rate of 0.4%. As a result, total energy intensity in the EU fell at an annual average rate of 1.6%

Key assessment

  • Total energy consumption in the EU-27 grew at an average annual rate of 0.4 % over the period from 1990 to 2008, while Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in constant prices grew at an average annual rate of 2.1 % during the same period. As a result, total energy intensity in the EU-27 fell at an average rate of 1.6 % per year (see Figure 1). The reduction of total energy intensity has been influenced both by improvements in energy efficiency and structural changes within the economy. The latter included a shift from industry towards services, which are typically less energy intensive, and a shift within the industrial sector from energy intensive industries towards higher value added less energy intensive industries. Furthermore, improvements in the efficiency of power generation (see ENER 19) as well as in some end-use sectors such as industry and services (see ENER 02) contributed to the reduced overall energy intensity. For trends on final energy consumption intensity by sector please see also ENER 21.
  • In both 2007 and 2008 an absolute decoupling appears to have taken place. The energy consumption in 2008 dropped by 0.5 % compared to 2007 while GDP grew by 0.7%.  As a result, the total energy intensity dropped by 1.2 % in 2008 compared to 2007.

Specific policy question: What are the key differences among European countries as well as between European countries and other countries and regions in the world?

Total energy intensity 1995-2008 (index 1995=100), relative energy intensity (as PPS) and per capita consumption

Note: There are significant differences in total energy intensity within the EU-27 Member States, with the highest values in Bulgaria, Estonia and Finland – due to the presence of large energy intensive industries like steel and cement industries and the lowest in Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Malta (when compared at Purchasing Power Standards) - partly explained by a relatively large services sector and small industry sector.

Data source:

Ameco. GDP growth rates used in the estimation of missing Eurostat data from European Commission Ameco database.     
http://europa.eu.int/comm/economy_finance/indicators/annual_macro_economic_database/ameco_en.htm

Eurostat. Energy consumption: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_100a&lang=en

IEA.Primary energy and GDP (mrd dollar) for not European countries. Website: http://wds.iea.org/WDS/Common/Login/login.aspx

 

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • There are significant differences in total energy intensity within the EU-27 Member States, with the highest values in Bulgaria, Estonia and Finland – due to the presence of large energy intensive industries like steel and cement industries and the lowest in Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Malta (when compared at Purchasing Power Standards) - partly explained by a relatively large services sector and small industry sector (see Table 1 and also ENER 016).
  • Of all the EEA countries, Iceland is the only country that shows an increase of the energy intensity over 1995-2008. This is most likely caused by an increase of energy intensive industries on the island, like the aluminium industry. The other non- EU EEA countries show similar trends as the EU countries.
  • The average EU citizen uses 3.6 tonnes of oil equivalent per year but this varies widely across countries, as shown in Table 1 below.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100