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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions / Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions (ENER 001) - Assessment published Jan 2011

Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions (ENER 001) - Assessment published Jan 2011

This content has been archived on 12 Nov 2013, reason: Content not regularly updated
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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Climate change Climate change

Tags:
ghg emissions | energy | greenhouse gases | emissions
DPSIR: Pressure
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • ENER 001
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2007
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Are energy related greenhouse gas emissions decreasing?

Key messages

EU emissions of greenhouse gases (Kyoto gases) declined for the third consecutive year in 2007. This is largely a result of lower use of fossil fuels (particularly oil and gas) in households and services, which are among the largest sources of GHG emissions in the EU. Warmer weather and higher fuel prices were the primary causes for the drop in emissions in 2006–2007, with most of the decrease occurring in households. The EU-27’s overall domestic emissions were 9.3 % below 1990 levels, which equalled a drop of 1.2 % or 59 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent compared to 2006. In 2007, the EU-15 stood 5 % below its Kyoto Protocol base year levels. Preliminary EEA estimates suggest emissions in the EU fell further in 2008 due to lower CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in the energy, industry and transport sectors.

Greenhouse gas emissions (Kyoto gases) per country (combustion and non-combustion emissions), 2007

Note: Greenhouse gas emissions (Kyoto gases) per country split between combustion and non-combustion emissions, 2007

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Total greenhouse gas emissions by sector (%) in EU-27, 2007

Note: Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC and SF6 in the UNFCCC reporting format are converted to their global warming potential GWP (100 year time horizon) for addition and comparison with the Kyoto Protocol targets: 1 t CH4 = 21 t CO2-equivalent, 1 t N2O = 310 t CO2-equivalent, 1 t SF6 = 23 900 t CO2-equivalent. HFCs and PFCs have a wide range of GWPs depending on the gas and emissions are already reported in tonnes CO2-equivalent. International transport emissions (Memo items: international aviation and international maritime transport) are shown in the chart because they are the fastest growing source of emissions in the EU. They are however not included in the national totals reported as part of the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC.

Data source:
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Changes (%) in greenhouse gas emissions by source category in the EU, 1990-2007

Note: International bunkers are international transport emissions (Memo items: international aviation and international maritime transport) and are shown in the chart because they are the fastest growing source of emissions in the EU. They are however not included in the national totals reported as part of the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC. The sector LULUCF (Land use, land use change and forestry) is not included in the national totals under the UNFCCC either. LULUCF in the EU is a net carbon sink, resulting from higher removals by sinks than emissions from sources. A positive change in LULUCF means a reduction in emissions (i.e. a removal of emissions).

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Key assessment

The EU-27 reduced ‘Kyoto’ greenhouse gas emissions by 59 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents in 2007 compared to 2006. Since 1990, EU-27 emissions have fallen by 519 million tonnes (9.3% - see Figure 1), almost half of which is from Germany alone. Spain has increased its emissions by 154 million tonnes (more than 50% increase) – by and large as a result of a doubling in electricity and heat production and almost doubling in road transportation, mostly diesel.

 

Households were one of the main contributors to the net decline in CO2 emissions with a reduction of 55 million tonnes of CO2 eq in the EU-27 in 2007. They are one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas (see Figure 2) and are affected by variables such as climatic conditions, fuel prices, the existence of district heating, energy efficiency in buildings and the fuel mix for heat generation. The reduction in fuel use in 2007 was due to three main factors. Firstly, it was warmer than 2006 with fewer days requiring heating. Secondly, fuel prices continued to rise at a faster rate than gross disposable income, meaning household energy was more expensive. Thirdly, the German government raised VAT from 16% to 19% in January 2007. This, and the falling heating oil prices, prompted consumers to fill their stocks of gasoil at the end of 2006. A mild winter in 2007 and unusual high gasoil prices at the end of 2007 meant consumers did not have to refill their stocks that year. Therefore, there were much lower sales of household fuel in Germany in 2007 compared to 2006. Germany accounted for 40% of the EU-27 emissions reductions in 2007 compared to 2006.

 

Transport emissions continue to increase. The fastest growing transport modes in terms of greenhouse gas emissions since 1990 have been international aviation and international maritime transport (international bunkers in Figure 1). Together, the two sectors currently account for about 6 % of total greenhouse gas emissions in EU-27 (see Figure 2). They are currently reported as Memo items and therefore not included in the national totals under the current UNFCCC reporting.

 

Energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (energy combustion and fugitive emissions from fuels) currently accounts for 78 % of total emissions in the EU-27, with similar proportions seen across all EEA-32 countries (see Figures 2 and 3). Carbon dioxide is by far the most significant energy-related greenhouse gas, with a share of about 97 %. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are only a small fraction of total energy-related emissions (2.1 % and 1.0 %, respectively). In the EEA-32 there has been a decrease of 1.0 % and 45.4 % for carbon dioxide and methane emissions, respectively, in 2007 compared with 1990. In contrast, nitrous oxide emissions have increased by 17.6 %. Most methane emissions arise from fugitive emissions from the extraction, production and distribution of fossil fuels, whilst the vast majority of nitrous oxide emissions are from energy combustion.

 

The latest EEA estimates indicate that EU greenhouse gas emissions decreased in 2008 for the fourth consecutive year. The vast majority of the decline in emissions in 2008 was due to lower CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in the energy, industry and transport sectors. The 2008 emission reductions reflect the effects of the global economic recession, which began in 2008, which resulted in reduced industrial output and reduced energy consumption by industry, and correspondingly reduced freight transport. The reductions are also apparent in the verified emissions from EU ETS (Emission Trading Scheme) for 2008 http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/new-estimates-confirm-the-declining-trend-in-eu-greenhouse-gas-emissions

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2009 2.9.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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