Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-125-en
Also known as: CSI 048 , ENER 028
expired Created 07 Oct 2014 Published 28 Oct 2014 Last modified 21 Dec 2015, 09:21 AM
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This content has been archived on 21 Dec 2015, reason: Other (New version data-and-maps/indicators/renewable-gross-final-energy-consumption-4/assessment was published)
The share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in the EU28 reached 14.1% in 2012, representing 70% of the EU’s 20% renewable energy target for 2020. Renewable energy sources represented 15.6% of gross final energy consumption for heating and cooling, 23.5% of final electricity consumption and 5.1% of transport fuels consumption in 2012.

Key messages

The share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in the EU28 reached 14.1% in 2012, representing 70% of the EU’s 20% renewable energy target for 2020. Renewable energy sources represented 15.6% of gross final energy consumption for heating and cooling, 23.5% of final electricity consumption and 5.1% of transport fuels consumption in 2012.

What is the progress towards the EU’s 20% renewable energy consumption target for 2020?

Countries breakdown - Actual RES progress, indicative trajectory (RED) and expected trajectories (NREAPs)

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Actual RES progress, indicative trajectory (RED) and expected trajectories (NREAPs)

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Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

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Key assessment: share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

  • In 2012, energy from renewable sources accounted for 14.1% of gross final energy consumption[1] in the EU28, representing some 70% of the EU’s 20% renewable energy target for 2020 (see Figure 1).
  • The consumption of renewable energy increased annually by 3.5% from 2010 to 2012. Between 2005 and 2012, the average annual growth rate of renewable energy consumption was 6.1%. Worth noting is that gross final energy consumption decreased, on average, by 1.0%/year between 2005 and 2012, and by 2.3%/year from 2010 to 2012.
  • The largest increases in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption between 2005 and 2012 were observed in Sweden and Denmark (both +10.4 percent points), Estonia (+8.4 percent points), followed by Austria (+8.1 percent points) and Italy (+7.7 percent points).
  • In 2012, the share of renewable energy in transport[2] reached 5.1% in the EU28. In 2005 it has been 1.3%, 4.8% in 2010 and 3.4% in 2011. In accordance with the Renewable Energy Directive, biofuels consumed in transport may only be counted towards the renewable energy targets if Member States have shown compliance with the sustainability criteria provided under that Directive. However, not all countries have been able to show compliance for all biofuels for the years 2011 and 2012, in which case these biofuels have not been included in the figures for 2011 and onwards. This explains the decreasing renewables share in transport in 2011, compared to the 2010-share when all biofuels consumed in transport were accounted for.
  • The share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption[3] across non-EU EEA countries amounted to 76% in Iceland (linked to the high shares of geothermal energy and hydropower) in 2012, 65% in Norway (linked to the high share of hydropower), 12% in Turkey (2011-data) and 22% in Switzerland (2010-data).
  • In 2012, all countries in Europe had renewable policies and support schemes for renewables in place. In accordance with the reporting requirements set out in the Renewable Energy Directive, every two years the European Commission publishes a Renewable Energy Progress Report based on national Progress Reports submitted by countries. The Commission’s Progress Report of 2013 assesses Member States' progress in the promotion and use of renewable energy towards their intermediate trajectories and 2020 renewable energy targets. Various forms of support schemes are used within Member States, such as feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums, auction/tender systems or quota obligations[4]. The Renewable Energy Directive provides for three cooperation mechanisms that allow Member States to achieve their national 2020 renewable energy targets. Until now these cooperation mechanisms have hardly been used. To contribute towards a more harmonized approach in supporting renewables across the Union, the European Commission published in 2014 guidelines on state aid for environmental protection and energy for the period up until 2020.


Specific assessments: what is the growth in renewable energy use for electricity, heating and cooling, and respectively transport in EEA countries?

  • In 2012, renewable electricity[5] accounted for 40% of gross final renewable energy consumption in the EU28, while renewable energy for heating and cooling accounted for 52% and renewable energy in transport for 8% (see Figure 1).
  • In 2012, renewable electricity accounted for 23.5% of gross final electricity consumption in the EU28, compared to 14.8% in 2005 and 19.7% in 2010. Hydropower accounted for the largest share of renewable electricity in EU28, representing 45% of total renewable electricity production. The relative importance of hydropower decreased substantially since 2005 however, when it still generated 70% of renewable electricity, as wind and solar were developing rapidly over this period.
  • Wind accounted for 26% of the renewable electricity in 2012, compared to 14% in 2005.
  • Solar energy accounted for 9% of the renewable electricity in 2012, compared to 0% in 2005.
  • Solid biofuels accounted for 10% of the renewable electricity in 2012, compared to 9% in 2005.
  • All other renewables accounted for 10% of the renewable electricity in 2012, compared to 7% in 2005.
  • There is a large variation between countries in Europe: less than 2.5% in Cyprus or Malta to 65.5% in Austria, which reflects among others different starting points in the deployment of renewables in each country, differences in physical possibilities to produce renewable energy and, to a lesser extent, differences in policies to stimulate renewables.
  • In 2012, renewable energy for heating and cooling accounted for 15.6% of total final energy consumption for heating and cooling in the EU28, compared to 10.3% in 2005 and 14.2% for 2010.
    • Final energy consumption of renewables represented 78% of the total renewable energy for heating and cooling.
    • Renewable heat production from large biomass CHP and heat plants connected to heat-distribution networks (derived heat) accounted for 14%.
    • Renewable heating and cooling from heat pumps represented 8% of the total renewable energy for heating and cooling.
    • The main producers of biomass-derived heat through CHP and heat plants are Sweden (26%), Finland (15%), Denmark (12%), Germany (11%) and Austria (8%), which together accounted for 72% of the total biomass use for heat production in CHP and heat plants within the EU28 in 2012.
  • The share of renewable energy in the transport sector is 5.1% for the EU28 in 2012, compared to 1.3% in 2005. Over the period 2005-2012 there was an annual average increase of 20% of renewable energy consumption in the transport sector (25.2% if all biofuels in transport are included). The total consumption of biofuels in transport reached 14.6 Mtoe in 2012, of which 11.6 Mtoe was shown to be compliant with sustainability criteria. The 5.1% share of renewable energy consumption in transport in the European Union in 2012 is a little less than one percentage point short of the 2003 biofuel directive target of 5.75% in 2010[6]. In 2012, six countries exceeded the 2010 target (Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Sweden), while the other 21 Member States did not achieve this target. In 2012, Germany (20%), France (23%) and Italy (12%) were by far the largest consumer of (Art. 17 compliant) biofuels, together accounting for 55% of total biofuels consumption in the EU28.

[1] In the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC gross final energy consumption is defined as energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to final consumers (industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries), including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission.

[2] The share of renewable energy in transport is defined in Article 3 of the Renewable Energy Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. 

[3] Normalised consumption for these countries was calculated according to the requirement of the Renewable Energy Directive.

[4] More information available in the RES-Legal database (http://www.res-legal.eu/) and in the data base of the World Energy Council on policies and measures (http://www.wec-policies.enerdata.eu/).

[5] With normalised hydropower and electricity from wind.

[6] A 5.75% target for biofuels in transport, introduced by Directive 2003/30/EC on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, was in force until 1st January 2012. Those countries that have underperformed in 2010 still had another year to meet that Directive’s demands. After that deadline, the target was replaced by the specific target in the Renewable Energy Directive of 10% renewables share in final transport energy consumption by 2020.

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

Gross Final Renewable Energy Consumption is the amount of renewable energy consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport in the Member States with actual and normalised hydro and wind power generation[1] and expressed as a share against gross final energy consumption.

The indicator is developed for measuring the contribution to the 2020 and 2030 objectives on renewable energy for the EU.

  •  The Renewable Energy Directive (RED)[2] commits the Union to reaching a 20% share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption[3] by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy consumed in transport by the same year. It sets binding national targets for renewable energy consumption by 2020 and it prescribes for each country minimum indicative trajectories in the run-up to 2020 to ensure that national 2020 targets will be met. In addition, the Directive requires Member States to adopt and publish National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) that outline the expected trajectories for the national share of RES for the years starting with 2010 and until 2020. Countries have submitted their NREAPs in 2010. They have the obligation to report biennially on national progress towards indicative RED and expected NREAP targets.
     
  • Europe 2020– the European Union’s ten-year growth strategy reaffirms the importance of the renewable energy sector for Europe. The 20 % renewable energy share in gross final consumption is one of the three headline targets for climate and sustainable energy under the strategy. The other EU-wide targets are achieving a 20 % reduction of the EU’s GHG emissions compared to 1990 and achieving a 20 % saving of the EU’s primary energy consumption compared to projections, both by 2020. Together, these represent the Union’s triple 20/20/20 objectives for climate and energy in the run-up to 2020.
    They are implemented through the EU’s 2009 climate and energy package and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED).
     
  • For 2030, EU leaders endorsed the following three EU-wide targets:

(i)            achieving a binding minimum 40 % domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990;

(ii)           achieving a binding minimum 27 % share of renewable energy consumption; and

(iii)          achieving an indicative minimum 27 % improvement in energy efficiency. 



[1] In accordance with accounting rules under Directive 2009/28/EC, electricity from hydro and wind needs to be normalised to smooth the effects of annual variations (hydro 15 years and wind 5 years).

[2] Directive 2009/28/EC

[3] Gross final energy consumption means the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to industry, transport, households, services including public services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission (cf. Art. 2f of Directive 2009/28/EC). With this, it excludes transformation losses which are included in gross inland energy consumption. In calculating a Member State's gross final energy consumption for the purpose of measuring its compliance with the targets and interim RED and NREAP trajectories, the amount of energy consumed in aviation shall, as a proportion of that Member State's gross final consumption of energy, be considered to be no more than 6.18% (4.12% for Cyprus and Malta).

Units

Gross final energy consumption, Distribution losses, Renewable electricity consumption, Renewables consumed in Heating and Cooling, Renewables consumed in transport: measured in 1000 tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The share of RES consumption provides a broad indication of progress towards reducing the impact of energy consumption on the environment as energy from renewable sources has generally a lower life-cycle environmental impact per unit of energy produced than energy sourced from fossil fuels. Increasing the share of renewables in energy consumption will help the EU to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from power generation but the overall impact will depend on the interactions between RES support frameworks and other policy frameworks, especially the European Emissions Trading Scheme Directive (2009/29/EC) that establishes a scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a cost efficient way.

  • For example, it may be assumed that the development of RES results in avoided GHG emissions and, to some extent, reduces primary energy production (because certain renewables are assumed to have 100 % transformation efficiency, which improves statistically the overall conversion efficiency of the system). This helps meet not only the GHG target, but also the energy efficiency target. The RED may also compensate, to a certain extent, the impact of low EUA prices in the EU ETS by requiring Member States to increase their share of RES via the introduction of RES-E support schemes at national level. In some cases, the introduction of feed-in tariffs in particular has helped support the innovation of less mature technologies. In certain cases however, the overlap of policy instruments might also have less positive effects. For instance, although the ETS cap was set in a way that accounted for the expected GHG reduction effects induced by the binding RES targets until 2020, the overlap between establishing emission caps under the ETS and setting RES targets introduces an element of uncertainty. Achieving a higher RES share in gross final energy consumption than the indicative RED target for a given period may result in additional gross avoided emissions[1] which, for the most part, take place in the EU ETS where they may free up more ETS allowances than initially anticipated[2] and further affected the carbon price signal in the EU ETS.

Emissions of air pollutants are also generally lower for renewable electricity production than for electricity produced from fossil fuels. The exception to this is the incineration of Municipal and Solid Waste (which, due to high costs of separation, usually involves the combustion of some mixed wastes including materials contaminated with heavy metals) and the combustion of biomass feedstock in inefficient appliances (such as for instance certain household boilers). Emissions to the atmosphere from the incineration of municipal solid waste are subject to stringent regulations including tight controls on emissions of cadmium, mercury, and other such substances.

Like with all energy resources, the exploitation of renewable energy sources may also have negative impacts on landscapes, habitats and ecosystems, though many impacts can be minimised through careful site selection. Some types of biomass and biofuel crops have considerable land, water and agricultural input requirements such as fertilisers and pesticides. Hydropower schemes can have adverse impacts including flooding, disruption of ecosystems and hydrology, and socio-economic impacts if resettlement is required (for large hydro). Some solar photovoltaic schemes require relatively large quantities of heavy metals in their construction and geothermal energy can release pollutant gases carried by hot fluids if not properly controlled. Wind turbines can have visual and noise impacts in the areas in which they are sited. On the other hand offshore wind farms can have a positive impact on the marine environment. They can provide regeneration areas for fish and benthic populations. This can be explained not only because of reduced trawling activities but also because offshore wind farms foundations function as an artificial reef encouraging the creation of new habitats[3].


[1] Gross avoided GHG emissions in the EU result from the substitution by renewable energy of more GHG-intensive forms of energy production in the energy mix.

[2] Furthermore emission reductions achieved through RES-E schemes are associated with abatement costs above the ETS price and therefore affect the static efficiency of the policy instrument mix (Rey et al., 2013).

[3] European Wind Energy Association, 2012, Positive environmental impacts of offshore wind farms (www.ewea.org).


Policy context

    • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final)
      Highlights how EU infrastructure and innovation policies are supporting the renewable energy sector's development.
    • A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030, COM(2014) 15 final
    • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
    • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection, (2008/C 82/01)
    • Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020, (C2014) 232
    • Directive on Waste; Directive 2006/12/EC
      Requires all EU Member States to take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is treated and disposed of correctly, sets targets for re-use and recycling, and requires Member States to draw up binding national programmes for waste prevention
    • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
      Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
    • The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan; COM(2007) 723
      Focuses on bringing new renewable energy technologies to market competitiveness.
    • For the transport sector (see CSI 037)

     References

    COM(2014) 015 final: A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030.

    COM(2012) 0271 final: Renewable Energy : a major player in the European energy market.

    COM(2011) 112 final: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050.

    COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy.

    COM(2007) 723 - European Strategic Energy Technology Plan.

    COM(2008) 19 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.

    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review.

    Directive 2001/77/EC – Directive 2001/77/EC on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market.

    Directive 2003/30/EC - Directive 2003/30/EC on the promotion of the use biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport.

    Directive 2006/12/EC - Directive 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on waste.

    Directive 2009/28/EC  - Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC.

    ECN (2011) Renewable Energy Projections as Published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the European Member States Covering all 27 EU Member States, available at: https://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2010/e10069.pdf.

    EEA (2009) - EEA Scientific Committee, Suspend 10 percent biofuels target, says EEA's scientific advisory body. http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/suspend-10-percent-biofuels-target-says-eeas-scientific-advisory-body.

    EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package) http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm.

    EU(2013) Renewable energy progress report, COM(2013) 175 final, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52013DC0175&from=EN.

    EU(2010) Summary of the Member States Forecast Documents, available at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/action_plan_en.htm.

    EU project  RE-SHAPING (“Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market”) to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of the RES Directive and to shape a European policy for RES in the medium to long term (website http://www.reshaping-res-policy.eu/).

    Targets

    Policy targets for 2020

    The Renewable Energy Directive commits the Union to reaching a 20% share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy consumed in transport by the same year. It sets binding national targets for renewable energy consumption by 2020 and it requires Member States to adopt and publish National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs)[1] that outline how countries expect to reach their legally binding 2020 renewable energy target. The Directive also provides options for cooperation to help countries achieve their targets cost effectively, and it puts forward a set of sustainability criteria for biofuels.

    If all national commitments adopted by countries in the NREAPs of 2010 are fulfilled, then the EU should slightly overachieve its 2020 Renewable Energy Directive target. According to the national NREAP commitments, the share of RES consumption at EU level should increase faster from 2012 to 2018 compared to the indicative Renewable Energy Directive trajectory for this period.

    An analysis[2] of the 28 EU Member State action plans shows that renewable energy output is projected to grow by 6% per year on average. Wind power, solar electricity and biofuels are foreseen to contribute with the highest growth rates. If all Member States follow the trajectory outlined in their plans, the EU will exceed its 20% renewable energy target by 0.6 percentage points.

    In 2012, Sweden, Estonia and Bulgaria within the EU, as well as Iceland among EEA member countries, have already met their renewable energy target for 2020. Seven other EU Member States and Norway are already very close to reaching their 2020 targets in 2012: Romania (95%), Lithuania and Austria (94%), Latvia and Finland (90%), Denmark (87%) and the Czech Republic (86%) (see Figure 3).

    Further growth to achieve the 20% target will depend on further fine-tuning of existing policy frameworks, improved market conditions for grid access of renewable sources, fully implementing a guarantee of origin system to allow further development of renewable consumer market. In addition, better, more integrated planning will be required to ensure not only high efficiency of investment and accelerated pace of development but also that the penetration of these sources takes place in a manner that would minimize the environmental impact within and outside the European Union.

    [1] NREAP’s were submitted by 30 June 2010

    [2] Based on an analysis of NREAPs by ECN. ECN, 2011. Renewable Energy Projections as Published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the European Member States Covering all 27 EU Member States, available at: https://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2010/e10069.pdf.

    Use of flexible mechanisms as provided by the Renewable Directive

    Flexible and cooperative measures to help countries achieve their renewable energy targets in a cost-effective manner and without undermining market stability are foreseen in the Renewable Energy Directive[1]: statistical transfer, joint projects and join support schemes. Additionally Member States can also import renewable electricity from third countries outside EU (“joint projects between Member States and third countries”).

    Member States may agree on the statistical transfer of a specified amount of renewable energy between themselves. Renewable energy is thus virtually transferred to the statistics of another Member State, counting towards the national renewable energy source (RES) target of the latter Member State.

    Joint projects are RES electricity or heating/cooling projects between two or several Member States; one Member State  may provide financial support for a RES project in another country and count (part of) the project’s energy production towards its own target. They can also cooperate on any type of joint project relating to the production of renewable energy, involving private operators if they like.

    In the case of joint support schemes, two or more Member States may decide, on a voluntary basis, to join or partly coordinate their national support schemes in order to help achieve their targets. In such cases, a certain amount of energy from renewable sources produced in the territory of one participating Member State may count towards the national overall target of another participating Member State.

    According to the Member States forecasts in their NREAPs, ten countries project to have a surplus in 2020 compared to their binding target. This surplus could be available to transfer to another Member State that falls short of its target, through the use of the Directive's cooperation mechanisms.

    [1] The Directive uses the term “cooperation mechanisms” instead of “flexibility mechanisms” in order to distinguish these mechanisms from the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

    Related policy documents

    • 2006/12/EC
      Directive on  Waste
    • 2008/101/EC
      Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
    • 2008/c 82/01
      Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
    • 2009/29/ec
      Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
    • 2009/31/EC
      Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
    • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
      Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
    • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
      With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
    • COM(2007) 723
      Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-plan); COM(2007) 723
    • COM(2008) 19
      European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, Brussels, 2008
    • COM(2008) 781
      COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
    • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
      A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    • COM(2012) 271 final
      Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: “Renewable Energy : a major player in the European energy market”
    • DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC Renewable electricity
      Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market
    • Directive 2003/30/EC, use of biofuels and renewable fuels
      Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport. Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport.
    • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
      DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
    • EU Council Conclusion SN79/14 on 2030 Climate and Energy Framework
      EU Council conclusions of 23 October 2014 on 2030 Climate and Energy Framework
    • REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
      Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.

    Methodology

    Methodology for indicator calculation

    Technical information

    1. This indicator contains both primary from Eurostat (database, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ and SHARES Results tool) and secondary data calculated by EEA.
    2. Description of data/Indicator definition:
      Gross Final Renewable Energy Consumption is the amount of renewable energy consumed in the member states with actual and normalised hydro and wind power generation and the share measured against gross final energy consumption. Gross final renewable energy consumption is composed of renewable energy for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport.
    3. Geographical coverage:
      The Agency had 33 member countries. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Iceland plus Norway. Switzerland, Turkey and Liechtenstein are not covered in this factsheet due to lack of data for recent years.

    4. Temporal coverage: 2005-2012

    5. Methodology and frequency of data collection: Data collected annually.
      Eurostat definitions and concepts for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

    6. Methodology of data manipulation:
      The share of renewable energy sources as a percentage of gross final energy consumption.
      The renewable energy shares data used for this indicator are directly taken from the Eurostat SHARES tool (2012).The SHARES tool focuses on the harmonised calculation of the share of energy from renewable sources among EU Member States according the guidelines of the Renewable Energy Directive and based on national energy data reported to Eurostat.
      The SHARES tool, detailed results and manual are http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/other_documents

      Qualitative information

    7. Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
      Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
      In circumstances where data for one or more of the non-EU28 EEA countries is unavailable predictions based on previous years' values and percentage changes in reporting nations has been used
    8. Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
      Indicator uncertainty (historic data):
      • Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for industry.
      • The electricity produced as a result from hydropower storage systems is not classified as a renewable source of energy in terms of electricity production, but is part of the gross electricity consumption in a country. The hydro and wind generation is calculated as actual generation and normalised generation. Normalised generation is calculated by SHARES using the weighted average load factor over the last 15 years for hydro and 5-year for wind.
      • The indicator measures the relative consumption of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption for a particular country. The share of renewable energy could increase even if the actual energy consumption from renewable sources falls. Similarly, the share could fall despite an increase in energy consumption from renewable sources. CO2 emissions depend not on the share of renewables but on the total amount of energy consumed from fossil sources. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, attaining the 2020 target for the share of renewable energy does not necessarily imply that CO2 emissions from energy consumption will fall.
      • Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in renewable electricity. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.

    9.  Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):

         Relevance: 1
         Accuracy: 1
         Comparability over time: 1
         Comparability over space: 1

    Methodology for gap filling

    No gap filling necessary.

    Methodology references

    No methodology references available.

    Uncertainties

    Methodology uncertainty

    Indicator uncertainty (historic data):
    Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for industry.

    The electricity produced as a result from hydropower storage systems is not classified as a renewable source of energy in terms of electricity production, but is part of the gross electricity consumption in a country. The hydro and wind generation is calculated as actual generation and normalised generation. Normalised generation is calculated using the weighted average load factor over the last 15 years for hydro and 5-year for wind.

    The indicator measures the relative consumption of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption for a particular country. The share of renewable energy could increase even if the actual energy consumption from renewable sources falls. Similarly, the share could fall despite an increase in energy consumption from renewable sources. CO2 emissions depend not on the share of renewables but on the total amount of energy consumed from fossil sources. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, attaining the 2020 target for the share of renewable energy does not necessarily imply that CO2 emissions from energy consumption will fall.

    Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in renewable electricity. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.

    Data sets uncertainty

    Strengths and weaknesses (at data level):

    Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

    Rationale uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    Data sources

    Generic metadata

    Topics:

    Energy Energy (Primary topic)

    DPSIR: Response
    Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)
    Indicator codes
    • CSI 048
    • ENER 028
    Dynamic
    Temporal coverage:
    2005-2020
    Geographic coverage:
    Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

    Contacts and ownership

    EEA Contact Info

    Mihai Florin Tomescu

    EEA Management Plan

    2014 1.3.1 (note: EEA internal system)

    Dates

    Frequency of updates

    Updates are scheduled once per year
    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    Kongens Nytorv 6
    1050 Copenhagen K
    Denmark
    Phone: +45 3336 7100