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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain emission standards / Proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain emission standards (TERM 034) - Assessment published Mar 2013

Proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain emission standards (TERM 034) - Assessment published Mar 2013

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Generic metadata

Topics:

Transport Transport (Primary topic)

Tags:
transport indicators | transport | vehicles
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • TERM 034
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1995, 2005, 2011
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Is the environmental performance of the vehicle fleet improving?

Key messages

  • Estimates based on the share of vehicles complying with the various legislation classes suggest that despite the strict emission limits imposed for new vehicles in Europe, a considerable fraction of the vehicle fleet is still of conventional (pre-Euro) technology.
  • The period of time needed for a new technology to penetrate the vehicle fleet in the EEA is quicker for diesel than for petrol cars.
  • The proportion of trucks, buses and coaches that comply with the latest and most stringent emission standards is lower than for cars, because of their longer lifetimes. On the other hand, the penetration of new technology is highest for two-wheelers.
  • Based on the activity level of the latest technologies, which is generally higher compared to the activity level of older vehicles, the emissions reductions achieved by the entire fleet are higher than the technology share may suggest.

Estimated share of pre Euro/conventional, Euro 1-5 gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995, 2005 and 2011

Note: The graph shows the estimated share of pre Euro/conventional, Euro 1-5 gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995, 2005 and 2011

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Estimated share of pre Euro/conventional and Euro I-V heavy-duty vehicles, buses and coaches and conventional and Euro 1-3 mopeds and motorcycles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995, 2005 and 2011

Note: The graph shows the estimated share of pre Euro/conventional and Euro I-V heavy-duty vehicles, buses and coaches and conventional and Euro 1-3 mopeds and motorcycles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995, 2005 and 2011.

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Estimated vehicle-kilometre share of pre Euro/conventional, Euro 1-5 gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995 and 2011

Note: Estimated vehicle-kilometre share of pre Euro/conventional, Euro 1-5 gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in 30 EEA member countries, 1995 and 2011

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Estimated vehicle-kilometre share of pre Euro/conventional and Euro I-V heavy-duty vehicles, buses and coaches and conventional and Euro 1-3 mopeds and motorcycles in 30 EEA member countries 1995 and 2011

Note: Estimated vehicle-kilometre share of pre Euro/conventional and Euro I-V heavy-duty vehicles, buses and coaches and conventional and Euro 1-3 mopeds and motorcycles in 30 EEA member countries 1995 and 2011

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Key assessment

A factor that has limited the benefits of new technologies is the slow market penetration of these technologies; the average age of passenger cars in the EEA has increased slightly from 1995 to 2011 (see TERM 33 - Average age of the vehicle fleet). This development can be partly explained by the fact that new cars are bought, but old cars are kept. Indeed, the number of cars per household has increased (see TERM 32 - Size and composition of the vehicle fleet), confirming that new technologies need a long time to penetrate fully.

One proxy-indicator that can be used to show the rate of penetration of new technologies is the share of passenger cars fitted with catalytic converters. For passenger cars, it has taken more than 15 years to reach a 92 % penetration of this technology. However, this indicator alone is not sufficient for a complete assessment of the environmental benefits gained by the penetration of any new technology. In order to have a better overview of the environmental performance of the vehicle fleet, the annual share of kilometres driven by vehicles with older technology needs to be known. Older vehicles are generally used less than newer ones, which means that the emissions reductions achieved are higher than the above indicator may suggest. In the case of passenger cars, the vehicle-kilometres allocated to non-catalyst cars is about 2.3 %, which is lower than their share in the total passenger car fleet (6.5 %). The corresponding values for 2005 are 8.6 % vehicle-kilometres and 16.4 % share in the total passenger car fleet. On the other hand, almost 28 % of the passenger car kilometres are driven by latest technology Euro 5 cars, whereas their share in the total passenger car fleet is about 20 %. A similar picture may also be observed for the light- and heavy-duty vehicles, whereas for the two-wheelers the differences are much smaller.

Passenger cars, and especially diesel cars, have the highest penetration of the latest emission standards as shown in Figure 1. In 2011, about 17 % and 26 % of all petrol and diesel cars respectively were Euro 5 compliant, while the share of Euro 4 compliant vehicles was 14 % and 23 % respectively. In 2005 about 0.3 % and 0.4 % of all petrol and diesel cars respectively were Euro 4 compliant, while the share of Euro 3 compliant vehicles was 30 % and 55 %.This is due to the fact that the diesel car market is continuously expanding. About 46% of passenger cars new registrations in 2011 were diesel vehicles, while in 2005 the share of diesel vehicles was about 45 %.

For light (LDV) and heavy-duty (HDV) vehicles, the situation is completely different. The average life of a truck is longer than that of a passenger car. Thus the share of trucks complying with the most stringent emission standards and the corresponding rate of penetration of new technologies is relatively low. While in 1995 about 92 % of all LDV and HDV were of conventional technology, the share of vehicles complying with the Euro IV standards by 2011 was 15 %, 11 % and 22 % for petrol LDV, diesel LDV and HDV respectively, whereas a significant percentage (22 %, 36 % and 29 % respectively) are Euro III vehicles. In 2005 the share of vehicles complying with the Euro III standards was 25 %, 38 % and 33 % for petrol LDV, diesel LDV and HDV respectively. The penetration of Euro V petrol LDV, diesel LDV and HDV in 2011 is increasing, accounting for 27 %, 18 % and 16.5 % respectively.
The same picture may also be observed for the buses and coaches. Approximately 37 %,13 % and 9% of the buses and coaches complied with the Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V standards respectively in 2011. In 2005 the share of buses and coaches, complying with Euro III standards was 31 %. As regards mopeds and motorcycles, 45 % and 38 % respectively comply with the Euro III emission limits, while 27 % and 23 % respectively are still of conventional technology. In 2005, for mopeds and motorcycles, 25 % and 24 % respectively complied with the Euro II standards, whereas half of the stock (50 %) was still of conventional technology.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2012 2.9.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)
Document Actions

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100