Progress on energy efficiency in Europe
Over the period 1990-2012, final energy efficiency increased by 25% in EU28 countries at an annual average rate of 1.3%/year, driven by improvements in the industrial sector (1.7%/year) and households (1.5%/year). Half of the efficiency gains achieved through technological innovation in the household sector have been offset by increasing number of electrical appliances and larger homes. One third of total savings in space heating in the residential sector is due to new building codes, since a building built in 2012 consumed approximately 40% less energy than one built in 1990.
Energy Trends in Europe
In 2012, the final energy consumption reached 1,104 Mtoe at EU-level (see also ENER 16). Buildings (households and services) consumed almost 40% of final energy consumption in 2012 (of which 26% for households), transport 32% (+6 points compared to 1990) followed by industry with 26% (-8 points compared to 1990) and agriculture with 2%.
Is final energy consumption becoming more efficient?
Energy efficiency improvement for final consumers
- Over the period 1990-2012 energy efficiency for final consumers has improved by 25%, at an annual average rate of 1.3%/year, as measured according to the ODEX indicator (Figure 1). All the sectors contributed to this improvement. From 1990 to 2000, energy efficiency improved by 1.4%/year on average, and by 1.2%/year from 2000 to 2012. Since 2005, energy efficiency in the households and transport sector accelerated (by 1.9%/year and 1.2 %/year respectively) while energy efficiency slowed down in industry and tertiary sectors over the same period.
- Over the period 1990-2012, energy efficiency in industry has improved in EU 28 countries by 32%, at an annual average rate of 1.7% per year (Figure 1). Greater progress was achieved in the nineties (2.2%/year). Since 2005 there is a net slowdown in energy efficiency improvement (1.4 %/year), and especially since 2008 with the economic crisis (0.7%/year). Within the economic crisis, factories and industrial equipment did not operate at full capacity (energy efficiency index increased by 0.3% in 2009). After 2009 energy efficiency recovered in industry, with an annual average growth rate of around 1%/year. Improvements took place in all industrial branches, with notable improvements observed in energy intensive branches. The four most energy intensive branches (chemicals, steel, paper and cement), which represented around 55% of the industrial energy consumption in 2012, reduced their specific energy consumption, i.e. energy consumption per unit of physical output, until 2008 by 2.1%/year, 2%/year, 0.6%/year and 0.9%/year respectively over the period 2000-2008,. Since 2008, in steel, cement and chemicals industries there was no more improvements, and even a reverser trend with an increasing specific consumption, for the reasons explained above.
- Energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 29% between 1990-2012 at an average rate of 1.5% per year (Figure 1). Since 2005, energy efficiency in households improved by 1.9%/year. After the economic crisis, progress in energy efficiency slightly slowed down (1.3%/year). Most of the progress in this sector was due to energy efficiency improvements for space heating (renovation of buildings, more efficient new buildings and heating appliances (improvement of 1.7%/year), and the diffusion of more efficient large electrical appliances (1.5%/year). However, the reduction in energy demand resulting from energy efficiency improvement was offset by an increase in the number of appliances and larger homes. The combined effect of these two factors increased the energy consumption per dwelling by around 0.8% per year in total (Figure 2), offsetting around 50% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation.
- Figure 3 presents the decomposition of the unit energy consumption by end-use for all EU28 countries. There are large discrepancies among countries in the level of consumption per dwelling, from 0.4 toe/dwelling in Malta to more than 2 toe/dwelling for Luxemburg or Finland.
- Energy efficiency improvements for space heating occurred as a result of better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, increase in the penetration of condensing boilers and heat pumps and the thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings. All EU28 countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them being introduced as far back as the seventies. However, the magnitude of the impact of such standards varies across the countries, depending on the number of standard upgrades, their severity and the annual volume of construction (i.e. the share of new buildings in the total stock). It is estimated that because of new building codes, dwellings built in 2012 consumed about 40% less energy than those built in 1990. The overall impact on final energy consumption remains however limited due to the fact that dwellings built since 1990 only represented 23% of the total stock in 2012. Figure 4 shows an estimate of the impact standards on new buildings had on the average unit consumption for space heating of the dwelling stock for the EU as a whole: standards for new buildings contributed to reducing the average unit consumption of the building stock by 0.4%/year on average between 1990 and 2012, which represents a little more than one third of the total savings for household space heating.
- By 2020 all new buildings in the EU should be “nearly-zero energy buildings” according to the EPBD. The required decrease in energy consumption of “low energy buildings” will range from 30 to 50% of what is presently required for new buildings with the existing regulations. That would generally correspond to an annual energy consumption of 40-60 kWh/m2 in EU countries (including generally energy use for water heating, air conditioning, ventilation and lighting).
- For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU Directives on mandatory labelling for all large appliances and lighting and on minimum energy standards for cold appliances as well as from voluntary agreements with European Committee of Domestic Equipment Manufacturers (CECED) As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A+, A++ or more recently A+++) has increased significantly: from 10% in 2005 to 79% in 2012 for refrigerators and from 16.5% to 66% for washing machines.
- The energy used for space heating (at normal climate) per m2 has decreased steadily by around 1.6%/year at EU level from 1990 to 2012 with even an acceleration since 2000 (2.3 %/year).The specific annual energy consumption per m² for space heating decreased in all countries since 2000, thanks to energy efficiency improvements in buildings and heating appliances as well as behavioural changes driven by higher energy prices (Figure 5). The reduction was quite significant in some new member countries since 2000 (e.g. Romania, Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia).
- The comparison in households’ energy consumption per m2 between countries is more relevant if the heating consumption is adjusted to the EU average climate; this adjustment narrows the difference among countries; for 6 countries with a climate warmer than the EU average the adjusted consumption is higher (Figure 6). After adjustment, there is a factor 3 of difference between the three lowest energy consumption per m2 in Spain, Bulgaria and Slovakia and the countries with the highest unit consumption Hungary, France and Greece. This large discrepancy can be explained by differences in the insulation of the dwelling shell (much higher in cold countries than in Mediterranean countries, the fuel mix for heating (a high share of biomass increases consumption) and level of comfort (often lower in countries with relatively high energy prices compared to household incomes, suxh as Bulgaria or Romania). On average, the unit consumption for space heating stands at around 125 kWh/m2 for the EU as a whole in 2012.
- The average energy consumption for air conditioning per m2 is increasing rapidly, by 6.7 %/year on average at EU level since 2000, as more and more dwellings have air conditioning (Figure 7, graph 1). Indeed, the share of dwellings with air conditioning has particularly increased in Italy (from 11% to 33%), Spain (from 15% in 2000 to 60% in 2012), and even almost 80% in Cyprus and Malta. In Slovenia and Bulgaria the diffusion of air conditioning is more recent but important (from around 1-2% in 2000 to 19% and 26% of dwellings in 2012 respectively). However, due to improved efficiency of air conditioners, the specific consumption per m2 with air conditioning has decreased since 2000 in almost all countries analysed (Figure 7, graph 2).
- In the transport sector, energy efficiency increased by 18% between 1990 and 2012 in the EU as a whole, at an annual average rate of 0.9%; most of this progress is due to the increased efficiency of passenger cars and airplanes.
The energy efficiency of cars, measured by the reduction in the average specific fuel consumption of cars in l/100 km improved by 1%/year, with an acceleration since 2000 (1.2%/year compared to 0.7%/y before). This improvement mainly results from the diffusion of more efficient new cars driven by the combined effect of higher fuel prices, substitution from gasoline to diesel, several types of EU and national measures on new cars. A new directive was adopted in 2009 imposing a limit of 130 g CO2/km for car manufacturers for their average sales by 2015 with a target of 95 gCO2/km in 2020. In addition, many countries implemented new fiscal regimes lowering the tax for efficient cars (car registration tax in around 16 EU countries or annual tax in 6 countries). The impact of all these measures was a significant reduction in the average emission of new cars (-2.4%/year)since 2000. In 2013, the average CO2 emissions from the European passenger car fleet was 127 gCO2/km, which is below the 2015 target. Also for vans, the mandatory target is 175 gCO2/km by 2017 and 147 gCO2/km by 2020 compared to the average of 180.2 gCO2/km in 2012.
Since 2007 we can observe a reverse trend in energy efficiency for trucks and light vehicles with a loss of efficiency, mainly because of the economic crisis resulted in an increase in the consumption of road goods per tonne-kilometre. Low progress can be observed for rail with a decrease in the unit consumption of 0.3%/year.
- In the service sector, the fuel consumption per employee, which mainly corresponds to thermal uses, has decreased by 1.6 %/year since 1990. On the opposite, electricity consumption per employee in EU as a whole increased by 1.6%/year since 1990, due to increased use of air conditioning in southern countries, the use of ICTs and other office equipments in general.
 The ODEX represent a better proxy for assessing energy efficiency trends at an aggregate level (compared to energy intensity). ODEX is calculated for the following sector: industry, transport, households and tertiary (only for fuel for this sector).
 Including for instance France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria and Sweden.
 Estimation based on the relative performance of new buildings built with new regulations, based on building codes, compared to the performance of new buildings built in 1990.
 This estimate was based on a modelling assuming for new dwellings that their unit consumption is equal to the theoretical consumption as implied by the standards. This approach overestimates the impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified, that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings).
 Source: GFK ; the share of washing machines with labels above A had raised from 38% in 2000 to 81% in 2005 and for refrigerators from 22.5% to 69%
 The average price of motor fuels for cars (weighted average of gasoline and diesel) was 67% higher in 2013 than in 1990 in the EU (real prices corrected for inflation). Higher fuel price are incentives for consumers to buy more efficient new cars and for manufacturers to develop new cars with improved performance.
 Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
 More information of main energy efficiency policies in the transport sector implemented in EU countries available in this report at
 Average CO2 emissions from new passage cars based on test values, from EEA “Monitoring CO2 emissions from new passenger cars in the EU: summary of data for 2013” (April 2014)
 Unit energy consumption per gross tonne-kilometre for ail
 At normal climate.
Indicator specification and metadata
The ODEX index (Figure 1) measures energy efficiency progress by the main sectors (industry, transport and households), as well as for the whole economy (all final consumers). For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; the sub-sectors are the industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes.
- The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units and selected so as to provide the best “proxy” of energy efficiency progress from a policy evaluation viewpoint. The fact that indices are used enables different units to be combined for a given sector, for instance, for households kWh per appliance, koe/m2, tep per dwelling etc.
- The weight used to get a weighted aggregate is the share of each sub-sector in the total energy consumption of the sub–sectors considered in the calculation.
A value of ODEX equal to 90 means a 10 % energy efficiency gain.
The variation of the specific consumption of space heating per dwelling linked to building standards is modelled as the change brought about by the introduction of new dwellings with better insulation than the whole stock, since a base year (e.g. 1990), assuming that the unit consumption of new dwellings is equal to the theoretical value implied by thermal regulations (Figure 2).
This effect is calculated as follows:
∆UCnewt = (UCnewt * nbrlpnt + ∆UCnewt-1 * (nbrlprt – nbrlpnt)) / nbrlprt
with: ∆UCnewt=0 = ∆UCnewt=1990 = UCt=1990
nbrlprt: stock of dwellings at year t
nbrlpnt: the volume of construction at year t
UCt: unit consumption per dwelling for space heating at year t
The ODEX index (Figure 1) is represented in percentage change compared with 1990 levels. Improvements in the energy performance of buildings as a result of tightening building codes are also represented in percentage change compared with 1990 levels (Figure 2). The effects of the main drivers influencing progress in energy efficiency are represented in percentage change compared with 1990 levels (Figure 3). Energy consumption per square metre for households (climate corrected) is represented as percentage change compared with a baseline year (1990, 2000). Energy consumption for space heating per square metre for households (climate corrected) is expressed in kWh/m2 (Figure 4). The energy consumption for space heating is expressed in kWh/m2 (Figure 5). Energy consumption for space cooling is represented both in kWh/m2 of average floor area, as well as kWh/m2 of air conditioned space (Figure 6).
Policy context and targets
Energy Efficiency Directive (EED)
The EED was approved by the European Parliament on 11 September 2012: it includes a set of new measures to meet the EU’s 2020 energy efficiency target to reduce the EU primary energy consumption by 20 %. Related documents are available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/eed/eed_en.htm. The legal definition and quantification of the EU energy efficiency target is the ''Union's 2020 energy consumption of no more than 1 474 Mtoe primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy''. With the accession of Croatia, the target was revised to "1 483 Mtoe primary energy or no more than 1 086 Mtoe of final energy''. Following Article 3 of the EED, each Member State had to submit a report to the Commission including an indicative national energy efficiency target for 2020 (http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/eed/reporting_en.htm).
National Energy efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP)
NEEAPs are intended to set energy savings targets and propose concrete measures and actions that would contribute to meeting the targets. They are submitted every three years: the third NEEAPs were submitted in April 2014.
Regulation on emissions for new cars (2009/443) and new light commercial vehicles (2011/510)
Mandatory CO2 standards for new passenger cars were introduced in 2009. The 2009 regulation set a 2015 target of 130 g/km for the fleet average of all manufacturers combined.
Individual manufacturers were allowed a higher CO2 emission value depending on the average vehicle weight of their fleet. The heavier the average weight of the cars sold by a manufacturer, the higher the CO2 level allowed. A similar CO2 standard for new light-commercial vehicles was introduced in 2011. It set a target of 175 g/km for 2017. In July 2012, the European Commission put forward two regulatory proposals to set mandatory CO2 standards for new cars and vans in 2020. Target values of 95 g/km of CO2 for the new car fleet and 147 g/km of CO2 for vans for 2020 have been set.
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive: recast version in 2010 (2010/31/EU) EPBD, 2002/91/EC
The Directive on Energy Performance in Buildings (EPBD) is the main legislative instrument affecting energy use and efficiency in the building sector in the EU. The Directive tackles both new build and existing housing stock. Originally approved in 2002, this Directive is now being replaced by a recast Directive that was approved on 19 May 2010.
Energy Labelling Directive: recast version in 2010 (2010/30/EC) Directive 92/75/EEC
The Energy Labelling Directive 2010/30/EU is a framework Directive that facilitates the labelling of products so that the power consumption of one make and model can be compared to another, allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions.
Ecodesign Directive: recast version in 2009 (2009/125/EC)/(2005/32/EC)
The Ecodesign Directive sets a framework for performance criteria for energy-using and energy-related products, which manufacturers must meet in order to legally bring their product to the market. Minimum requirements have to be fulfilled by appliances to get the European Commission label and to be introduced in the European market.
The first Directive was adopted in 2005. Its scope was expanded in 2009 to all energy-related products. From September 2015, the Ecodesign Directive will concern heating equipment and the production of hot water, defining new levels of performance and features to meet new energy labels.
Energy Services Directive: (ESD) 2006/32/EC
This directive sets out targets for annual energy savings of 1 % per year for each Member State between 2008 and 2012. For the same period, strong incentives were given by the Directive for Member States to ensure that suppliers of energy offer a certain level of energy service.
A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)
The Roadmap presents actions in line with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95 % by 2050.
Energy 2020, A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy COM(2010) 639 final
The Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions sets out as first priority, four types of action to achieve an energy-efficient Europe:
- Action 1: Tapping into the biggest energy-saving potential — buildings and transport.
- Action 2: Reinforcing industrial competitiveness by making industry more efficient.
- Action 3: Reinforcing efficiency in energy supply.
- Action 4: Making the most of National Energy Efficiency Action Plans.
Adoption of the 'energy-climate'' package on December 2008 (also called the ''20-20-20 plan")
This package sets legally binding targets to cut greenhouse gas emissions to 20 % below 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20 %, both by 2020 (10 % in transport). It will also help achieve the EU's objective of improving energy efficiency by 20 % within the same time frame.
The climate and energy package consists of four legislative texts:
- A Directive revising the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which covers some 40 % of EU greenhouse gas emissions;
- An "effort-sharing" Decision setting binding national targets for emissions from sectors not covered by the EU ETS;
- A Directive setting binding national targets for increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy mix; and
- A Directive creating a legal framework for the safe and environmentally sound use of carbon capture and storage technologies.
Energy efficiency: delivering the 20 % target - COM(2008) 772 final
European leaders committed themselves to reducing primary energy consumption by 20 % compared to projections for 2020. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity. Improving energy efficiency also addresses the key energy challenges of climate change, energy security and competitiveness.
Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of a 20 % reduction in primary energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. However, this indicator does not monitor progress at EU level on the energy efficiency target (different methodologies may be applied for this purpose particularly if the emphasis is on energy savings) but it does provide an indication of progress to date in achieving energy efficiency (in this context energy efficiency means mainly improvements in technological performance).
Related policy documents
COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
COM(2011) 370 final Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency and repealing Directives
Decision No 1230/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 adopting a multiannual programme for action in the field of energy: "Intelligent Energy — Europe" (2003 — 2006) (Text with EEA relevance)
The directive is relatefd to energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repeals Council Directive 93/76/EEC
Energy labelling directive Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU - Energy performance of buildings directive
DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings(recast)
Energy efficiency: delivering the 20% target - COM 2008 772 final
European leaders committed themselves to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% compared to projections for 2020. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity. Improving energy efficiency also addresses the key energy challenges of climate change, energy security and competitiveness.
REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011
REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
The EU climate and energy (CARE) Package
The climate and energy package is a set of binding legislation which aims to ensure the European Union meets its ambitious climate and energy targets for 2020. These targets, known as the "20-20-20" targets, set three key objectives for 2020: A 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels; Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20%; A 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency.
Methodology for indicator calculation
- Data sources:
- Energy consumption by sector from Eurostat energy balances (July 2015)
- Detailed energy consumption and their drivers from the Odyssee database, Enerdata, September 2015 update; the Odyssee database covers detailed energy consumption by sector, by fuel and by end-uses for the EU as a whole, and Norway.
- Description of data/indicator definition:
- Energy efficiency index (Figure 1).
The ODEX indicator, or energy efficiency index, is calculated for each end-use sector (industry, transport, residential and tertiary) and for the whole economy (all end-use sectors).
For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; sub-sectors are industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes. The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units (for instance tons of steel, tonne-km for transport of goods, m² for offices, etc.). They provide the best “proxy” of energy efficiency progress from a policy evaluation viewpoint. All these sub-sectoral indices are then aggregated and weighted by their respective share in the final energy consumption of the sector to a single energy efficiency index or ODEX that measures energy efficiency progress.
A decrease in the specific energy consumption indicators indicates that energy efficiency has been improving, if not it results in negative energy efficiency improvements, maybe due to inefficient use of equipment, as is often observed for instance during an economic recession. Therefore, it is necessary to separate technical efficiency from observed efficiency. This is done for the ODEX (see dedicated sheet) by calculating a technical energy efficiency index (in this case we only consider decreases in specific consumption (if not the index remains constant). A value of the energy efficiency index equal to 90 means a 10 % energy efficiency gain.
For industry, the evaluation is carried out at the level of 14 branches:
- 8 main branches: chemicals, food, textile and leather, machinery, transport equipment, wood, construction, mining;
- 3 energy intensive branches: steel, cement and pulp and paper
- 3 residual branches: other primary metals (i.e. primary metals minus steel), other non-metallic minerals (i.e. non-metallic minerals minus cement, other branches).
The unit consumption is expressed in terms of energy used per ton produced for energy intensive products (steel, cement and paper) and in terms of energy used related to the production index for the other branches.
For the transport sector, the evaluation is carried out at the level of seven modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks and light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, air transport, rail and water transport.
For cars, energy efficiency is measured by the specific consumption, expressed in litres/100km.
For the transport of goods (trucks and light vehicles), the unit consumption per tonne-km is used, as the main activity is to move goods.
For other modes of transport, various indicators of unit consumption are used, taking for each mode the most relevant indicator given the statistics available:
- toe per passenger for air transport,
- goe per passenger km for passenger rail,
- goe per transport km for transport of goods by rail and water,
- toe per vehicle for motorcycles and buses.
For households, the evaluation is carried out at the level of three end-uses (heating, water heating, cooking) and five large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs).
For each end-use, the following indicators are considered to measure efficiency progress:
- Heating: unit consumption per m2 at normal climate (toe/m2)
- Water heating: unit consumption per dwelling with water heating;
- Cooking: unit consumption per dwelling;
- Large electrical appliances: specific electricity consumption, in kWh per year per appliance.
For tertiary, the energy efficiency index is calculated by branches (e.g. six branches, including offices, education, health, wholesale and retail, hotels and restaurants, and other services) based on the energy consumption per employee. For some countries and the EU as a whole (due to lack of data or robust data by branches), the index is calculated using aggregate indicators, i.e. fuel and electricity consumption per employee.
- Energy consumption of households by end-use (Figure 2-5).
The energy consumption of households can be disaggregated to cover different end-uses: space heating, water heating, cooking, cooling, lighting and electrical appliances.
Household energy consumption for space heating per dwelling relates the energy consumption of the household sector for space heating to the number of permanently occupied dwellings. Household energy consumption for space heating per square metre is obtained by dividing the unit consumption per dwelling.
Household energy consumption for cooling per square metre is obtained by dividing the energy consumption per dwelling for space cooling by cooled floor area (cooled floor area is calculated by multiplying the average floor area by the number of permanent dwellings and the share of dwellings with air conditioning).
Household energy consumption of electrical appliances per dwelling is calculated by dividing the electricity consumption for all appliances by the number of permanently occupied dwellings. The electrical appliances considered here are all those with specific (captive) uses of electricity. Space heating systems, water heaters or cooking appliances are not included.
Total floor area represents the average floor area of a dwelling multiplied by the number of dwellings. It is expressed in m2.
- Drivers for change in the energy consumption per dwelling in households (Figure 6).
The energy consumption per dwelling can be explained by four factors:
- Equipment ownership effect, due to the increased number of appliances per dwelling (central heating effect, increasing number of electrical appliances, diffusion of efficient lamps etc.);
- Size effect, due to larger dwellings;
- Efficiency progress, as measured by ODEX (see definition above);
- Other effects (mainly change in heating behaviour).
- Geographical coverage:
EU-28 countries plus Norway.
- Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data collected twice a year in the framework of the ODYSSEE MURE project (http://www.odyssee-mure.eu/)
- Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
Last Odyssee update: September 2015
- Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
- Overall scoring – (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):
Indicators used in the ODYSSEE database are comparable over time and space. Raw data collected have the same clear definition, as do indicators.
Methodology for gap filling
To calculate the ODEX (Figure 1), data submitted to the ODYSSEE project by countries on a voluntary basis are used. Not all countries submit the necessary data. Therefore, for the EU-28, data extrapolations based as far as possible on Eurostat supporting data (e.g. growth rates, shares of various energy forms in final energy consumption, etc) are used. In this way some consistency between the top-down calculations and the bottom-up calculations made for specific countries is ensured (also country data make use of Eurostat where possible).
To calculate the effect of new building codes (Figure 2), the theoretical unit consumption of new dwellings for the EU as a whole is based on an extrapolation from 11 representative countries (Italy, France, Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia). The theoretical consumption for new dwellings by country is weighted according to annual construction to be able to produce results at EU level.
- Odyssee Energy Efficiency Index More information about the methodology available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org
No uncertainty has been specified
Data sets uncertainty
The ODYSSEE database contains energy consumption and its drivers, which are provided by energy agencies or their representatives in all EU countries and Norway. Quality control checks are performed to ensure the good quality of the database and to improve the transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of data retrieved from the ODYSSEE database. Examples of general quality control checks include checking for transcription errors in data inputs, checking of source reliability, checking the inner consistency of data (e.g. the sum of energy consumption by residential end-uses is coherent with total residential consumption), consistency with other sources (e.g Eurostat), checking that indicators are calculated correctly (through graphical representation over years to check discrepancy or outliers between countries).
No uncertainty has been specified
provided by Enerdata Research Service
Energy (Primary topic)
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
- ENER 037
Contacts and ownership
EEA Contact InfoAnca-Diana Barbu
EEA Management Plan2014 1.3.2 (note: EEA internal system)
Frequency of updates
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/progress-on-energy-efficiency-in-europe-2/assessment or scan the QR code.
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