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Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances

Indicator Assessment Created 22 Sep 2010 Published 13 Dec 2010 Last modified 04 Sep 2015, 07:00 PM
Topics: ,
Indicator codes: CSI 006 , CLIM 049

Key messages

The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, and it is nowadays practically zero. Globally, the implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. Many ODSs are also potent greenhouse gases. The phasing out of ODS under the Montreal Protocol has reduced global greenhouse gas emissions by an amount larger than the Kyoto Protocol is expected to deliver by the end of 2012.

Are ozone-depleting substances being phased out according to the agreed schedule?

Consumption of ozone depleting substances (EU-27), 1986-2009

Note: Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol. As with calculated production, the consumption of ODS can be negative, also because exports in any one year can exceed production and imports if they include ODS from carry-over stocks.

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Maximum ozone-hole area in 2009

Note: The map shows the ozone-hole area in 2009, measured to 24.1 million km2, September 17.

Data source:

NASA Ozone Hole Watch

http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/

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Production of ozone depleting substances in EU-27, 1986-2009

Note: Production is defined under Article 1(5) of the Montreal Protocol as production minus the amount destroyed minus the amount entirely used as feedstock in the manufacture of other chemicals. Since the figures are for each calendar year, it is quite possible that in some years the destroyed amounts and/or the feedstock figure may exceed the production figure of that year, if they include ODS from a carry-over stock. The calculated production could be negative in such cases.

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Consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances has gone down markedly in EEA member countries, particularly in the first half of the 1990s. Before the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, EEA ODS production exceeded half a million ODP (ozone depletion potential) tonnes. ODS production was negative in 2007 and 2008, although it increased again in 2009 to reach 747 ODP tonnes[1]. ODS consumption in EEA member countries fell from about 406 thousand ODP tonnes in 1986 to negative 1 516 ODP tonnes in 2009[2] (see figures 1 and 2).

Globally, the 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. 

According to the 2006 assessment reports from UNEP’s Scientific, Environmental and Technology and Economic Assessment Panels under the Montreal Protocol, ozone depletion also influences climate change since both ozone and the compounds responsible for its depletion are active greenhouse gases. The implementation of the Montreal Protocol has therefore indirectly led to a stark reduction in emissions of these potent greenhouse gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are outside the remits of the Kyoto Protocol. The phasing out of climate-changing ODS under the Montreal Protocol has reduced greenhouse gas emissions by an amount larger than the Kyoto Protocol is expected to deliver by the end of 2012. The reduction in GWP-weighted ODS emissions expected as a result of compliance with the Montreal Protocol have been estimated globally at 10-12 Gt CO2-eq per year between in 2010 (Velders et al. 2007). In contrast, the reduction of greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol (assuming full compliance by all developed countries) is about -5% on average between 2008 and 2012 compared to base year emissions. This is equivalent to about 1 Gt CO2-eq on average per year during the Kyoto first commitment period (2008-2012). 

UNEP’s Assessment concluded there are various options to achieve a global recovery in the ozone layer (i.e. returning to pre-1980 levels). These include addressing the strong growth in the production and consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in developing countries and the immediate collection and safe disposal of large quantities of ODS contained in old equipment and buildings (the so-called ODS ‘banks’), which have a very significant ozone-depleting and global warming potential. At the EU level, the EU regulation on substances that deplete the ozone layer, which in many aspects goes further than the Montreal Protocol, also brings forward the production phase-out of HCFCs from 2025 to 2020.

The projected recovery of the ozone layer is sensitive to future levels of greenhouse gases and the associated changes in climate. On the one hand, climate change will influence the exposure of all living organisms to UV-B radiation via changes in cloudiness, precipitation, and ice cover. On the other hand, HCFCs both damage the ozone layer and contribute to global warming and their concentrations continue to increase in the atmosphere. Given these interlinkages, international efforts to safeguard the earth’s climate (e.g. UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol) and protect the ozone layer (Montreal Protocol) can be mutually supportive. In 2007, governments from developed and developing countries agreed to freeze production of HCFCs in developing countries by 2013 and bring forward the final phase-out date of these chemicals by ten years in both developed and developing countries (Montreal/Nairobi, 22 September 2007). This has been referred to as a historic agreement to tackle the challenges of protecting the ozone layer and combating climate change at the same time. However, while HCFCs have largely replaced CFCs in both developed and developing countries, in many HCFC applications there is now a gradual replacement with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which, although not ozone-depleting, are potent greenhouse gases. 

The depth and area of the ozone hole over Antarctica remains large although it contracted in 2009 compared to 2008[3]. Between 7 September and 13 October of 2009, the average ozone-hole area reached 21.7 million square kilometres, with a daily maximum of 24.1 million square kilometres (figure 3) - equivalent to about 6 times the territory of the EU. According to UNEP’s 2006 Assessment, failure to comply with the Montreal Protocol and the continuation of large agreed exemptions could delay or even prevent the recovery of the ozone layer – with additional implications for climate change.  

A new 2010 report by the Scientific Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol concludes the Antarctic ozone hole provides the most visible example of how ozone depletion affects surface climate, leading to important changes in surface temperature and wind patterns. Overall, there is stronger evidence of the effect of stratospheric ozone changes on the earth’s surface climate, and also of the effects of climate change on stratospheric ozone. Increasing abundances of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are expected to significantly affect future stratospheric ozone through effects on temperature, winds, and chemistry. The report also highlights the substantial co-benefits between the protection of the ozone layer and climate change and presents a number of options for policy makers.

[1] Production of ODS went down to negative numbers in 2007 and 2008, although it increased again in 2009 to 747 OPD tonnes. Negative values are possible because ‘production’ is defined under Article 1(5) of the Montreal Protocol as production minus the amount destroyed minus the amount entirely used as feedstock in the manufacture of other chemicals. Therefore, calculated production may be negative if destroyed amounts and/or feedstocks (e.g. from a carry-over stock) exceed production. Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol. As with calculated production, the consumption of ODS can be negative, also because exports in any one year can exceed production and imports if ODS have been stockpiled.

[2] Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol. As with calculated production, the consumption of ODS can be negative.

[3] The ozone-hole area is determined from total ozone satellite measurements. It is defined to be that region of ozone values below 220 Dobson Units (DU) located south of 40°S. Values below 220 DU represent anthropogenic ozone losses over Antarctica.

Key links

“Synthesis report of the 2006 assessments of the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel and the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel” http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/

“Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006” http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/SAP/index.shtml

“Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and its Interactions with Climate Change: 2006 Assessment” http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/EEAP/index.shtml

“2006 Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel” http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/TEAP/index.shtml

“WMO GAW Research on Stratospheric Ozone” http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/index.html

“Executive Summary of the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010” http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/SAP/ExecutiveSummary_SAP_2010.pdf

Protection of the ozone layer – European Commission, DG Environment http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ozone/

Velders GJM ; Anderson SO ; Daniel JS ; Fahey DW ; McFarland M; ‘The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate’, PNAS, 2007 http://www.pnas.org/content/104/12/4814.full

 

 

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

This indicator quantifies the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in Europe. ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer.

Units

Tonnes of ODS weighted by their Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Following agreement of the Vienna convention (1985) and the Montreal protocol (1987) and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase-out production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks progress towards this limiting or phasing-out production and consumption of ODS.

For the European Union, the ratification rates were the following:

Treaty

Date of Ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 Oct 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 Dec 1988

London Amendment

 20 Dec 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 Nov 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 Nov 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 Mar 2002

Targets

The international target under the Ozone Conventions and Protocols is the complete phase-out of ODS, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Montreal Protocol are considered as developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10 - 20 years as compared to non-article 5(1) countries.

Montreal protocol EEA member ountries 
article 5(1)  Cyprus, Malta, Romania and Turkey
non-article 5(1) all other EEA member countries


Summary of phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments.

Group Phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries Remark

Annex-A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: Halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: Other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: Carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (=methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (HydroChloroFluoroCarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35 % reduction by 1-1-2004

65 % reduction by 1-1-2010

90 % reduction by 1-1-2015

99.5 % reduction by 1-1-2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date.

100 % reduction by 1-1-2030

Applicable to consumption

 

Base level: Average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1-1-2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (HydroBromoFluoroCarbons)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: Bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 1-1-1995

25 % reduction by 1-1-1999

50 % reduction by 1-1-2001

75 % reduction by 1-1-2003

100 % reduction by 1-1-2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption



Related policy documents

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

The indicator presents production and consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS produced or consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone secretariat data are already provided in tonnes of Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP tonnes). All data can be downloaded from http://ozone.unep.org/Data_Access/

 

How is production and consumption calculated?

http://ozone.unep.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions/faqs_compliance.shtml 

 

Calculation formulae are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol.

 

Simple definition:

Consumption = Production + Imports - Exports

Subtract Destroyed amounts

Subtract Feedstock Uses

Exclude Quarantine and Pre-shipment applications for methyl bromide

Include Exports to non-Parties as consumption

 

Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in the official data reporting forms. The Parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task

 

Calculated Production = (Production - Feedstock Production - Feedstock Exports - Quarantine Production) - Destroyed

Calculated Consumption = (Production - Feedstock Production - Quarantine Production) + (Imports - Feedstock Imports - Quarantine Imports) - (Exports - Quarantine Exports) - Destroyed + Non Party Exports

 

Parties that only import ozone-depleting substances, ODS, (that is, they do not produce ODS, use ODS for feedstock, destroy ODS or re-export ODS) will usually have zero annual calculated production of ODS, and their annual calculated consumption will be equal to their imports.

 

(Feedstock Production is only for internal use)

(Quarantine Production is both for internal use and for export)

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling takes place.

Methodology references

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

 

Data sets uncertainty

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Rationale uncertainty

Policies focuses on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Climate change Climate change (Primary topic)

Tags:
ozone | soer2010 | csi | air
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 006
  • CLIM 049
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1986-2009
Geographic coverage:
Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (FYR), Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 1.3.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
Filed under: , , ,
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100