Production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances

Indicator Assessment
Indicator codes: CSI 006 , CLIM 049
Created 18 Mar 2015 Published 24 Aug 2015 Last modified 24 Feb 2016, 10:11 AM
Topics: , ,
A significant reduction in the EEA-33 consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS) has been achieved since 1986. This reduction has largely been driven by the 1987 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Montreal Protocol. At the entry into force of the Montreal Protocol, EEA-33 consumption was approximately 420 000 ozone depleting potential tonnes (ODP tonnes). Values around zero were reached in 2002 and EEA-33 consumption continues to be consistently around zero since then. The European Union (EU) has taken additional measures to reduce the consumption of ozone depleting substances by means of EU law since the early 1990s. In many aspects, the current EU regulation on substances that deplete the ozone layer (1005/2009/EC) goes further than the Montreal Protocol and also brought forward the phasing out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the EU.

Key messages

A significant reduction in the EEA-33 consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS) has been achieved since 1986. This reduction has largely been driven by the 1987 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Montreal Protocol.

At the entry into force of the Montreal Protocol, EEA-33 consumption was approximately 420 000 ozone depleting potential tonnes (ODP tonnes). Values around zero were reached in 2002 and EEA-33 consumption continues to be consistently around zero since then. The European Union (EU) has taken additional measures to reduce the consumption of ozone depleting substances by means of EU law since the early 1990s. In many aspects, the current EU regulation on substances that deplete the ozone layer (1005/2009/EC) goes further than the Montreal Protocol and also brought forward the phasing out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the EU.

Are ozone-depleting substances being phased out according to the agreed schedule?

Consumption of controlled ozone–depleting substances

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Globally, the 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. The schedule for the limitation and phase-out of consumption of ozone-depleting substances, as defined in the Montreal Protocol, is summarised in the Indicator Specification.

At EU level, the EU regulation on substances that deplete the ozone layer (ODS Regulation, 1005/2009/EC), which in many aspects goes further than the Montreal Protocol, also brings forward the phasing out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) from 2020 to 2015 and introduces an HCFCs new fill ban and a servicing ban. Moreover, with only a few exemptions, the prohibition of imports and exports of products and equipment containing or relying on ODS, including HCFCs, is also brought forward. It also includes a total ban on the use of methyl bromide, including quarantine and pre-shipment applications.

Consumption of ozone-depleting substances decreased significantly in the EEA-33, particularly in the first half of the 1990s. Figure 1 shows that the EEA-33 phased out its use of ozone-depleting substances at a faster rate than the world average. It is nowadays practically zero.

ODS consumption in the EEA-33 fell from approximately 420 000 ODP tonnes in 1986 to negative values in 2002. Since 2002, values have been negative, except for the years 2003, 2006 and 2012, when they were slightly positive. The value in 2013 was -3 096.41 ODP tonnes.

Consumption is a parameter that gives an idea of the presence of ozone-depleting substances in the market and tracks the progress in phasing out these chemicals. Calculated for each calendar year, it is mainly defined as 'production plus imports minus exports' (quantities destroyed or used in certain applications like feedstock or quarantine and pre-shipment services are subtracted where relevant). As such, its formula can yield a negative number when substances are produced and imported in quantities which do not compensate for the amounts exported or destroyed. This usually happens when exports or destruction take place for ODS that were in the EEA-33 market in previous years (stocks). Additionally, different substances have different ODP values. If consumption is calculated in ODP tonnes a negative value is therefore also obtained when production/imports take place for low-ODP substances and exports/destruction take place for high-ODP substances. The latter is the current situation due to the fact that certain high-ODP substances are produced in the EU as by-products which, in general, are stocked and before being destroyed.

A closer look at individual ODS substance groups reveals that the phase-outs of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA), hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs), bromochloromethane (BCM) and carbon tetrachloride (CTC) were implemented by the EU according to the agreed schedule under the Montreal Protocol. However, the phase-out of methyl bromide (MB) took three additional years to be completed (due to remaining critical uses approved by the parties to the Protocol. The effects of the HCFCs freeze under the Montreal Protocol and the HCFCs new fill ban under the ODS Regulation can also clearly be observed.

What are the remaining uses of ODS?

Estimated sales of ozone-depleting substances taking into account both the scope of the Montreal Protocol and the additional substances covered by the ODS regulation

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Estimated sales of ozone-depleting substances broken down by uses, reported emissions and calculated emission factors

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At a global scale, consumption of ozone depleting substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol has declined by some 99.88% worldwide in the 1986-2013 period.

However, much remains to be done to ensure that the damage to the ozone layer is reverted. Initiatives to further reduce releases of ODS could involve the following:

  • Addressing the strong growth in the production and consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in developing countries;
  • Collecting and safely disposing of the large quantities of ODS contained in old equipment and buildings (the so-called ODS 'banks');
  • Ensuring that restrictions on ODS continue to be properly implemented and the remaining worldwide use of ODS declines further;
  • Preventing illegal trade in ODS; and
  • Strengthening the international and European framework on ozone-depleting substances (e.g. inclusion of other known ODS, restricting exemptions).

 

In the EEA-33, ozone-depleting substances are still used to the extent allowed by the Montreal Protocol and the ODS Regulation (applying to the EU-28) by means of exemptions to the overall phase-down. The exempted uses concern 'critical uses', 'feedstock uses', 'process agent uses' and 'laboratory and analytical uses'.

Table 1 (Figure 2) shows an estimate of the quantities of substances covered by the Montreal Protocol that are used within the EU for the above-mentioned uses as reported to the EEA (2013 reporting year, coverage EU-28).

For 'feedstock' and 'process agent use', known as having very low emission ratios (0.32 and 2.75%), actual emissions are also to be reported by the companies concerned. These low emission ratios are one of the reasons why these two uses operate with less stringent rules under the Montreal Protocol and the EU legislation on ozone-depleting substances. However, given that the Montreal Protocol targets have generally been achieved for the EEA-33 and worldwide, the importance of these emissions subsequently becomes more apparent. Therefore, any future changes on the rules affecting these uses could potentially result in additional environmental benefits.

The current reporting framework on ODS in the EU does not include reporting on emissions for laboratory uses. Critical uses are estimated and thus the figures are not comparable for use in this indicator. It is also not possible to estimate the level of emissions that arise from those uses, laboratory and critical uses due to the multitude of technologies and industry-sites involved. Instead, these figures show which ODS uses are still relevant in the EU today and could be a future target of additional operational rules.

The EU has already gone beyond the rules of the Montreal Protocol to tackle some of the remaining challenges. Among these actions, as previously mentioned, the ODS Regulation introduced a new fill ban and a servicing ban affecting HCFCs. The ODS Regulation also covers new substances in addition to those controlled under the Montreal Protocol.

Table 2 (Figure 3) shows the combined ozone depleting potential of the substances covered by both the Montreal Protocol and the ODS Regulation. It becomes apparent that the additional substances covered by the ODS Regulation only ('new substances') are especially relevant as feedstock and industrial solvents (many 'new substances' are used for this latter purpose). The substitution of traditional ODS with these newer ozone-depleting substances is a relatively recent trend and closely monitored by the EEA.

There is also scientific evidence that chemicals other than those covered by the Montreal Protocol and the ODS Regulation are playing a role in the depletion of ozone. Adequately managing the use and releases of other known ozone-depleting substances represents a challenge that will need to be addressed by the international community and the EU.

What is the current state of the ozone layer?

Maximum historical depletion over the south hemisphere (24 September 2006) and over the North hemisphere (15 March 2011)

Note: False-color view of total ozone over the Arctic and Antarctic poles. The purple and blue colors indicate lowest ozone presence, while yellow and red indicate higher ozone presence.

Data source:

Data provenance info is missing.

Downloads and more info

Maximum ozone hole area

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Depletion of stratospheric ozone occurs over both hemispheres of the Earth. However, this phenomenon is significantly less severe in the northern hemisphere (Arctic) than in the southern hemisphere (Antarctica). This is the case because year-to-year meteorological variability is larger over the Arctic than over the Antarctic. Furthermore, temperatures in the stratosphere do not remain low for a long time in the Arctic as is the case in the Antarctic.

The highest historical levels of ozone depletion took place on 24 September 2006 in the southern hemisphere and on 15 March 2011 in the northern Hemisphere. Figure 4 shows the significant difference in the affected area and concentration levels of O3 between the two hemispheres. Concentration levels of 200 Dobson Units (DU)or less (represented in blue/violet in the images) are technically considered to be a severe ozone depletion and constitute the so-called ozone hole. This is only apparent in the southern hemisphere.

When taking a closer look at the situation over Antarctica, where the phenomenon is more serious, it becomes apparent that the depth and areal extent of the ozone hole remains there. Further in 2011, there was a larger depletion compared to 2010 and 2012. On 11 September of 2014, the ozone-hole area reached a daily maximum of 24.1 million square kilometres (Figure 5) - equivalent to about six times the territory of the EU.

The extent of the ozone hole seems to be stagnating with a slight positive prospect. This is also visible in terms of minimum ozone concentrations. During the last three years (2012-2014), the average lowest concentration was 118 DU while over the ten preceding years (2002-2011) it reached an average value of 102.9 DU.

However, the mitigation of the ozone depletion is still very fragile and scientific evidence suggests that more action is still required to remove pressure on the ozone layer caused by ODS.

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments, as well as trends in the remaining uses of ODS within the EU.

Context: The ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth’s atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone (O
3
) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the ultraviolet sun radiation. This natural phenomenon is essential for life on Earth because ultraviolet radiation damages living tissue. Ozone depletion refers to a steady decline of the ozone concentration in the stratosphere and a decrease in stratospheric ozone in the Polar Regions during the spring season. This has become widely known as the ‘ozone hole’. This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was due to complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ozone-depleting substances. ODSs are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity.

Units

Depending on the metric involved, this indicator uses the annual maximum Antarctic Ozone Hole area in square kilometers (km2), ODS consumption weighted by their Ozone-Depletion Potential (ODP) in ODP tonnes.


Policy context and targets

Context description

The 1987 United Nations Environment Programme Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a global decrease of the impact of ozone depleting substances (ODS) on the atmosphere. The agreement covers the phase-out of over 200 ODS including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), trichloroethane 1,1,1 (TCA), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs), bromochloromethane (BCM) and methyl bromide (MB). The Montreal Protocol controls the consumption and production of these substances, not their emissions.

Following the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase-out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks the progress of EU Member States towards this limiting or phasing-out of ODS consumption.

For the European Union, the ratification dates were the following:

Treaty

Date of Ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 Oct 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 Dec 1988

London Amendment

 20 Dec 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 Nov 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 Nov 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 Mar 2002

EEA member countries have made tremendous progress in reducing the consumption and production of ODS since the signing of the Montreal Protocol. In that time, ODS production fell from over half a million ozone depleting potential (ODP) tonnes to practically zero, not including production for exempted uses. Since 2009, EEA member countries have also been subject to the more stringent EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC as amended by 744/2010/EU), which applies to additional substances and accelerates the phase-out of remaining ODS in the EU.

Targets

The international target under the Ozone Conventions and Protocols is the complete phase-out of ODS, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Montreal Protocol are considered as developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10-20 years as compared to non-article 5(1) countries.

Montreal protocolEEA member ountries 
article 5(1)  Turkey
non-article 5(1) All other EEA member countries

 

Summary of phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments.

GroupPhase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countriesRemark

Annex-A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: Halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 01/01/1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: Other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: Carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (=methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 01-01-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (HydroChloroFluoroCarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8% of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35% reduction by 01/01/2004

65% reduction by 01/01/2010

90% reduction by 01/01/2015

99.5% reduction by 01/01/2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date.

100% reduction by 01/01/2030

Applicable to consumption

 

Base level: Average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8% of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8% of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 01/01/2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (HydroBromoFluoroCarbons)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: Bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 01/01/2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 01-01-1995

25% reduction by 01/01/1999

50% reduction by 01/01/2001

75% reduction by 01/01/2003

100% reduction by 01/01/2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Related policy documents

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Maximum ozone hole area

The indicator presents the maximum ozone hole area in square kilometres. The ozone hole area is determined from total ozone satellite measurements. It is defined to be that region of ozone values below 220 Dobson Units (DU) located south of 40°S. The maximum ozone hole area is provided in square kilometres by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center via the Ozone Hole Watch. It can be accessed online at: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

ODS consumption

The indicator presents ODS consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone Secretariat data is already provided in tonnes of Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP tonnes). All data can be downloaded from http://ozone.unep.org/Data_Access/

Formulae for the calculation of consumption are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol and a summary can be accessed here: http://ozone.unep.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions/faqs_compliance.shtml

Simply put, consumption is defined as production + imports – exports. Amounts destroyed or used as feedstock are subtracted from production. Amounts of methyl bromide used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications are excluded. Exports to non-parties are included, but are not allowed.

Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in the official data reporting forms. The parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task itself.

Remaining uses of ODS in EU Member States

The indicator presents reported sales of ODS on the European market and reported production in ODP tonnes (see above). This data is annually reported to the EEA by companies under the EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC) and treated as confidential. Data represented here was reported by at least three company groups that each contributed at least 5% to the total reported amount.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap-filling takes place.

Methodology references

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Policies focus on the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances rather than emissions, which actually harm the ozone layer. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ozone-depleting substances are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.). The same is true for sales of ozone-depleting substances for certain uses and their actual use.

Data sets uncertainty

Data provided by the Ozone Secretariat and the EEA Ozone Database is based on what companies producing, importing, exporting, using or destroying are reporting. A number of rigorous quality checks ensure a high degree of completeness and correctness. The quality of the data ultimately remains the responsibility of each reporting company.

Omissions and double-counting are theoretically possible due to the nature of the reporting obligation under the ODS Regulation. It is estimated that such uncertainties constitute a negligible part of the data.

Rationale uncertainty

Policies focuses on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Climate change Climate change (Primary topic)

Industry Industry

Tags:
csi | climate change | air | ozone | air emissions | ozone air pollution | ozone depleting substances
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 006
  • CLIM 049
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1979-2013
Geographic coverage:
Antarctica, Arctic, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Earth, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

EEA Management Plan

2015 1.2.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100