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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Primary energy consumption by fuel / Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Apr 2012

Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Apr 2012

This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)
Topics: ,

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
growth rates | fuels | energy consumption | csi | electricity | ghg retrospective | lca | energy
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 029
  • ENER 026
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption Europe?

Key messages

Total gross inland energy consumption decreased by 1.3%/year since 2005 in EEA countries (-1.7%/year in EU-27); it increased however in non-EU EEA by 3%/year; an opposite trend was observed from 1990 to 2005 with an increase by 0.7%/year from 1990 to 2005 (0.6%/year for EU-27 and 2.4%/year for non-EU EEA). In 2009 the gross energy consumption decreased with the economic crisis by 5.1% in EEA countries, mainly in EU-27 (-5.5%/year compared to -1% in non-EU EEA countries)

Fossil fuels continue to dominate total gross energy consumption in EU-27, but their share is declining: from 83% in 1990 to 77% in 2009. The share of renewable energy sources more than doubled over the period, from 4.3% in 1990 to 9 % in 2009. The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased slightly, to 13.6% in 2009 from 12.3 % in 1990.

 

Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27

Note: Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

 

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Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Note: Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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Shares of various energy sources in total gross energy consumption by fuel in 2009

Note: Shares of various energy sources in total gross energy consumption by fuel in 2009

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) emissions of energy technologies for electricity production

Note: LCA emissions of energy technologies for electricity production. Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, potential flooding and changed water levels from large hydro power) and the incineration of municipal waste (which is generally made up of both renewable and non-renewable material) may also generate local air pollution.

Data source:

EEA (2009) - Review and analysis of emissions' life cycle analysis studies in the field of conventional and renewable energy generation technologies. Copenhagen, EEA, February 2009

"Life Cycle Analysis of GHG and Air Pollutant Emissions from Renewable and Conventional Electricity, Heating, and Transport Fuel Options in the EU until 2030”, ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/18

http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/reports/docs//ETCACC_TP_2009_18_LCA_GHG_AE_2013-2030.pdf

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Key assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2009, total gross inland energy consumption in EU-27 countries only increased marginally (0.1%/year) and was in 2009 only 2.3% above its 1990 level. Between 2005 and 2009, it decreased by 1.7%/year, with a significant drop in 2009 by 5.5% due to the global economic crisis. For details see Figure 1 and Table 1.
  • The share of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil and natural gas) in gross inland consumption declined slightly from 83 % in 1990 to 77% in 2009 in the EU-27. During this period, the share of renewables in gross inland consumption increased by 4.7 points, from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9 % in 2009 (see also ENER 29) while the share of energy consumption from nuclear increased from 12.3 % (1990) to 13.6% (2009) (see also ENER13). See Figure 2 for details.
  • Since 2005, renewables were the only growing energy source (+7.1%/year). The consumption of fossil fuels decreased by 2.4% (-4.1%/year for coal, -2.1%/year for oil, -1.7%/year for gas) and that of nuclear by 2.7%.
  • Between 1990 and 2009, the gross inland consumption in non-EU EEA countries increased by 60%, at an annual average growth rate of 2.5%/year, mainly because of Turkey (+3.5%/year). The trend reversed in 2009 when the gross inland energy consumption in these countries decreased by 1% compared to 2008 due to the economic crisis. Turkey represented in 2009 62% of the total gross inland energy consumption of non-EU EEA member states. The share of renewables and nuclear in the energy mix in these countries in 2009 was different from the EU-27, with a lower share for nuclear (4.5%) and a much higher share for renewables (18.9%); fossil fuels is however almost identical (77%).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of solid fuels in total gross inland consumption in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • In EU-27, the share of coal and lignite in gross inland consumption was 15.8 % in 2009, down from around 27.3 % in 1990. Over this period, the absolute consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 40.9 % at an annual average rate of 2.7 % (267.9 Mtoe in 2009). In 2008 and 2009, the decrease in solid fuel consumption was important (7.1% and 12.3% respectively). Solid fuel consumption in the EU-27 has slightly increased from 1999 to 2007 by 0.6%/year on average due to a more or less constant share of coal and lignite in electricity production (see ENER 27 for the electricity production by fuel). This slight increase is partly due to the fact that there was a widening of the gas – coal price differential that benefited to coal and led to a switch from gas to coal in power generation. Increased use of solid fuels has also implications for European import dependency as around 44% of the coal based gross inland consumption was imported in 2009, mostly hard coal – around 95% (see also ENER 12 for details).   
  • In non-EU EEA countries the gross inland consumption from coal and lignite increased by 71%, from 18 Mtoe in 1990 to 31 Mtoe in 2009; the share of solid fuels was 19.3% in 2009 (18% in 1990). Most of the consumption is due to Turkey.

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption increased from around 18 % in 1990 to 24.6 % in 2009. Over the period, the consumption in natural gas increased by 40.8% (417 Mtoe in 2009) at an annual average growth rate of 1.8% per year, the second highest rate behind renewables (4.1%year). This is due to switching from coal to gas which occurred in the power generation sector (but not exclusively), triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). Between 2005 and 2009 the gross inland consumption of gas decreased by 1.7%/year compared to an increase by 2.8%/year for the period 1990-2005. In 2009, the consumption of natural gas decreased sharply with the economic crisis, at the same rate as total gross inland consumption (-5.5%) (see Figure 2). Natural gas use also has implications for European import dependency as around 64% of the gas-based gross inland consumption was imported in 2009 (see also ENER 12 for details). The increased penetration of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) does not reduce the dependency on imports, but helps in diversifying suppliers.  Qatar is the EU's leading supplier of LNG, supplying 35% of all LNG imports in the EU in 2009, followed by Algeria (17.9%), Nigeria (14%), Trinidad and Tobago (13.2%), Egypt (10.9%) and Norway (4.2%).[1]
  • In non-EU EEA countries the share of natural gas in gross inland consumption increased rapidly and almost quadrupled, from 6.4% in 1990 to 23.1% in 2009 (37 Mtoe in 2009). This trend is mainly due to Turkey that absorbs 78% of the gas consumption of these countries.


 (1) [1] EU-27, LNG imports according to country of origin in 2009 (49.7 bcm in 2009) from Eurostat’s COMEXT database

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of crude oil and petroleum products in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of oil (crude oil and petroleum products) increased until 1998, from around 38 % in 1990 to almost 40% in 1998. It has then been decreasing and reached 36.7 % in 2009 (623 Mtoe in 2009). In absolute terms, consumption increased slowly between 1990 and 2005 (0.5%/year): the increased demand for petrol and diesel in the transport sector was quite offset by a decline in the use of oil for power generation and for thermal uses in the industry and residential sectors. Since 2005, the oil consumption decreased by 2.1%/year partly because of an increase use of biofuels in the transport sector and as a response to high oil price. In 2009, the consumption of oil decreased by 5.4% due to the economic crisis which led for the first time to a decrease in transport demand (see ENER 16). In EU-27, in 2009 around 90% of the crude oil and oil products consumed were imported (see also ENER 12). 
  • In non-EU EEA countries the share of oil in gross inland consumption decreased from 45.3% in 1990 to 34.9% in 2009 (56 Mtoe in 2009).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of renewables in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of renewables in total gross inland consumption in EU-27 increased from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9 % in 2009 (+4.7 points) at an annual average growth rate of 4.1%/year (see also ENER 29). The share of renewables mainly increased since 2005: +2.6 points, which represents more than half of the progression since 1990. Renewables were the fastest growing energy source between 1990 and 2009 due primarily to environmental and security of supply concerns and climate change policies. However, despite increased support at the EU and national level, their contribution in total gross inland consumption remains low at 9% in 2009. Biomass and renewable wastes represent the main part of renewable in gross energy consumption (69%) or 6.2% of the gross inland energy consumption, due to a growing energy consumption (+ 7.8%/year since 2005). Hydro represents 18% of the renewable inland consumption (or 1.7% of the total gross inland consumption) in 2009; this consumption has increased by 1.8%/year since 2005. Wind, geothermal and solar represent respectively 7%, 4% and 2% of the renewable energy consumption in 2009 (0.7%, 0.3% and 0.1%  of the gross inland energy consumption). 
  • Gross electricity consumption from renewables increased by 3.6 %/year from 1990 to 2009, and by 6%/year between 2005 and 2009; the share of renewables in gross electricity production increased from 12.6% in 1990 to 19.6% in 2009; since 2005 electricity production from wind increased by 17.2%/year, and by 76.3%/year for solar (hydro production increased less rapidly, by 1.3%/year) (see also ENER 27).
  • In non-EU EEA countries the share of renewable in gross inland consumption decreased from 25.8% in 1990 to 18.9% in 2009; this consumption increased by 17% between 1990 to 2009 (30 Mtoe in 1990) but at a lower rate than the total gross inland consumption (60%).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of nuclear energy increased until 2002 from 12.3 % in 1990 to 14.6% in 2002: it has then been slowly decreasing (13.6 % in 2009). In absolute terms, consumption of nuclear energy increased until 2005 (+1.5%/year between 1990 and 2005) and is now decreasing (-2.7%/year between 2005 and 2009), because of the shutdown of reactors in several countries (Lithuania in 2009, Bulgaria in 2006 and Slovakia in 2006 and 2008). In non-EU EEA countries the share of nuclear in gross inland consumption was 4.5% in 2009 (6.1% in 1990); this consumption increased by 17%. Switzerland is the only non-EU EEA country with nuclear.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2011 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)
Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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