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Total Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment DRAFT created Dec 2012

Indicator Assessment Created 20 Dec 2012 Last modified 31 Oct 2013, 09:28 AM

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Indicator definition

The structure of the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption provides an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of fuel consumed as well as abatement technologies applied.

Units

Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage.


Key policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption Europe?

Key messages

In 2010, in the EU-27, gross inland consumption increased by 3.3 % due to the mild economic recovery. This represents 5.6 % above the level in 1990 but 3.6 % below the level in 2005. In the EEA, gross inland consumption increased by 3.6 % in 2010 which is 9.2 % above the level in 1990 and 1.9 % below the level in 2005. In the non-EU EEA countries gross inland consumption increased by 69.4 % between 1990 and 2010.The main reason behind the difference in the trend for this group of countries is as a result of the large increase in gross inland consumption observed in Turkey and to a certain extent in Norway.

Fossil fuels continue to dominate total gross energy consumption in EU-27, but their share is declining: from 83.1 % in 1990 to 76.4 % in 2010. The share of renewable energy sources more than doubled over the period, from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9.8 % in 2010, increasing at an annual rate of 4.5%/year. The annual growth during 2005-2010 has been much quicker at 8.2 %/year. The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased slightly, to 13.5% in 2010 from 12.3 % in 1990.

Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27 and in the non-EU27 EEA countries

Note: Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27 and in the non-EU27 EEA countries

Data source:
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Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Note: Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Data source:
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Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2010

Note: Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2010

Data source:
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Key assessment

  • In 2010 in the EU-27, gross inland consumption increased 3.3 % due to the mild economic recovery. This is 5.6 % above its level in 1990 but 3.6 % below its level in 2005 (see Figure 1a). In the EEA, gross inland consumption increased 3.6 % which is 9.2 % above and 1.9 % below its levels in 1990 and 2005 respectively. In the non-EU EEA countries, gross inland consumption increased by 69.4 % between 1990 and 2010.The main reason behind the difference in the trend for this group of countries is as a result of the large increase in gross inland consumption observed in Turkey and to a certain extent in Norway (see Figure 1b).
  • The share of renewables in total gross inland consumption increased from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9.8 % in 2010 (+5.5 points) (see also ENER 29). Renewables were the fastest growing energy source between 1990 and 2010 due primarily to environmental and security of supply concerns and climate change policies (see Figure 2). Total consumption of renewables increased 143.4 % at an average rate of 4.5 %/year over the period 1990-2010. The observed increase was quicker in recent years with a growth of 8.2 %/year over the period 2005-2010. In 2010, consumption of renewables in the EU-27 increased by 12.7 %. The same cannot be said about the non-EU EEA countries and consumption of renewables increased only by 9.0 % during 1990-2010, significantly less than all other fuel types.
  • In the EU-27 the share of coal and lignite in gross inland consumption was 16.0 % in 2010, down from around 27.3 % in 1990. Since 1990, the absolute consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 38.3 % at an annual average rate of 2.4 % partly due to increased environmental and health concerns, but predominantly as a result increased use of combined-cycle gas plants as a result of their low capital costs, high efficiency and also low gas prices. Since 2005, consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 11.8 % largely due to the economic downturn.
  • The share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption increased from around 17.8 % in 1990 to 25.2 % in 2010. Over the period, the consumption in natural gas increased by 49.3 % (2.0%/year), the second highest rate behind renewables (143 %). This is due to switching from coal to gas which occurred in the power generation sector (but not exclusively), triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). Since 2005, natural gas consumption has only fallen slightly by 0.9 % despite the increase in gas price. This is partly as a result of the cold winter in 2010 which led to higher heating demand and also slight fall in gas price in 2010 compared to previous years. Observed gas consumption in the intervening years were lower. In the non-EU EEA countries, gas consumption has increased 37.1 % since 2005. This was a result of Norway and Turkey, whose gas consumptions in 2010 were 38 % and 53 % higher than in 2005 respectively. Turkey’s economy has grown significantly since 2005 resulting in higher electricity consumption (see also ENER 16) and other fuels. But the increase in natural gas consumption has been significant since Turkey uses natural gas to produce half of its electricity.
  • The share of oil (crude oil and petroleum products) declined slightly from around 38 % in 1990 to 35.2 % in 2010. In absolute terms, in 2010, consumption of oil stood 0.1 % below its level in 1990. However all the observed decline took place post 2005 and oil consumption levels in 2010 was 9.2 % below its levels in 2005. This is partly because of the increase in the use of biofuels in the transport sector, high oil prices and the economic downturn. Prior to this decline, consumption remained quite stable as a result of the increased demand for petrol and diesel in the transport sector being offset by a decline in the use of oil for power generation and in the industry and residential sectors. Whereas consumption of all other fuels increased in 2010, consumption of oil fell by 1.0 %.
  • The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased 12.3 % in 1990 to 13.5 % in 2010. In recent years the growth slowed down because of the shutdown of reactors in several countries (Lithuania in 2004 and 2009, Bulgaria in 2002 and 2006 and Slovakia in 2006 and 2008). During 2005-2010, consumption of nuclear energy fell 10.4 %. The largest reductions are observed in Lithuania (closed their last nuclear power plant at the end of 2009 and now importing over 60% of their electricity), UK (-30 % since 2004), Sweden (-25% since 2005), Bulgaria (-24 % since 2003) and in Slovakia (-18 % since 2004). Nuclear production however increased continuously in recent years in three countries, in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.
  • In the non-EU EEA countries, the gross inland energy consumption increased much more quickly during 1990-2010 (+ 69.4 % in the non EU-EEA countries compared to 5.6 % in the EU-27), mainly because of the large increase observed in Turkey (+3.6 %/year), who accounted for 63.6 % of all energy consumption in the non-EU EEA countries. In the last 5 years gross inland energy consumption in the non-EU EEA countries has increased by 20 % (compared to the 3.6 % decline in the EU-27). The shares by fuel in 2010 in non EU-EEA are quite different from the EU average: nuclear represents a much higher share in the EU-27 (13.5 % compared to 4.1 % in non EU-EEA), while renewables have a greater diffusion in non EU-EEA (17 % in non EU-EEA compared to 9.8 % in EU-27). The share of fossil fuels is however almost identical (76-78 %).
  • Fuel switching has implications on how dependent Europe is on imported fuels. Almost all oil consumed in the EU is imported (91 %) as there is limited primary production, thus an increase in the use of oil is highly likely to increase Europe’s dependency on imported fuels. The situation is little better for natural gas and significantly better for solid fuels since less of the fuel consumed is imported (62 % and 39 % respectively). In 2010, 71 % of all fossil fuels consumed was imported, 3 and 17 percentage points higher than in 2005 and 1990. This is as a result of an increase in the dependency on imported fuels for all fossil fuel types between 1990 and 2010. Shift towards renewables will reduce Europe’s dependency on imported fuels since only 0.3 % of renewables consumed in the EU-27 are imported (see ENER 36 for dependency of the EU on imported fuels).  

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The level, the evolution as well as the structure of the total gross inland energy consumption provide an indication of the extent  environmental pressures caused by energy production and consumption are likely to diminish or not. The indicator displays data disaggregated by fuel type as the associated environmental impacts are fuel-specific.

The consumption of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, oil products, hard coal, lignite and natural and derived gas) provides a proxy indicator for resource depletion, CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution levels (e.g. SO2 and NOX), water pollution and biodiversity loss. The degree of environmental impact depends on the relative share of different fossil fuels and the extent to which pollution abatement measures are used. Natural gas, for instance, has approximately 40 % less carbon than coal per unit of energy content, and 25 % less carbon content than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur.

The level of nuclear energy consumption provides an indication of the trends in the amount of nuclear waste generated and of the risks associated with radioactive leaks and accidents. Increasing consumption of nuclear energy at the expense of fossil fuels would on the other hand contribute to reductions in CO2 emissions.

Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, potential flooding and changed water levels from large hydro power) and the incineration of municipal waste (which is generally made up of both renewable and non-renewable material) may also generate local air pollution. 


Policy context

On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication "Energy Roadmap 2050". The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness.

On 10 November 2010, the European Commission has adopted the Communication "Energy 2020 - A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy". The Communication defines defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prizes and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners.

Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents:

  • A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)

Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.

  • Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 (COM(2011) 109 final)

Proposes additional measures to achieve the 20 % primary energy saving target by 2020.

  • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final)

Energy efficiency is the first of the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.

  • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents

Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community

 

Directive 2009/31/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide

 

Directive 2009/28/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources

 

Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)

 

Directive 2008/101/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community

 

Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

 

Regulation (EC) no 510/2011 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

 

  • Large Combustion Plant Directive; Directive 2001/80/EC

Aims to control emissions of SO2, NOx and particulate matter from large combustion plants (> 50 MW).

  • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final

Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

  • Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778 final/2

Directive on intensification of existing regulation on energy-efficiency of products.

  • Energy Performance Buildings Directive; Directive 2002/91/EC

The Member States must apply minimum requirements as regards the energy performance of new and existing buildings, ensure the certification of their energy performance and require the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.

  • Energy Performance Buildings Directive (recast); Directive 2010/31/EU

Strengthens the energy performance requirements of the 2002 Directive.

  • Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2

Sets targets for the GHG emissions from different fuel types (e.g. by improving refinery technologies) and allows the blending of up to 10 % of biofuels into diesel and petrol.

 

References

COM(2011) 112 final: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050

COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy

COD/2007/0297 - Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

COD/2008/0013 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community

COD/2008/0014 - Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020

COM(2007) 18 final/2 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of road transport fuels and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC, as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EEC

COM(2008) 778 final/2 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products

COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review

Directive 2001/80/EC - Directive on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants

Directive 2002/91/EC - Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings

Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast)

Directive 2005/32/EC - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

Directive 2009/28/EC  - Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Brussels, 2009

BP (2012) - BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012 http://www.bp.com/extendedsectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9041232&contentId=7075237

EEA (2009) - Review and analysis of emissions' life cycle analysis studies in the field of conventional and renewable energy generation technologies. Copenhagen, EEA, February 2009

EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm

UNFCCC (1997) Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997

      Targets

      The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in gross inland energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

      Related policy documents

      • 443/2009
        Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
      • 2002/91/EC
        Energy Performance Buildings Directive
      • 2008/101/EC
        Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
      • 2008/c 82/01
        Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
      • 2009/28/EC
        Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
      • 2009/29/ec
        Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
      • 2009/31/EC
        Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
      • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
        Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
      • COD/2007/0297
        Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
      • COD/2008/0013
        Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community.
      • COD/2008/0014
        Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
      • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
        With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
      • COM(2007) 18 final
        Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2
      • COM(2008) 778
        Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
      • COM(2008) 781
        COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
      • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
        A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
      • COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
        Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
      • Directive 2001/80/EC, large combustion plants
        Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants
      • DIRECTIVE 2005/32/EC
        The Directive establises a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amends Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
      • DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU - Energy performance of buildings directive
        DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings(recast)
      • Directive 2012/27/eu
        DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
      • EEA (2009) - Review and analysis of emissions' life cycle analysis studies in the field of conventional and renewable energy generation technologies
        Copenhagen, EEA, February 2009
      • REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011
        REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

      Methodology

      Methodology for indicator calculation

      Technical information

           
          

      • Description of data/Indicator definition:
        Total energy consumption or gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year.
        Units: Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage.

       

      • Geographical coverage:
        The Agency had 32 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. Where unspecified the data presented represents the EU-27.

       

      • Temporal coverage: 1990-2011.

       

      • Methodology and frequency of data collection:
        Data collected annually.
        Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
      • Methodology of data manipulation:
        Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
        The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator are:
        • Numerator: solid fuels 2000 gross inland consumption 100900 + oil 3000 gross inland consumption 100900 + gas 4000 gross inland consumption 100900 + nuclear energy 5100 gross inland consumption 100900 + renewable energies 5500 gross inland consumption 100900 + industrial waste 7100 gross inland consumption + 6000 electrical energy 100900 gross inland consumption.
        • Denominator: (total) gross inland consumption (of energy) 100900

       

      Qualitative information

      • Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
        Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.
        Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
        In circumstances where data for one or more of the non-EU27 EEA countries is unavailable predictions based on previous years' values and percentage changes in reporting nations has been used to estimate total EEA values.

       

      • Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
        Indicator uncertainty (historic data)
        The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.
        From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.
        Total energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country (in terms of final energy demand). Fuel switching may in some cases have a significant effect in changing total energy consumption even though there is no change in (final) energy demand. This is because different fuels and different technologies convert primary energy into useful energy with different efficiency rates.
      • Overall scoring – historical data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):

                      Relevance: 1

                      Accuracy: 1

                      Comparability over time: 1      

                      Comparability over space: 1

      Methodology for gap filling

      No gap filling necessary

      Methodology references

      No methodology references available.

      Uncertainties

      Methodology uncertainty

      The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.

      From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.

      Total energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country (in terms of final energy demand). Fuel switching may in some cases have a significant effect in changing total energy consumption even though there is no change in (final) energy demand. This is because different fuels and different technologies convert primary energy into useful energy with different efficiency rates.

      Data sets uncertainty

      Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.

      Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics.

      http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

      Rationale uncertainty

      The structure of the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption provides an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of fuel consumed as well as abatement technologies applied.

      More information about this indicator

      See this indicator specification for more details.

      Generic metadata

      Topics:

      Energy Energy (Primary topic)

      Tags:
      growth rates | ghg retrospective | energy consumption | energy | fuels
      DPSIR: Driving force
      Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
      Indicator codes
      • CSI 029
      • ENER 026
      Dynamic
      Temporal coverage:
      1990-2010
      Geographic coverage:
      Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

      Contacts and ownership

      EEA Contact Info

      Anca-Diana Barbu

      Ownership

      EEA Management Plan

      2012 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

      Dates

      Frequency of updates

      Updates are scheduled once per year
      European Environment Agency (EEA)
      Kongens Nytorv 6
      1050 Copenhagen K
      Denmark
      Phone: +45 3336 7100