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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Total Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel / Total Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment DRAFT created Dec 2012

Total Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment DRAFT created Dec 2012

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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
growth rates | ghg retrospective | energy consumption | energy | fuels
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 029
  • ENER 026
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2010
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption Europe?

Key messages

In 2010, in the EU-27, gross inland consumption increased by 3.3 % due to the mild economic recovery. This represents 5.6 % above the level in 1990 but 3.6 % below the level in 2005. In the EEA, gross inland consumption increased by 3.6 % in 2010 which is 9.2 % above the level in 1990 and 1.9 % below the level in 2005. In the non-EU EEA countries gross inland consumption increased by 69.4 % between 1990 and 2010.The main reason behind the difference in the trend for this group of countries is as a result of the large increase in gross inland consumption observed in Turkey and to a certain extent in Norway.

Fossil fuels continue to dominate total gross energy consumption in EU-27, but their share is declining: from 83.1 % in 1990 to 76.4 % in 2010. The share of renewable energy sources more than doubled over the period, from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9.8 % in 2010, increasing at an annual rate of 4.5%/year. The annual growth during 2005-2010 has been much quicker at 8.2 %/year. The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased slightly, to 13.5% in 2010 from 12.3 % in 1990.

Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27 and in the non-EU27 EEA countries

Note: Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27 and in the non-EU27 EEA countries

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Note: Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2010

Note: Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2010

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Key assessment

  • In 2010 in the EU-27, gross inland consumption increased 3.3 % due to the mild economic recovery. This is 5.6 % above its level in 1990 but 3.6 % below its level in 2005 (see Figure 1a). In the EEA, gross inland consumption increased 3.6 % which is 9.2 % above and 1.9 % below its levels in 1990 and 2005 respectively. In the non-EU EEA countries, gross inland consumption increased by 69.4 % between 1990 and 2010.The main reason behind the difference in the trend for this group of countries is as a result of the large increase in gross inland consumption observed in Turkey and to a certain extent in Norway (see Figure 1b).
  • The share of renewables in total gross inland consumption increased from 4.3 % in 1990 to 9.8 % in 2010 (+5.5 points) (see also ENER 29). Renewables were the fastest growing energy source between 1990 and 2010 due primarily to environmental and security of supply concerns and climate change policies (see Figure 2). Total consumption of renewables increased 143.4 % at an average rate of 4.5 %/year over the period 1990-2010. The observed increase was quicker in recent years with a growth of 8.2 %/year over the period 2005-2010. In 2010, consumption of renewables in the EU-27 increased by 12.7 %. The same cannot be said about the non-EU EEA countries and consumption of renewables increased only by 9.0 % during 1990-2010, significantly less than all other fuel types.
  • In the EU-27 the share of coal and lignite in gross inland consumption was 16.0 % in 2010, down from around 27.3 % in 1990. Since 1990, the absolute consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 38.3 % at an annual average rate of 2.4 % partly due to increased environmental and health concerns, but predominantly as a result increased use of combined-cycle gas plants as a result of their low capital costs, high efficiency and also low gas prices. Since 2005, consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 11.8 % largely due to the economic downturn.
  • The share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption increased from around 17.8 % in 1990 to 25.2 % in 2010. Over the period, the consumption in natural gas increased by 49.3 % (2.0%/year), the second highest rate behind renewables (143 %). This is due to switching from coal to gas which occurred in the power generation sector (but not exclusively), triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). Since 2005, natural gas consumption has only fallen slightly by 0.9 % despite the increase in gas price. This is partly as a result of the cold winter in 2010 which led to higher heating demand and also slight fall in gas price in 2010 compared to previous years. Observed gas consumption in the intervening years were lower. In the non-EU EEA countries, gas consumption has increased 37.1 % since 2005. This was a result of Norway and Turkey, whose gas consumptions in 2010 were 38 % and 53 % higher than in 2005 respectively. Turkey’s economy has grown significantly since 2005 resulting in higher electricity consumption (see also ENER 16) and other fuels. But the increase in natural gas consumption has been significant since Turkey uses natural gas to produce half of its electricity.
  • The share of oil (crude oil and petroleum products) declined slightly from around 38 % in 1990 to 35.2 % in 2010. In absolute terms, in 2010, consumption of oil stood 0.1 % below its level in 1990. However all the observed decline took place post 2005 and oil consumption levels in 2010 was 9.2 % below its levels in 2005. This is partly because of the increase in the use of biofuels in the transport sector, high oil prices and the economic downturn. Prior to this decline, consumption remained quite stable as a result of the increased demand for petrol and diesel in the transport sector being offset by a decline in the use of oil for power generation and in the industry and residential sectors. Whereas consumption of all other fuels increased in 2010, consumption of oil fell by 1.0 %.
  • The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased 12.3 % in 1990 to 13.5 % in 2010. In recent years the growth slowed down because of the shutdown of reactors in several countries (Lithuania in 2004 and 2009, Bulgaria in 2002 and 2006 and Slovakia in 2006 and 2008). During 2005-2010, consumption of nuclear energy fell 10.4 %. The largest reductions are observed in Lithuania (closed their last nuclear power plant at the end of 2009 and now importing over 60% of their electricity), UK (-30 % since 2004), Sweden (-25% since 2005), Bulgaria (-24 % since 2003) and in Slovakia (-18 % since 2004). Nuclear production however increased continuously in recent years in three countries, in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.
  • In the non-EU EEA countries, the gross inland energy consumption increased much more quickly during 1990-2010 (+ 69.4 % in the non EU-EEA countries compared to 5.6 % in the EU-27), mainly because of the large increase observed in Turkey (+3.6 %/year), who accounted for 63.6 % of all energy consumption in the non-EU EEA countries. In the last 5 years gross inland energy consumption in the non-EU EEA countries has increased by 20 % (compared to the 3.6 % decline in the EU-27). The shares by fuel in 2010 in non EU-EEA are quite different from the EU average: nuclear represents a much higher share in the EU-27 (13.5 % compared to 4.1 % in non EU-EEA), while renewables have a greater diffusion in non EU-EEA (17 % in non EU-EEA compared to 9.8 % in EU-27). The share of fossil fuels is however almost identical (76-78 %).
  • Fuel switching has implications on how dependent Europe is on imported fuels. Almost all oil consumed in the EU is imported (91 %) as there is limited primary production, thus an increase in the use of oil is highly likely to increase Europe’s dependency on imported fuels. The situation is little better for natural gas and significantly better for solid fuels since less of the fuel consumed is imported (62 % and 39 % respectively). In 2010, 71 % of all fossil fuels consumed was imported, 3 and 17 percentage points higher than in 2005 and 1990. This is as a result of an increase in the dependency on imported fuels for all fossil fuel types between 1990 and 2010. Shift towards renewables will reduce Europe’s dependency on imported fuels since only 0.3 % of renewables consumed in the EU-27 are imported (see ENER 36 for dependency of the EU on imported fuels).  

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2012 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)
Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Denmark
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