Overview of the European energy system

Indicator Assessment
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Also known as: CSI 045 , ENER 036
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The EU28 is still heavily dependent on fossil fuels, which accounted in 2012 for 74.6% of the total gross inland energy consumption compared to renewables at only 11%. The share of fossil fuels (gas, solid fuels and oil) [1] in the total gross inland energy consumption of the EU28 declined from 83.0% in 1990 to 74.6% in 2012. at an annual rate of 0.3 % per year. Between 2005 and 2012, the share of fossil fuels in gross inland energy consumption decreased slightly faster at 0.6 % per year. The EU’s dependence on imports of fossil fuels from non-EU countries remained relatively stable between 2005 and 2012. In 2012, EU28 net import of fossil fuels was 53.4% of its total gross inland energy consumption with 58.2% for oil, 28.3% for gas and 13.6% for solid fuels. In 2012 only 71.4% of the total gross inland energy consumption in the EU28 reached the end users. Between 1990 and 2012, energy losses in transformation and distribution were about 29% of total gross inland energy consumption and did not show a significant trend. The average efficiency of electricity and heat production of conventional thermal power stations and district heating plants in the EU28 improved over the period 1990 and 2012 by 4.8 percentage points to reach 49.4% in 2012. The main increase was seen between 1990 and 2010 with an increase of 6.3 percentage points (from 44.6% in 1990 to 50.9% in 2010). The improvement before 2010 was due to the closure of old inefficient plants, improvements in existing technologies, often combined with a switch from coal power plants to more efficient combined cycle gas turbines. Between 2010 and 2012, there was a slight fall in the efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal power plants and district heating plants of 1.5 percentage points (from 50.9% in 2010 to 49.4% in 2012) because of increased power production from coal and lignite and due to lower heat production. [1] Definitions are provided in the meta data.

Key messages

The EU28 is still heavily dependent on fossil fuels, which accounted in 2012 for 74.6% of the total gross inland energy consumption compared to renewables at only 11%. The share of fossil fuels (gas, solid fuels and oil)[1] in the total gross inland energy consumption of the EU28 declined from 83.0% in 1990 to 74.6% in 2012. at an annual rate of 0.3 % per year. Between 2005 and 2012, the share of fossil fuels in gross inland energy consumption decreased slightly faster at 0.6 % per year.

The EU’s dependence on imports of fossil fuels from non-EU countries remained relatively stable between 2005 and 2012. In 2012, EU28 net import of fossil fuels was 53.4% of its total gross inland energy consumption with 58.2% for oil, 28.3% for gas and 13.6% for solid fuels.

In 2012 only 71.4% of the total gross inland energy consumption in the EU28 reached the end users. Between 1990 and 2012, energy losses in transformation and distribution were about 29% of total gross inland energy consumption and did not show a significant trend.

The average efficiency of electricity and heat production of conventional thermal power stations and district heating plants in the EU28 improved over the period 1990 and 2012 by 4.8 percentage points to reach 49.4% in 2012. The main increase was seen between 1990 and 2010 with an increase of 6.3 percentage points (from 44.6% in 1990 to 50.9% in 2010). The improvement before 2010 was due to the closure of old inefficient plants, improvements in existing technologies, often combined with a switch from coal power plants to more efficient combined cycle gas turbines. Between 2010 and 2012, there was a slight fall in the efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal power plants and district heating plants of 1.5 percentage points (from 50.9% in 2010 to 49.4% in 2012) because of increased power production from coal and lignite and due to lower heat production.

[1] Definitions are provided in the meta data.

Is the European energy system becoming more efficient?

Summaries the overall picture of the energy system in the EU (Mtoe)

Note: The figure is a Sankey diagram which shows the composition of the primary energy entering the energy system of the EU-28 in 2012, and where this primary energy was used, either as losses or as consumption by specific sectors of the economy.

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Conversion, transmission and distribution losses in the European energy production system

  • The average energy efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal power stations and district heating plants in the EU28 improved over the period 1990 and 2012 by 4.8 percentage points to reach 49.4% in 2012. The main increase was seen between 1990 and 2010 with an increase of 6.3 percentage points (from 44.6% in 1990 to 50.9% in 2010). Between 2010 and 2012, there was slight fall in efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal power plants and district heating plants of 1.5 percentage points (from 50.9% in 2010 to 49.4% in 2012) mainly because of increased electricity production from coal and lignite but also because of lower heat production. The efficiency for only public thermal power plants showed a similar trend in the EU28 resulting in a net efficiency of 47.6% in 2012. Between 1990 and 2010, the average energy efficiency of public thermal power plants increased by 7.0 percentage points (from 42.2% in 1990 to 49.2% in 2010). Since 2010, the energy efficiency of public thermal power plants declined by 1.6 percentage points to 47.6% in 2012. Autoproducers have higher energy efficiency in general because they are often designed to be more suitable for the heat and electricity demand on a location. Between 1990 and 2005 the average energy efficiency of autoproducers increased by 16.0 percentage points (from 50.6% in 1990 to 66.6% in 2005). There was a fall in efficiency between 2005 and 2012 by 8.8 percentage points (from 66.6% in 2005 to 57.8% in 2012) due to the fall in the output of derived heat (see also ENER 19). The efficiency of district heating by conventional thermal power plants does not show a clear trend between 1990 and 2012. In the EU28 it varies between 76% and 85% and since 2002 is more or less stable around 81%.
  • In 2012, the energy supply sector itself consumed 5.0% of gross inland energy consumption as part of its internal operations level which remained fairly constant since 1990. In addition, around 5.9% of primary energy products (in particular oil) are used directly for non energy purposes (primarily as feedstock in the petrochemical sector) rather than for energy purposes.
  • The efficiency of the energy system (the ratio of final energy consumption to primary energy available for end-users) varies considerably across Member States. Energy available for final consumption ranges from 94.5% for Luxembourg to 46.9% for Estonia .The low level of losses in Luxembourg reflects a significant degree of electricity imports from other countries (which means that the transformation losses involved in its production are not counted in the country of final use) as well as the fact that a significant amount of electricity comes from high efficiency gas-fired power plants with the remaining demand covered from hydro and other renewables. In Estonia on the other hand, the main technologies used for power generation are low efficiency steam technology thermal power plants running primarily on oil-shale, which explains why more than 50% of the primary energy is lost.
  • Losses from distribution are in the EU28 1.6% of the gross inland energy consumption. Distribution losses include losses in gas and heat distribution, in electricity transmission and distribution, and in coal transport. Although on average distribution losses are small, they are subject to sizeable variation between Member States (from 0.2% for Luxembourg to 4.6% for Denmark). Countries with a high amount of district heating tend to have higher overall distribution losses. This is because losses in heat distribution networks can be sizeable (in the order of 5%-25%). Network (i.e. distribution) losses primarily depend on factors such as network design, operation and maintenance, but also on population density of the country. Systems are more efficient when power lines to large consumers are as direct as possible to reduce the number of transformation steps (as these can account for almost half of network losses - Leonardo Energy, 2008). Increasing use of distributed generation may be one way to reduce such losses.
  • The improvement in efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production in the last twenty years has resulted primarily from technological developments. The increased use of combined cycle gas turbine plants (CCGT) was an important factor in improving efficiency in the EU28 during the 90’s. Increased use of CHP has also contributed to the increasing efficiency of electricity production. The rate of change in efficiency during this time period and the existing efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production varies significantly between the European countries (see ENER 19).
  • Between 1990 and 2012, energy losses in transformation and distribution were about 29% and did not show a significant trend. Transformation losses represented 22.0% of EU28 gross inland energy consumption in 2012. In addition to direct generation efficiency, these losses also depend on the fuel mix (e.g. direct production of electricity from renewables, excluding biomass and municipal waste[1], is not subject to transformation losses in the same way as fossil fuels are), the level of electricity imports and the share of nuclear power[2].

[1] If the municipal waste is used for direct utilisation of heat (or in CHP plants), the efficiency can be high in the order of 90%. If the waste however is used for only electricity production, the efficiency is only about 30%. However, these plants are valued primarily because they offer an alternative for waste disposal so efficiency is not the main goal.

[2] In the statistics recorded by Eurostat the ratio of primary energy to electricity production from nuclear is fixed at 1/3.

Is the European energy system decarbonising?

Energy mix in gross inland consumption and conventional power plants

  • The share of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil and natural gas) in gross inland consumption of the EU28 declined slightly from 83.0% in 1990 to 74.6% in 2012. During this period, the share of renewables in gross inland consumption increased by 6.7 percentage points, from 4.3% in 1990 to 11% in 2012 (see also ENER29 and ENER26) while the share of energy consumption from nuclear increased from 12.3% (1990) to 13.5% (2012).
  • Between 2011 and 2012 in the EU28 the gross inland consumption of gas decreased by 2.7%, fossil fuels by 2.1% and nuclear by 2.7%, whereas the gross inland consumption of renewables increased by 9.2% and coal by 2.2%.
  • For the non-EU EEA member states (Turkey, Iceland and Norway[1]), the gross inland energy consumption increased rapidly during 1990-2012 (105% or 3.3%/year on average), mainly because of Turkey (+3.8%/year) and Iceland (+4.7%/year). The growth did not stop in 2004 as observed in the EU. In Turkey the consumption decreased in 2009 with the economic crisis (-0.2%) followed by an increases since 2010 by 5.9%/year. Turkey now represents 76.8% of the total gross inland energy consumption of non-EU EEA member states[2] (up from 68.9% in 1990). The shares by fuel in 2012 in non EU-EEA are on average quite different from the EU average and they differ considerably among the non EU-EEA countries. Nuclear has a 13.8% share in the EU28 where there is zero in the non EU-EEA countries observed here. Due to large shares of geothermal energy in Iceland ( 87%) and hydropower in Norway (46%), the share of renewables in gross inland energy consumption is almost double in non EU-EEA countries (20%) compared to the EU28 (11%). However the share of fossil fuels is similar (about 75% for the EU28 and 80% in the non EU-EEA).
  • Fuel input into conventional thermal power plants fell until 1993 (EEA, 2012), largely due to the economic restructuring in the new Member States. Between 1993 and 2007, a growth of 21% was observed, but since 2007 fuel input decreased by 9% to just above its level in 1990. The increase in fuel combustion during 1993-2007 is primarily as a result of increasing electricity consumption (31.3%). Since 2007, electricity consumption in the EU28 has stabilised (ENER16) whereas average energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production , district heating plants (ENER-19) and electricity generated from renewables (ENER-30) continued to increase. Efficiency of conventional thermal power plants has improved significantly since 1990 and further improvements are possible. CHP plants that utilise a greater portion of the available heat (e.g. directly for space heating or industrial steam) can reach even higher overall efficiencies of 80-90%.

[1] Liechtenstein and Switzerland are not included due to missing data.

[2] Not including Iceland.

Are we reducing the imports of fossil fuels?

Net import as a percentage of fuel-specific Gross Inland Consumption

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Fossil fuel import dependency

  • The EU’s energy system remains highly dependent on imported fossil fuels (see ENER 26). The EU’s dependence on imports of fossil fuels (gas, solid fuels and oil)[1] from non-EU countries has remained stable between 2005 and 2012, around 53% (as a share of total gross inland energy consumption) (see Figure 2). Since 1990 the EU28 relies much more on imported fuels compared to levels in 1990 when 44% of gross inland consumption of all energy products was from imported fossil fuels. About 80% of the increase in import dependency between 1990 and 2012 arises as a result of the increase in imported gas.
  • In 2012 net oil imports accounted for 86.4% of oil-based gross inland consumption plus bunkers, the majority of the imported oil is crude oil which is then refined in the EU rather than already refined petroleum products (Figure 1). For gas, 65.8% of gas-based gross inland consumption was from net imports. Reliance on imported solid fuel is significantly less for solid fuels where 42.2% of solid-fuel based gross inland consumption of solid fuels was from net imports.
  • Imports of petroleum products accounted for 58.2% of the total net fossil fuel imports in 2012, followed by gas then solid fuels which accounted for 28.3% and 13.6% of total fossil fuel import respectively. The share of oil as a percentage of total fossil fuels imported has fallen since 1990 when it accounted for 71%. This is also due to a steep increase in the net import of gas resulting from the increased demand from the electricity generation sector (see ENER 38).
  • There is a large trade volume of petroleum products in the EU28. In 2012, 324.4 MTOE petroleum products (excluding crude oil) were imported in EU28 countries (see Figure 1), equivalent to 57% of total oil-based gross inland consumption plus bunkers. In the same year, 322.2 MTOE was exported. The resulting net import of petroleum products in EU28 from countries outside EU28 was 2.2 MTOE in 2012, equivalent to 0.4% of total oil-based gross inland consumption plus bunkers.
  • In addition to fossil fuels, Europe imports uranium for its nuclear power industry which accounted in 2012 for about 38% of the world's civil nuclear power generation. The EU industry has the capacity for uranium enrichment and fuel fabrication, but is dependent on imported uranium The situation is however better (from diversity of supply point of view) than for most fossil fuels, due to the wide distribution of uranium around the globe, in geopolitically stable areas. In 2012, 27% of uranium delivered to utilities in EU28 originated from Russia, 17% from Canada, 13% from Niger, 12% from Australia and another 12% from Kazakhstan (Euratom, 2013).
  • Biomass imports in EU28 are small. In 2010, net imports as share of total primary biomass supply amounted to 3% and 8% as share of all energy products imports.
  • The net dependence on fuel imports varies significantly between Member States. This reflects differences in the availability of indigenous fossil resources and renewables (see ENER 26 and ENER29).In addition, the level of crude oil import reflects the availability of refining capacity and direct production of final products (for self-consumption or export) versus direct import of these final products (Wood Mackenzie, 2007). For some countries there is limited or no refining capacity (for example in the case of Luxembourg) and hence only final products are imported.

[1] Definitions are provided in the meta data.

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

Gross inland consumption is calculated as follows: primary production + recovered products + total imports + variations of stocks - total exports - bunkers. It corresponds to the addition of final consumption, distribution losses, transformation losses and statistical differences.

Units

Energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity production
Fuel input and electrical and heat output are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Efficiency is measured as the ratio of fuel output to input (%)

EU-27 Share of primary energy by fuel type and, share of final energy consumption by sector
Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage.


Policy context and targets

Context description

Overview of the energy system in 2012

  • In 2012 only 71.4% of the total gross inland energy consumption in the EU28 reached end users. Distribution, energy-sector’s own consumption of energy and other conversion losses represented 28.6% of which 5% resulted from energy consumption by the energy sector. The average energy efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal power stations and district heating plants in the EU28 improved over the period 1990 and 2012 by 4.8 percentage points to reach 49.4% in 2012. In power stations, during the transformation of the energy into electricity, 57.6% of fuel input is lost as conversion losses. Conversion losses are declining in the EU28 as power station efficiencies and electricity generation from renewables and CHP increases (see also ENER 19 and 38) About 26% of transformation output of electricity was from CHP.
  • The EU28 is still heavily dependent on fossil fuels (see ENER 26). In 2012, fossil fuels accounted for 74.6% of gross inland energy consumption whereas renewables accounted for only 11%.
  • A high proportion of the fossil fuels used in the EU28 in 2012 were imported from outside the EU. Net import accounted for 86.4%, 65.8% and 42.2% of gross inland consumptions of oil, gas and solid fuels plus bunkers.
  • Nuclear heat accounts for 44.9% of transformational input into power stations (excluding Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and district heating), followed by solid fuels (30.1%), renewables (14.5%) and natural gas (10.5%).
  • Industries consumed the highest amount of electricity, followed by the domestic sector and other final consumers (which includes the services sector). The largest consumer of natural gas in 2012 was the domestic sector (108.2 MTOE) followed by industries (82.1 MTOE) (see ENER 16) whereas for coal, the largest consumers are electricity generation plants (power stations and CHPs). Coal and gas are also input fuels for other transformation plants which produce manufactured fuels.

Environmental context

Transformation and distribution losses - Not all primary energy (gross inland energy consumption) is available to be utilised as useful final energy for the end-consumer due to various losses that occur within the energy system (in particular transformation losses in the production of electricity and heat). In 2012, 74.6% of the gross inland consumption in European Union came from fossil fuels (see ENER 26). The magnitude of these losses is an important indication of the overall environmental impact of the energy system (e.g. GHG emissions, air pollution, environmental impacts associated with upstream activities of resource extraction). The overall environmental impact has to be seen in the context of the type of fuel and the extent to which abatement technologies are used (see ENER 06). Because Europe imports large amounts of fossil fuels to meet the final energy demand, a significant part of the environmental impact associated with the resource extraction remains outside the realm of European policy.

Efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production - The indicator shows the efficiency of electricity and heat production from conventional thermal plants. The efficiency of electricity and heat production is an important factor since losses in transformation account for a substantial part of the primary energy consumption (see ENER 11). Higher efficiency of production therefore results in substantial reductions in primary energy consumption, hence reduction of environmental pressures due to avoided energy production. However, the overall environmental impact has to be seen in the context of the type of fuel (see ENER 27) and the extent to which abatement technologies are used (see ENER 06).

Compliance with environmental legislation (for example the Large Combustion Plant Directive 2001/80/EC, the CARE package, etc.) requires the application of a series of abatement technologies (e.g. to reduce SO2 emissions requires retrofitting the plant with flue-gas desulphurisation technology, carbon capture and storage to capture CO2 emissions, etc.) increasing the energy consumption of the plant, thus reducing its efficiency. This is why it is important to promote highly efficient generation units, such as IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle).

Gross Inland Energy Consumption by Fuel and Sector - The level, the evolution as well as the structure of the total gross inland energy consumption provide an indication of the extent to which environmental pressures, caused by energy production and consumption, are likely to diminish or not. The indicator displays data disaggregated by fuel type and sector as the associated environmental impacts are fuel-specific and provides an indication of the associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households).

The consumption of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, oil products, hard coal, lignite and natural and derived gas) provides a proxy indicator for resource depletion, CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution levels (e.g. SO2 and NOX), water pollution and biodiversity loss. The degree of environmental impact depends on the relative share of different fossil fuels and the extent to which pollution abatement measures are used. Natural gas, for instance, has approximately 40% less carbon than coal per unit of energy content, and 25% less carbon content than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur.

The level of nuclear energy consumption provides an indication of the trends in the amount of nuclear waste generated and of the risks associated with radioactive leaks and accidents. Increasing consumption of nuclear energy at the expense of fossil fuels would on the other hand contribute to reductions in CO2 emissions.

Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, potential flooding and changed water levels from large hydro power) and the incineration of municipal waste (which is generally made up of both renewable and non-renewable material) may also generate local air pollution.

The efficiency with which electricity is produced also determines the scale of the environmental impacts of electricity production and consumption (see ENER19), as it determines the amount of input fuel required to generate a given quantity of electricity.

The impact also depends upon the total amount of electricity demanded and hence the level of electricity production required (see ENER18 for more details on electricity consumption). Thus another way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment includes using less electricity on the demand-side, through improved efficiency, conservation or a combination of the two.

Fossil fuel import dependency - The environmental impact and fuel import dependency are linked via the fuel mix used to deliver energy services, the level of demand for those services and the form with which these fuels and energy services have to be delivered (e.g. pipeline infrastructure vs. shipping, centralised vs. decentralised energy system, etc.) The level of net imports is determined by several factors including economic issues, the evolution of final energy demand (see ENER16), the efficiency of the energy system (see ENER11) in particular of electricity transformation (see ENER19 and ENER17). It is also strongly affected by the level of indigenous supply as well as the development of alternatives such as renewables (see ENER29). In addition, the need to import fuels also depends on the end-use efficiency (e.g. measures in transport and buildings sector expected to yield significant benefits in this respect (see ENER 21, ENER 02and TERM27)).The environmental pressures associated with energy production will change depending on the fuel mix used (see Figure 4 and ENER 01, ENER 05, ENER 06, ENER07).

Policy context

Current pricing mechanisms in Europe for transmission and distribution services do not necessarily target directly improvements in efficiency of these networks. However, there are a number of policy initiatives aiming at increasing the efficiency in transformation (listed below). Some of the policies below are also linked to the other key policy questions in this factsheet.

  • Directive 2012/27/EU of the European parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, amendingDirectives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EUestablishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the Union in order to ensure the achievement of the Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency and to pave the way for further energy efficiency improvements beyond that date.
  • The European Commission published its proposal for an Energy Efficiency Directive on 22 June 2011. The proposed EED is expected to repeal two existing Directives: the Cogeneration Directive (2004/8/EC) and the Energy Services Directive (2006/32/EC).
  • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final).Energy efficiency is the first of the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.
  • The EU Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (COM (2006)545 final)aims to boost the cost-effective and efficient use of energy in the EU. One of the priority areas is making power generation and distribution more efficient. The Commission is also aiming to develop minimum efficiency requirements for new electricity, heating and cooling capacity to further reduce transformation losses. (DG TREN, 2007).
  • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20% reduction in greenhouse gases, a 20% increase in energy efficiency and a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package (EC, 2009) includes the following main policy documents
  • Communication from the Commission; COM(2012) 271- Renewable Energy: a major player in the European energy market.
  • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
  • Directive 2009/30/EC of the European parliament and of the Councilamending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducinga requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of energy supplied for road transport (Low Carbon Fuel Standard).
  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sourcesand amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/ECsets an indicative target of 21% of renewable electricity in gross electricity consumption in 2010 at EU level. Fulfilling this target will also help meeting the new, mandatory target of 20% renewables in final energy consumption in 2020 set by the Directive 2009/28/EC.
  • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01).
  • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community.
  • Directive on the promotion of high-efficiency cogeneration (2004/8/EC).
  • Directives concerning common rules for theinternal market in electricity (2003/54/EC) and gas (2003/55/EC)have led to the progressive introduction of competition in the electricity supply industry.
  • Directives related to industrial emissions such as theLarge Combustion Plant Directive (2001/80/EC)which aims to control emissions of SOx, NOx and particulate matter from large (>50MW) combustion plants and hence favours the use of higher efficiency CCGT as opposed to coal plants; and theIPPC Directive (96/61/EC)which requires plant of <20MW to meet a set of basic energy efficiency provisions.
  • As part of a recent review of industrial emissions legislation the Commission has proposed(COM/2007/0844 final)a single new Directive, the Industrial Emissions Directive. This Directive has been adopted by the European Parliament on 7 July 2010 and is pending final legal scrutiny before coming into force. It recasts seven existing Directives related to industrial emissions (including the Large Combustion Plant and IPPC Directives) into a single clear and coherent legislative instrument focused on installations bigger than 20 MW. It is expected that these new market structures will encourage switching to cheaper and more efficient technologies.
  • Communication from the Commission; COM(2008) 771 final.

The main objectives of this communication are to report on the current status of the combined heat and power generation (CHP or cogeneration), and to present possibilities for its development.

  • Detailed guidelines for the implementation and application of Annex II to Directive 2004/8/EC; 2008/952/EC

Guidelines for the calculation of the electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration.

  • Regulation (EC) no 510/2011 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realizing the Potential ( COM(2006) 545)
  • The Commission will develop minimum binding energy efficiency requirements for electricity generation facilities, heating and cooling for facilities operating with less than 20 megawatts of power, and possibly for more powerful facilities too (not published yet).
  • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final (EC, 2008a):

Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security. It is aimed to build up energy solidarity among Member States. In July 2009 there was a follow-up where new rules were elaborated to improve security of gas supplies in the framework of the internal gas market and to increase transparency of investments in infrastructure.

  • The EU Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (COM (2006)545 final)aims to boost the cost-effective and efficient use of energy in the EU. It is targeted to reduce energy consumption by 20% by 2020 and to reduce dependency on imported fuels. A revision of the Action Plan is scheduled for 2010 where binding national targets are to be considered.
  • A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.
  • Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 (COM(2011) 109 final)proposes additional measures to achieve the 20% primary energy saving target by 2020.
  • Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778 final/2Directive on intensification of existing regulation on energy-efficiency of products.
  • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final):Energy efficiency is the first of the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.
  • Energy Performance Buildings Directive; Directive 2002/91/EC

The Member States must apply minimum requirements as regards the energy performance of new and existing buildings, ensure the certification of their energy performance and require the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.

  • Energy Performance Buildings Directive (recast); Directive 2010/31/EU

Strengthens the energy performance requirements of the 2002 Directive.

  • Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2

Sets targets for the GHG emissions from different fuel types (e.g. by improving refinery technologies) and allows the blending of up to 10% of biofuels into diesel and petrol.

References

Targets

The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in primary energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. Some of the mandatory measures included in the directive can be implemented through improvements in transformation efficiency.

The Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources establishes a mandatory target of 20% share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption. This indicator does not directly monitor progress towards these targets but it provides a quick snap-shot of the situation in Europe on these issues.

Related policy documents

  • 2002/91/EC
    Energy Performance Buildings Directive
  • 2003/54/EC
    Directives concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity
  • 2003/55/EC
    Directives concerning common rules for the internal market in gas
  • 2008/c 82/01
    Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • 2009/29/ec
    Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • 2009/31/EC
    Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
    With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
  • COM(2006) 545
    Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
  • COM(2007) 18 final
    Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2
  • COM(2008) 771
    Europe can save more energy by combined heat and power generation
  • COM(2008) 778
    Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
  • COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
    Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
  • COM(2012) 271 final
    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: “Renewable Energy : a major player in the European energy market”
  • Directive 2001/80/EC, large combustion plants
    Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants
  • DIRECTIVE 2004/8/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2004/8/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC
  • DIRECTIVE 2006/32/EC
    The directive is relatefd to energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repeals Council Directive 93/76/EEC
  • DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 November 2008 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community
  • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
  • DIRECTIVE 2009/30/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2009/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EEC
  • DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU - Energy performance of buildings directive
    DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings(recast)
  • Directive 2012/27/eu
    DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
  • REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011
    REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Methodology and assumptions used for the Sankey diagram

The Sankey diagram shows the key energy flows (in MTOE) for the EU28 based on 2010 Eurostat data (Figure 1). The left side of the diagram shows the gross inland consumption with the net amount of energy imported compared with what is produced indigenously. The diagram then shows energy conversion of primary energy to secondary energies; heat, electricity and manufactured fuels, through transformation plants (power stations, district heating, CHP, oil refineries and other transformation plants) and the associated conversion losses. The right hand side of the diagram shows the final mix of energy consumption by different EU28 energy users (including: industry, transport, domestic, other final consumers and non-energy use). Note that renewables in transport for ENER 36 include all biofuels whether sustainable or not. Only a proportion of the primary energy entering the energy system of a country flows through to the end user for consumption. There are various diversions and losses incurred before energy reaches the final consumer due to distribution losses and use in the energy sector. The Sankey diagram is useful in capturing the situation in a certain year but other indicators are needed to show the change in energy use over time.

The largest sources of loss are the conversion losses, where a proportion of the chemical energy in the fuel is not embodied in the power or heat leaving the generating plant, but is lost as waste heat not utilized. However, even before fuel is combusted for the generation of power and heat, some of it is diverted for non-energy purposes, for example the use of natural gas as a chemical feed stock in the chemical industry (non-energy purposes). Moreover, once generated some of the power and heat is consumed by the plant operator for the purposes of running auxiliary equipment (consumption of the energy sector), and yet further down the energy supply chain some power or heat is lost as it is distributed to the end user (distribution losses) (both own use in energy industry and distribution losses are shown in a single flow in Figure 1).

The Sankey diagram has been prepared using the data available from Eurostat (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction). For 2012 the figures can be extracted from the Eurostat Energy Balances Sheets 2011 - 2012 for all EU28 counties (available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-EN-14-001/EN/KS-EN-14-001-EN.PDF). The data for Figure 1 (Sankey diagram) and Figure 2 for EU28 have been derived from the following datasets with annual statistics for the supply, transformation, consumption of:

  • all products [nrg_100a]
  • oil [nrg_102a]
  • gas [nrg_103a]
  • electricity [nrg_105a]
  • heat [nrg_106a]
  • renewable energies [nrg_107a]
  1. Supply
    For each of the fossil fuel, the supply consists of:
    • Indigenous production; and
    • Net imports is = imports minus exports
      The overall fuel supply for each fuel is then also affected by:
    • Stock change (can be negative); and
    • Recovered products (From other sources);
    • Exchanges and transfers, returns


    The following are subtracted from overall supply:

    • Direct use; and
    • International Bunkers

  2. Consumption

    The final consumers are split into the following:

    • Industry
    • Domestic
    • Non-energy Consumption
    • Other final consumers (Other sectors minus Domestic)
    • Transport
    • Distribution losses plus Consumption of the energy branch

  3. Transformation input

    There are five transformations included in the diagram. The inputs in the following five transformations are:

    • CHP
      Input into CHP is = ∑ Transformation input into CHP (gas, solid fuels, all petroleum products, renewable energies)
    • Power stations
      Input into power stations is = ∑ transformation input into power stations (gas, solid fuels, total petroleum products, nuclear, renewable energies) - ∑ transformation input into CHPs (gas, solid fuels, all petroleum products, renewable energies)
    • District Heating
      Input into district heating plants = ∑ transformation input into district heating (gas, solid fuels, all petroleum products, renewables energies)
    • Refineries
      Input into refineries = Net crude oil import + indigenous production of crude oil – direct use + stock change + recovered products + Exchanges and transfers, returns

      The above are all of crude oil, feedstocks and other hydrocarbons, nrg_102a, product code: 3100.

    • Other transformation plants
      Input into other transformation plants = ∑ transformation input into other transformation (gas, solid fuels, all petroleum products)

  4. Transformation output

    The outputs from the above five transformations are calculated as follows:

    • CHP
      Output from CHP = ∑ transformation output from CHP (heat, electricity)
    • Power stations
      Output from power stations = ∑ Transformation output from power stations (heat, electricity) - ∑ Transformation output from CHP (heat, electricity)
    •  District Heating
      Output from district heating plants = Transformation output from district heating
    • Refineries
      Output from refineries = Transformation output from refineries + Exchanges and transfers, returns
      The amount of all petroleum products available for consumption also includes net import of all petroleum products.
    • Other transformation plants
      Output from other transformation plants = ∑ transformation output from other transformation (Derived gases, Coke, Brown coal briquettes)
  5. Conversion losses

    Conversion losses for transformation plants = transformation input – transformation output

  6. Secondary energy

    The transformation processes produce secondary fuels/ energies (transformation output) in the Sankey diagram, namely electricity, heat and manufactured fuels (derived gases, petroleum products, coke and brown coal briquettes). Secondary energies are allocated to end-user consumers categories (point 2.) in the same way as primary energy inputs are, and supply of secondary energies are also affected in the same way as primary energy inputs (point 1). It should noted that the transformation output of manufactured fuels from other transformation is not consistent with the manufactured fuels consumed by end-users. This is because a proportion of manufactured fuels are consequently used as input for further transformation (e.g. CHP) which is not captured in the Sankey diagram. Manufactured fuels consumed by another transformation plant after the fuel transformation are included as part of the input of gas, solid fuels, all petroleum products into these transformation plants. As a result the input and the output from the other transformation plants box do not balance.

  1. Data source

    Eurostat (historic energy data), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/
    European Environment Agency (Historic emissions data)

  2. Description of data/Indicator definition

  3. Geographical coverage: EU28 plus Norway, Turkey, Iceland,

    The Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. Where Eurostat data was not available, the data is not included in this factsheet.

  4. Temporal coverage: 1990-2012

  5. Methodology and frequency of data collection: 

    Data collected annually.
    Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/coded/info/data/coded/en/Theme9.htm
    Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/nrg_base.htm
    Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

    Official data (national total and sectoral emissions) reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on
    Climate Change (UNFCCC) and under the EU Monitoring Mechanism and EIONET. For the EU28, these data are
    compiled by EEA in the European greenhouse gas inventory report
    http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-union-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2012

  6.  Methodology of data manipulation:

    Figure 1 – Energy flow in the EU28 in 2012. Methodology and assumptions used for Sankey diagram found earlier in this factsheet.
    Figure 2 - EU28 net imports by fuel

    The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:

    Numerator

    [Imports - solid fuels – 2000] + [Imports – oil (Total petroleum products) - 3000] + [Imports – Natural gas - 4100]minusExports (excluding EU28 countries) for same fuel

    Denominator:
    Gross inland energy consumption (GIEC) 100900 (tonnes of oil equivalent) + Marine International Bunkers 100800 (tonnes of oil equivalent).
    For the separate product indicators the numerators/denominators are, respectively: solid fuels, total petroleum products and natural gas

    Qualitative information

  7.  Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)

    Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/nrg_quant_sm1.htm See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/file.jsp?id=5431232

    CO2 emissions data is officially reported following agreed procedures. e.g. regarding source/sector split under the EU Monitoring Mechanism DECISION No 280/2004/EC.

  8. Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):

    Imports/exports represent all entries into/out of the national territory excluding transit quantities (notably via gas and oil pipelines). However, data on imports are generally taken from importers'/exporters’ declarations; accordingly, they may differ from the data collected by the customs authorities and those included in the foreign-trade statistics.

    In the case of crude oil and petroleum products, imports represent the quantities delivered to the national territory and, in particular, those quantities:

    (i) destined for treatment on behalf of foreign countries;

    (ii) only imported on a temporary basis;

    (iii) imported and deposited in uncleared bonded warehouses;

    (iv) imported and placed in special warehouses on behalf of foreign countries;

    (v) imported from regions and/or territories overseas under national sovereignty.

    Simlarly, for exports those quantities:

    (i) destined for treatment in other countries;

    (ii) only exported on a temporary basis;

    (iii) exported and deposited in uncleared bonded warehouses;

    (iv) exported and placed in special warehouses in foreign countries;

    (v) exported to regions and/or territories overseas under national sovereignity;

    (vi) re-exported after treatment or transformation;

    (vii) supplied to national or foreign troops stationed abroad (in so far as secrecy permits this).

    The efficiency of electricity production is calculated as the ratio of electricity output to the total fuel input. However, the input to conventional thermal power plants cannot be disaggregated into separate input for heat and input for electricity production. Therefore the efficiency rate of electricity and heat production equals the ratio of both electricity and heat production to fuel input, which assumes there is an efficiency rate for heat production.
    Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only, so there is a break in the series from 1990-1992.

    The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.
    From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.
    Total energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country (in terms of final energy demand). Fuel switching may in some cases have a significant effect in changing total energy consumption even though there is no change in (final) energy demand. This is because different fuels and different technologies convert primary energy into useful energy with different efficiency rates.

    The estimate of imported/domestic CO2 emissions uses an average EU28 Implied Emission Factors (tCO2/TJ) for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.

    The IPCC believes that the uncertainty in CO2 emission estimates from fuel use in Europe is likely to be less than ± 5%. Total GHG emission trends are likely to be more accurate than the absolute emission estimates for individual years. The IPCC suggests that the uncertainty in total GHG emission trends is ± 4% to 5%. Uncertainty estimates were calculated for the EU-15 for the first time in EEA (2005). The results suggest that uncertainties at EU-15 level are between ± 4% and 8% for total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions. For energy related greenhouse gas emissions the results suggest uncertainties between ± 1% (stationary combustion) and ± 11% (fugitive emissions). For public electricity and heat production specifically, the uncertainty is estimated to be ± 3%. For the new Member States and some other EEA countries, uncertainties are assumed to be higher than for the EU-15 Member States because of data gaps.

    Indicator uncertainty (scenarios)

    Scenario analysis always includes many uncertainties and the results should thus be interpreted with care.

          • uncertainties related to future socioeconomic and other developments (e.g. GDP);

          • uncertainties in the underlying statistical and empirical data (e.g. on future technology costs and performance);

          • uncertainties in the representativeness of the indicator;

          • uncertainties in the dynamic behaviour of the energy system and its translation into models;

                    • uncertainties in future fuel costs and the share of low carbon technologies
  9. Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):

    Relevance: 1
    Accuracy: 1/2
    Comparability over time: 1/2
    Comparability over space: 1/2

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling methodology was applied for this indicator.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/nrg_quant_sm1.htm See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/file.jsp?id=5431232

CO2 emissions data is officially reported following agreed procedures. e.g. regarding source/sector split under the EU Monitoring Mechanism DECISION No 280/2004/EC.

Data sets uncertainty

Imports/exports represent all entries into/out of the national territory excluding transit quantities (notably via gas and oil pipelines). However, data on imports are generally taken from importers'/exporters’ declarations; accordingly, they may differ from the data collected by the customs authorities and those included in the foreign-trade statistics.

In the case of crude oil and petroleum products, imports represent the quantities delivered to the national territory and, in particular, those quantities:

(i) destined for treatment on behalf of foreign countries;
(ii) only imported on a temporary basis;
(iii) imported and deposited in uncleared bonded warehouses;
(iv) imported and placed in special warehouses on behalf of foreign countries;
(v) imported from regions and/or territories overseas under national sovereignty.

Simlarly, for exports those quantities:

(i) destined for treatment in other countries;
(ii) only exported on a temporary basis;
(iii) exported and deposited in uncleared bonded warehouses;
(iv) exported and placed in special warehouses in foreign countries;
(v) exported to regions and/or territories overseas under national sovereignity;
(vi) re-exported after treatment or transformation;
(vii) supplied to national or foreign troops stationed abroad (in so far as secrecy permits this).

The efficiency of electricity production is calculated as the ratio of electricity output to the total fuel input. However, the input to conventional thermal power plants cannot be disaggregated into separate input for heat and input for electricity production. Therefore the efficiency rate of electricity and heat production equals the ratio of both electricity and heat production to fuel input, which assumes there is an efficiency rate for heat production.
Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only, so there is a break in the series from 1990-1992.

The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.
From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.
Total energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country (in terms of final energy demand). Fuel switching may in some cases have a significant effect in changing total energy consumption even though there is no change in (final) energy demand. This is because different fuels and different technologies convert primary energy into useful energy with different efficiency rates.

The estimate of imported/domestic CO2 emissions uses an average EU-27 Implied Emission Factors (tCO2/TJ) for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.

The IPCC believes that the uncertainty in CO2 emission estimates from fuel use in Europe is likely to be less than ± 5%. Total GHG emission trends are likely to be more accurate than the absolute emission estimates for individual years. The IPCC suggests that the uncertainty in total GHG emission trends is ± 4% to 5%. Uncertainty estimates were calculated for the EU-15 for the first time in EEA (2005). The results suggest that uncertainties at EU-15 level are between ± 4% and 8% for total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions. For energy related greenhouse gas emissions the results suggest uncertainties between ± 1 % (stationary combustion) and ± 11% (fugitive emissions). For public electricity and heat production specifically, the uncertainty is estimated to be ± 3%. For the new Member States and some other EEA countries, uncertainties are assumed to be higher than for the EU-15 Member States because of data gaps.

Rationale uncertainty

Indicator uncertainty (scenarios)

Scenario analysis always includes many uncertainties and the results should thus be interpreted with care.

  • uncertainties related to future socioeconomic and other developments (e.g. GDP);
  • uncertainties in the underlying statistical and empirical data (e.g. on future technology costs and performance);
  • uncertainties in the representativeness of the indicator;
  • uncertainties in the dynamic behaviour of the energy system and its translation into models;
  • uncertainties in future fuel costs and the share of low carbon technologies in the future

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
energy consumption | solid fuels | oil | natural gas
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 045
  • ENER 036
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990, 2005, 2012
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

EEA Management Plan

2014 1.3.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100