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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe / Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe (ENER 038) - Assessment published Mar 2013

Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe (ENER 038) - Assessment published Mar 2013

Indicator Assessment Created 16 Jan 2013 Published 19 Mar 2013 Last modified 25 Nov 2013, 11:55 AM
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Contents
 

Indicator definition

Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.

Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite, oil, nuclear, natural and derived gas, renewables (wind. hydro. biomass and waste. solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations.

The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result.

Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).

Units

  • Electricity generation is measured in either GWh or TWh (1000 GWh)
  • Final electricity consumption is measured in terawatt hours (TWh).

Key policy question: Is the electricity production becoming less carbon intensive in Europe?

Key messages

Fossil fuels and nuclear energy continue to dominate the gross power generation mix in EU-27, with a respective share of 51% and 27.4% in 2010. The share of electricity generated from renewable sources is in rapid progression and reached 20.9% in 2010 (12.5% in 1990).

 

Final electricity consumption increased by 32% in the EU-27 since 1990 at an average annual growth of around 1.4% per year. In the EU-27, the strongest growth was observed in the services sector (3.3%/year), followed by households (1.7%/year) and industry (0.2/year). In non-EU EEA countries, the growth in electricity consumption was much more rapid and reached 3.1%/year, driven by the rapid growth in Turkey.

Gross electricity production by fuel, EU-27

Note: Data shown are for gross electricity production and include electricity production from both public plants and auto-producers. Renewables include electricity produced from hydro (excluding pumping), biomass, municipal waste, geothermal, wind and solar PV. The share of renewables presented in the chart is that for production and hence does not correspond to the share, for consumption, as required by Directive 2001/77/EC. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity. ‘Other fuels’ include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere, such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes. It also includes the electricity generated as a result of pumping in hydro-power stations.

Data source:
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Key assessment

  • Total electricity production increased by 30% at an average annual growth rate of 1.3%/year from 1990 to 2010 in the EU-27. Since 2005 a slower progression of 0.2%/year was observed. Nuclear and coal dominate the fuel mix for electricity production with respectively 27.4% and 24.7% of the production followed by natural gas with 23.6% and renewables with 20.9%.
  • As a result of these fuel shifts, in 2010, the average emission factor intensity of the electricity production in EU-27 was 34% below its 1990 level, at around 360 gCO2 /kWh[1].
  • The total electricity produced from solid fuels decreased by 18.8% between 1990 and 2010, at an annual average rate of 1%. This decrease mainly took place before 2000 due to the price differential with natural gas and more stringent environmental regulations (during this period the share of coal and lignite in electricity production decreased from 39% in 1990 to 29% in 1999, or -10 points) For the period 2005-2010, the electricity production from solid fuels decreased by 14.4 at a rate of 3.1%/year.
  • The share of natural gas in total electricity production increased from 8.6% in 1990 to 23.6% in 2010, at an annual average growth rate of 6.5%/year. The primary motive for the switch to gas was economic, with low gas prices for much of the 1990s compared to coal and stricter environmental legislation but also due to the availability of alternative routes via LNG that improved the security of supply. This rapid increase in gas demand also contributed to the increase in fossil fuels imports (see ENER36). Between 2005 and 2010, we can observe a slowdown in the electricity produced from natural gas (+2.6%/year) compared to 13.8%/year from 1990 to 2005.
  • The share of renewable electricity in total electricity production was 21.5% in 2010 in EU-27 compared to 13% in 1990, and 15% in 2005. In 2010, 59.7% of the renewable electricity (and approximately 11.8% of total gross electricity generation) was from hydro, followed by wind with 20.7%, biomass with 15.4%, (3.7 % in total gross electricity generation) solar with 3.2% and geothermal with 0.8%. The electricity production from renewables grew at an annual average growth rate of 2.8% until 2005 and 7.4% since 2005.
  • The total electricity produced from nuclear increased by 15.3% since 1990 at an average annual rate of 0.7%. Electricity production from nuclear is decreasing since 2005 (-1.7%/year on average between 2005 and 2010 compared to 1.5%/year from 1990 to 2005), mainly in UK (-5.3%/year), Sweden (-4.4%/year), Germany (-2.9%/year) , France (-1%/year) and Lithuania with the shutdown of Ignalina Power Plant in June 2009. On the opposite over the same period, nuclear production increased in countries such as Romania with 16%/year, Hungary with 2.6%/year, Czech Republic with 2.5%/year and Spain with 1.5%/year. At EU level the share of electricity production from nuclear in gross electricity production declined from 30.5% in 1990, to 29.8 % in 2005 and 27.1% in 2010. Until the accident of Fukushima, in early 2011, there was an increased interest towards building new nuclear power plants in countries like the UK, the Baltic States, Poland, Sweden, and Finland or extending the life times of existing NPP’s (for instance in France, the Netherlands) due to concerns over security of supply, high volatility of energy commodity prices and climate change. Following the Fukushima accident, Germany and Belgium announced plans to decommission all nuclear capacity by 2022 (Germany) and 2025 (Belgium on the condition that new alternatives for replacement are found by 2015). In Switzerland, it was decided to close all nuclear power plants at the end of their life time (i.e. between 2019 for the first one and 2034 for the last one) and not to build new ones, as planned before. UK, the Baltic States, Poland and Finland seem to keep their objective to build NPPS.
  • In non EU-EEA countries, electricity production increased by 70% at an annual average rate of 2.7%/year from 1990 to 2010. Between 2005-2010, electricity production increased by 2.3%/year compared to 2.9%/year from 1990 to 2005. Renewable (mainly hydro), represents more than half of electricity production (54.1%) in these countries, followed by gas 25.5%, coal 12.9% and nuclear 6.4% (2010).


 [1] Calculated as the ratio CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat production from EEA related to the electricity production

Specific policy question: Is electricity consumption increasing in Europe?

Final electricity consumption by sector, EU-27

Note: Final electricity consumption is the electricity consumption of the final energy demand sectors, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transformation, transmission and distribution losses.

Data source:
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Trends in electricity consumption per capita (1990-2010)

Note: Average annual percentage change in final electricity consumption, 1990-2010

Data source:
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Average efficiency of the electric sector (2010)

Note: The figure shows the average efficiency in the electric sector in 2010

Data source:
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Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2010 electricity consumption increased in EU-27 by 32% at an annual average growth rate of 1.4% per year. Most countries in the EU-27 experienced an overall increase in electricity consumption over the period 1990- 2010, except for Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Romania. During this period, the average annual growth rate of electricity consumption varied greatly by country, ranging from less than -1.4 % per year in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania to annual increases over 5 % in Cyprus or 7% in Turkey. The decrease or low growth in electricity consumption in the new Member States was a combined result of economic restructuring in the 1990s, price adjustments and a decrease or low growth of the total population in those countries.
  • Industry is the largest consumer of electricity with 36.5% share in 2010 of the total electricity consumption in the EU. However, its importance is decreasing (in 1990 its share was 45.9%) due to a low progression of the electricity consumption in the sector: Between 1990 and 2005, the electricity consumption in the industry sector in the EU increased only by 0.9%/year; it decreased by 1.7%/year from 2005 to 2010. Since 1990, the electricity consumption in the service sector in EU-27 increased by 93.2% at an annual growth rate of 3.3 % (rather same rate since 2005). This sector is the sector with the fastest growing consumption: as result its importance is growing and in 2010 nearly 29.4% of the electricity was consumed in services in the EU against 20.5% in 1990 (an increase of 9.3 percentage points). The main reasons for increased electricity consumption in the service sector were the sustained growth of this sector throughout the EU, the increased use of air conditioning and IT equipment (see ENER37). Households represented 29.7% of the electricity consumption in the EU-27 in 2010 (28.1% in 1990). Between 1990 and 2010, the electricity consumption in the household sector in EU-27 grew by 39 %, at an average annual rate of 1.7 %. Between 2005 and 2010, the progression of the electricity consumption in the household sector was almost halved and only increased by 0.9%/year. Improvements in the energy efficiency of large electrical appliances, such as refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers, TVs and dryers, were to a large extent offset by the use, numbers and size of large appliances as well as a growing number of smaller appliances and IT appliances (see explanatory factors of the energy consumption of households are shown in ENER37). The transport sector is only responsible for 2.4 % of total electricity consumption in EU-27. Between 1990 and 2010, final electricity consumption in this sector in EU-27 countries only grew by 7.3 %, at an average annual rate of 0.4 %. This increase can mainly be attributed to growing consumption in the EU-15, due to increased electrification of Europe’s railways (especially in France and the United Kingdom). The trend in recent years for the new Member States (EU-12) was opposite to that observed in EU-15 countries. Due to lower usage of trains and urban public transport and an increase in road and air transport, a gradual decrease in electricity consumed for transport purposes was observed in the new Member States. Between 1990 and 2010, the average annual decrease for EU-12 was 2.7 % and the overall decrease was 42% for EU-12 countries. Electricity consumption for transportation in EU-12 countries decreased by 12.7% (or 2.7%/year) between 2005 and 2010 with the strongest decline observed in Estonia (-11.2%/year), Lithuania (-5.9%/year), Poland and Bulgaria (-4.5%/year), Romania (-3.4%/year). Agriculture/forestry/fishing represented 1.8 % of total electricity consumption in the EU in 2010 (2.5% in 1990). Electricity consumption for agriculture/forestry/fishing decreased by 0.8%/year over the period 1990-2005 but increased by 1%/year since 2005 (-0.3%/year over the period 1990-2010).
  • In non-EU EEA countries between 1990 and 2010, electricity consumption in the service sector more than doubled in this period (+ 132 %) at an annual growth rate of 4.3 %. The strongest growth was observed in Turkey, where total electricity use more than quadrupled in this period (9.5 % /year on average) (see Figure 2). In non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the household sector grew by 86 % in this period, at an average annual growth rate of 3.2%. Between 2005 and 2010, electricity consumption in the household sector increased by 3.6%/year. Since 1990, electricity consumption in the industry sector for non-EU EEA countries increased by 56 % (2.2 %/year). This was mainly driven by the increase in final electricity consumption (industry) in Turkey of 5.3%/year. Between 2005 and 2010, the growth in electricity consumption in industry slowed down (only 1.4%/year). In the non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the transport sector increased by 25 % from 1990-2010 with an annual growth rate of 1.1 %, this is mainly due to a large increase in Turkey of 2.9%/year. In 2005 to 2010 the electricity consumption in the transport sector only increased by 0.6%/year, with a decline in Turkey of 4%/year. In non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the agricultural sector increased by 6.8%/year.  The share of electricity consumed in this sector increased by 1.2% (of the total electricity consumed) in 1990 to 2.5% in 2010.
  • Electricity consumption per capita increased continuously in EU -27 since 1990. In 2010, the electricity consumption per capita was 5660 kWh/capita compared to 4570 kWh/capita in 1990. This consumption also varies greatly between countries, with the lowest per capita consumption occurring in some new Member States, including Romania, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria (see Figure 3). Although the use of air conditioning in southern European countries contributes to a large increase in electricity consumption during the summer months. The highest consumption per capita was in the northern-most countries, (Norway, Finland and Sweden); in Norway and Sweden this is due to a high penetration of electrical heating linked to low-cost of electricity produced by hydropower (see Figure 4 and ENER37).
  • In non-EU EEA countries, total electricity consumption increased by 82.5 % between 1990 and 2010, or 3.1%/year, which is considerably faster than in the EU-27. This high rate was mainly caused by Turkey, with an average annual growth rate of 6.9 % due to the rapid transition to a modernised economy with the associated increase in electricity. Between 2005 and 2010, there was a continued increase of 3% in non-EU EEA countries, of which 5.7%/year for Turkey.
  • In the non EU EEA countries, the electricity consumption per capita increased at a slower pace (then average in the EU-27 in countries like Norway (0.2%/year) and Switzerland (0.4%/year). In Turkey, the growth was very rapid (+5.5%/year). In 2010 electricity consumption per capita reaches 23 606 kWh for Norway, 7677 kWh for Switzerland and only 2341 kWh for Turkey.

Specific policy question: Are power plants becoming more efficient?

Specific assessment

  • The average efficiency of electric sector is around 41 % in EU-27 average. This efficiency is mainly dependant on the power generation mix, and in particular on the share of hydro and wind, that have an efficiency of 100%. Norway, Austria, Latvia or Sweden have an efficiency that exceeds 50 % (respectively 46% in Sweden, 50% in Latvia, 65% in Austria and even 97% in Norway in 2010). This is the result of the large contribution of hydropower to power generation (around 95% in Norway, more than 50% in Sweden, Latvia and Austria). On the contrary, the efficiency is low (i.e. below 35%) in Bulgaria and Czech Republic due to the large diffusion of coal or the use of low efficient oil power plants in Malta.
  • Since 1990, the average power efficiency has slightly increased from 36% to 41% in 2010 at EU level (+ 5 points). The largest progressions occurred in Romania (+15 points), Spain (+13 points) and Ireland, Poland and Portugal (+10 points), thanks to the commissioning of new combined cycle gas turbines (Ireland, Spain and Portugal). On the contrary, this share is decreasing in Sweden (-4 points) and Norway (-3 points) because of a decreasing share of hydro.

    Data sources

    Policy context and targets

    Context description

    Environmental context

    This factsheet describes the trends observed in electricity generation and use in Europe. Electricity generation has a number of negative impacts on the environment and human health arising throughout all lifecycle stages, for instance:

    • impacts on climate change and air quality – through the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and air pollutants (e.g. SO2, NOx and PM) arising from combustion processes;
    • impacts on water quality and quantity – through dam construction for hydropower, water retention for energy crops, and water use for cooling of power plants,;
    • direct and indirect impacts on land resources, including natural habitats and ecosystems – through further deforestation in the tropics for the production of bioenergy and the fragmentation of habitats due to resource extraction and the construction of pipelines, grids and infrastructures needed for power generation.
    • a broad range of specific social and environmental impacts – through the extraction of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels.

    Most of these impacts tend to be fuel-specific. For instance, nuclear power produces less greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution on a lifecycle basis compared to conventional sources, but carries a certain risk of accidental radioactive releases and management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste is problematic. While electricity from natural gas gives rise to approximately 40% less carbon dioxide emissions than coal per unit, and 25 % less carbon dioxide emissions than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur (see ENER36), increasing the recourse to unconventional gas resources (such as shale gas and coal bed methane) would lead to other specific environmental pressures.

    Shares of electricity generation from different fuels in total gross electricity production aim to indicate to what extent there has been a decarbonisation of the electricity generation in Europe. The pressure on the environment and human health from energy consumption can be diminished by decreasing electricity consumption through efficiency improvements and energy conservation, and switching to those sources and technologies that have a lower impact on the environment and human health.

    Policy context

    • Conclusions on 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework, European Council, 23 and 24 October 2014, SN 79/14.
    • A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030 (COM(2014) 15 final).
      Presents an integrated policy framework with binding EU-wide targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions and the development of renewable energy sources and with objectives for energy efficiency improvements for the period up to 2030.
    • A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)
      Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.
    • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final)
      Presents the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.
    • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents
    • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
    • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
    • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
    • Directive 2009/125/EC (Eco-design)of the European parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the setting of eco-design requirements for energy-related products
    • Directive 2010/30/ECof the European parliament and of the Council on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
    • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
    • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
    • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
    • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
    • Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

     
    References

    • COM(2011) 112 final: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
    • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    • COM(2008) 781 final: Second Strategic Energy Review
    • Directive 2009/28/EC  - Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Brussels, 2009
    • EEA (2008) Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990 – 2006 and inventory report 2008
    • EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package); http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm
    • IEA (2005): Electricity information 2004 – IEA statistics.
    • UN (1998): Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto. Japan. on 11 December 1997
    • Treaty of Accession to the European Union. Annex II. Part 12. page 588. which amends Directive 2001/77/EC in order to set targets for new Member States on the contribution of renewable energy to electricity generation.
    • COD/2008/0013 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community
    • COD/2008/0014 - Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020
    • COM(2008) 16 final - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community
    • COM(2008) 778 final/2 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
    • COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
    • SEC(2007) 53 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system - Summary of the Impact Assessment
    • EEA (2012) Greenhouse gas data viewer, last update June 2012 [http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer]
    • EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    • http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm

    Targets

    No targets have been specified

    Related policy documents

    • 443/2009
      Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
    • 2008/c 82/01
      Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
    • 2009/29/ec
      Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
    • 2009/31/EC
      Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
    • 2009/125/EC - Ecodesign Directive
      The Ecodesign Directive is a framework Directive: it does not set binding requirements on products by itself, but through  implementing measures  adopted on a case by case basis for each product group. All guiding principles for developing implementing measures are set in the  framework Directive 2009/125/EC . The list of product groups to be addressed through implementing measures is established in the periodic  Working Plan .  Standardisation  supports the implementation of the Ecodesign Directive (notably through harmonised standards giving presumption of conformity with all or some Ecodesign legal requirements).
    • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
      Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
    • COD/2008/0013
      Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community.
    • COD/2008/0014
      Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
    • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
      With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
    • COM(2008) 16 final
      Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gasemission allowance trading system of the Community
    • COM(2008) 778
      Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
    • COM(2008) 781
      COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
    • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
      A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    • DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC Renewable electricity
      Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market
    • DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC
      DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 November 2008 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community
    • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
      DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
    • Directive 2010/30/EU
      Energy labelling directive Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
    • Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
      Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997
    • SEC(2007) 53
      Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system - Summary of the Impact Assessment.
    • Treaty of Accession to the European Union. Annex II. Part 12. page 588
      Amends Directive 2001/77/EC in order to set targets for new Member States on the contribution of renewable energy to electricity generation.

    Methodology

    Methodology for indicator calculation

    Meta data

    Technical information

    1. Data source:
      Electricity production by fuel and total gross electricity generation: Eurostat
      Final Electricity Consumption: Eurostat http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ 
    2. Description of data/Indicator definition:
      Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. It is the total amount of electrical energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, for example nuclear or wind energy to electrical energy. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.
      Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite; oil; nuclear; natural and derived gas; renewables (wind; hydro; biomass and waste; solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations.
      The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result.
      Units: Electricity generation is measured in either GWh or TWh (1000 GWh)

      Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).
      Units: Final electricity consumption is measured in terawatt hours (TWh).
    3. Geographical coverage:
      The Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey plus the EFTA countries (Iceland, Switzerland and Norway). Liechtenstein and Iceland are not anymore covered separately by Eurostat.
    4. Temporal coverage: 1990-2012.
    5. Methodology and frequency of data collection: Data collected annually.
      Eurostat definitions and concepts for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
      Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadataMethodology of data manipulation:
    6. Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
      Share of electricity production by fuel calculated as ratio of electricity production by fuel type to total gross electricity generation.
      The coding (used in the Eurostat database) for the gross electricity generation is :

      Coal fired power stations
    • Anthracite : main electricity activity 22_108501, main activity CHP 22_108502, autoproducers electricity 22_108503, autoproducers CHP 22_108504
    • Coking coal : main electricity activity 22_108511, main activity CHP 22_108512, autoproducers electricity 22_108513, autoproducers CHP 22_108514
    • Bituminous : main electricity activity 22_108521, main activity CHP 22_108522, autoproducers electricity 22_108523, autoproducers CHP 22_108524
    • Sub Bituminous : main electricity activity 22_108531, main activity CHP 22_108532, autoproducers electricity 22_108533, autoproducers CHP 22_108534
    • Lignite/brown coal : main electricity activity 22_108541, main activity CHP 22_108542, autoproducers electricity 22_108543, autoproducers CHP 22_108544
    • Peat : main electricity activity 22_108551, main activity CHP 22_108552, autoproducers electricity 22_108553, autoproducers CHP 22_108554
    • Patent fuel : main electricity activity 22_108561, main activity CHP 22_108562, autoproducers electricity 22_108563, autoproducers CHP 22_108564
    • Coke oven coke: main electricity activity 22_108571, main activity CHP 22_108572, autoproducers electricity 22_108573, autoproducers CHP 22_108574
    • Gas coke : main electricity activity 22_108581, main activity CHP 22_108582, autoproducers electricity 22_108583, autoproducers CHP 22_108584
    • Coal tar : main electricity activity 22_108591, main activity CHP 22_108592, autoproducers electricity 22_108593, autoproducers CHP 22_108594
    • BKB/briquettes : main electricity activity 22_108601, main activity CHP 22_108602, autoproducers electricity 22_108603, autoproducers CHP 22_108604

      Oil fired power stations
    • Crude oil : main electricity activity 22_108701, main activity CHP 22_108702, autoproducers electricity 22_108703, autoproducers CHP 22_108704
    • NGL (Natural Gas Liquid) : main electricity activity 22_108711, main activity CHP 22_108712, autoproducers electricity 22_108713, autoproducers CHP 22_108714
    • Refinery gas : main electricity activity 22_108721, main activity CHP 22_108722, autoproducers electricity 22_108723, autoproducers CHP 22_108724
    • LPG : main electricity activity 22_108731, main activity CHP 22_108732, autoproducers electricity 22_108733, autoproducers CHP 22_108734
    • Naphta: main electricity activity 22_108741, main activity CHP 22_108742, autoproducers electricity 22_108743, autoproducers CHP 22_108744
    • Kerozene type jet fuel: main electricity activity 22_108751, main activity CHP 22_108752, autoproducers electricity 22_108753, autoproducers CHP 22_108754
    • Other Kerozene: main electricity activity 22_108761, main activity CHP 22_108762, autoproducers electricity 22_108763, autoproducers CHP 22_108764
    • Gas/diesel oil: main electricity activity 22_108771, main activity CHP 22_108772, autoproducers electricity 22_108773, autoproducers CHP 22_108774
    • Residual fuel oil: main electricity activity 22_108781, main activity CHP 22_108782, autoproducers electricity 22_108783, autoproducers CHP 22_108784
    • Bitumen: main electricity activity 22_108791, main activity CHP 22_108792, autoproducers electricity 22_108793, autoproducers CHP 22_108794
    • Petroleum coke: main electricity activity 22_108801, main activity CHP 22_108802, autoproducers electricity 22_108803, autoproducers CHP 22_108804
    • Other oil products: main electricity activity 22_108811, main activity CHP 22_108812, autoproducers electricity 22_108813, autoproducers CHP 22_108814

    Natural gas fired power stations
    • main electricity activity 22_108891, main activity CHP 22_108892, autoproducers electricity 22_108893, autoproducers CHP 22_108894

      Derived gas fired power stations
    • Gas works gas : main electricity activity 22_108611, main activity CHP 22_108612, autoproducers electricity 22_108613, autoproducers CHP 22_108614
    • Coke oven gas : main electricity activity 22_1086211, main activity CHP 22_108622, autoproducers electricity 22_108623, autoproducers CHP 22_108624
    • Blast furnace gas : main electricity activity 22_108631, main activity CHP 22_108632, autoproducers electricity 22_108633, autoproducers CHP 22_108634
    • Oxygen steel furnace gas : main electricity activity 22_108641, main activity CHP 22_108642, autoproducers electricity 22_108643, autoproducers CHP 22_108644

     

    Biomass fired power stations

    • Industrial wastes : main electricity activity 22_108901, main activity CHP 22_108902, autoproducers electricity 22_108903, autoproducers CHP 22_108904
    • Municipal wastes (renewable): main electricity activity 22_108911, main activity CHP 22_108912, autoproducers electricity 22_108913, autoproducers CHP 22_108914
    • Municipal wastes (non-renewable): main electricity activity 22_108921, main activity CHP 22_108922, autoproducers electricity 22_108923, autoproducers CHP 22_108924
    • Wood, wood wastes and other solid fuels: main electricity activity 22_108931, main activity CHP 22_108932, autoproducers electricity 22_1089313, autoproducers CHP 22_108934
    • Landfill gas: main electricity activity 22_108941, main activity CHP 22_108942, autoproducers electricity 22_1089343, autoproducers CHP 22_108944
    • Sludge gas: main electricity activity 22_108951, main activity CHP 22_108952, autoproducers electricity 22_1089353, autoproducers CHP 22_108954
    • Other biogas: main electricity activity 22_108961, main activity CHP 22_108962, autoproducers electricity 22_1089363, autoproducers CHP 22_108964
    • Other liquid biofuels: main electricity activity 22_108971, main activity CHP 22_108972, autoproducers electricity 22_1089373, autoproducers CHP 22_108974

      Solar
    • Main electricity from photovoltaic 14_1070421, main solar thermal 14_1070422, autoproducers solar 14_1070423

      Pumped hydro
    • Main electricity from pumped hydro 15_107036, autoproducers pumped hydro 14_107037

      Nuclear
    • Main electricity activity 15_107030, main activity CHP 15_107031, autoproducers electricity 15_107032, autoproducers CHP 15_107033

      It should be noted that in the Eurostat database ‘Other fuels – 107012’ also includes ‘gross production from photovoltaic systems - 107023’ and although almost negligible in overall terms it has been subtracted from 107012 in the calculation of the indicator.
      For the denominator, where required: total gross electricity generation 107000

      Electricity consumption
      Electricity consumption per capita calculated by dividing final electricity consumption by population for each country (demo_pjan).
      The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator (in relation to the product ‘6000 - electrical energy’) are:
      Numerator: final electricity consumption industry 101800 + final electricity consumption transport 101900 + final electricity consumption households 102010 + final electricity consumption services/agriculture calculated as (final electricity consumption households/services 102000 - final electricity consumption households 102010).
      Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final electricity consumption 101700

      Efficiency of the electric sector
      The efficiency of the electric sector is calculated as the ratio between the electricity production and the inputs used to produce electricity (Transformation input for thermal power stations (coal, oil, gas, biomass) + nuclear production, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuel).

      CO2-emission intensity of the public electricity and heat  production
      The CO2-emissions intensity of the public electricity and heat production is calculated as the ratio between CO2-emission from public electricity and heat production (in gCO2) and the public  electricity and heat produced (in kWh). The CO2 emission data (TgCO2) are from the EEA dataviewer for greenhouse gases (http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer). The code is : 1A1a for Public Electricity and Heat production. The CO2-emission data from for 1A1a is for all energy production from Public Electricity Generation, Public CHP and Public Heat Plants. The corresponding activity (ktoe, kiloton of oil equivalent) data are from the Eurostat database:
    • Transformation output - Main Activity Conventional Thermal Power Stations; Electrical Energy; nrg_100a, 6000_B101121
    • Transformation output - Main Activity Conventional Thermal Power Stations; Derived Heat; nrg_100a, 5200_B101121
    • Transformation output - District Heating Plants; All products; nrg_100a; 0_B101109


    Qualitative information

    1. Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
      Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
    2. Reliability, Accuracy, Robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
      Indicator uncertainty (historic data):
      Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, Biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for that from industry.
      Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only.
      Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in electricity production by fuel. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.
    3. Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems. 3 = major reservations):
    •  Relevance: 1
    • Accuracy: 1
    • Comparability over time: 1
    • Comparability over space: 1

    Methodology for gap filling

    No gap filling procedure has been applied.

    Methodology references

    No methodology references available.

    Uncertainties

    Methodology uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    Data sets uncertainty

    Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

    Rationale uncertainty

    Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, Biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for that from industry.

    Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only.

    Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in electricity production by fuel. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.

    More information about this indicator

    See this indicator specification for more details.

    Generic metadata

    Topics:

    Energy Energy (Primary topic)

    Tags:
    electricity | energy | energy efficiency | electricity consumption | consumption
    DPSIR: Driving force
    Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
    Indicator codes
    • ENER 038
    Dynamic
    Temporal coverage:
    1990-2010
    Geographic coverage:
    Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

    Contacts and ownership

    EEA Contact Info

    Mihai Florin Tomescu

    Ownership

    EEA Management Plan

    2012 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

    Dates

    Frequency of updates

    Updates are scheduled once per year
    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    Kongens Nytorv 6
    1050 Copenhagen K
    Denmark
    Phone: +45 3336 7100