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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe

Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe

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Contents
 

Justification for indicator selection

The generation of electricity can have negative impacts on the environment and human health. The fuel mix used in electricity production provides a broad indication of the type and magnitude of pressures on the environment and human health. Impacts stemming from fossil electricity production depend upon the fossil fuel employed, how it was extracted and processed, the actual technology (and its efficiency) to produce electricity, as well as the use of abatement technologies. Due to these impacts and to energy losses incurred in both the production (particularly from conventional thermal and nuclear power plants) and transport of electricity, the rise in electricity consumption is of particular concern for the environment. However, an increase of electricity consumption in the transport sector might signal a positive modal shift towards rail transport or higher penetration of electric vehicles.

Scientific references:

Indicator definition

Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.

Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite, oil, nuclear, natural and derived gas, renewables (wind. hydro. biomass and waste. solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations.

The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result.

Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).

Units

  • Electricity generation is measured in either GWh or TWh (1000 GWh)
  • Final electricity consumption is measured in terawatt hours (TWh).

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

This factsheet describes the trends observed in electricity generation and use in Europe. Electricity generation has a number of negative impacts on the environment and human health, for instance: impacts on climate change and air quality – through the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and air pollutants (e.g. SO2, NOx and PM) arising from combustion processes; impacts on water quality and quantity – through dam construction for hydropower, water retention for energy crops, and water use for cooling of power plants and in the extraction of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels; direct and indirect impacts on land resources, including natural habitats and ecosystems – through further deforestation in the tropics for the production of bioenergy; the fragmentation of habitats due to resource extraction and ultimately the construction of pipelines, grids and infrastructures needed for power generation.

These effects are fuel-specific: for instance, electricity from natural gas gives rise to approximately 40% less carbon dioxide emissions than coal per unit, and 25 % less carbon dioxide emissions than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur (see ENER36). While nuclear power produces less greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution on a life-cycle basis compared to conventional sources, there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases and management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste is problematic.

Shares of electricity generation from different fuels in total gross electricity production aim to indicate to what extent there has been a decarbonisation of the electricity generation in Europe. The pressure on the environment and human health from energy consumption can be diminished by decreasing electricity consumption through efficiency improvements and energy conservation, and switching to those sources and technologies that have a lower impact on the environment and human health.

Policy context

  • A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)
    Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.
  • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final)
    Presents the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.
  • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents
  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
  • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Directive 2009/125/EC (Eco-design)of the European parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the setting of eco-design requirements for energy-related products
  • Directive 2010/30/ECof the European parliament and of the Council on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
  • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
  • Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

 
References

  • COM(2011) 112 final: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
  • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
  • COM(2008) 781 final: Second Strategic Energy Review
  • Directive 2009/28/EC  - Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Brussels, 2009
  • EEA (2008) Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990 – 2006 and inventory report 2008
  • EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package); http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm
  • IEA (2005): Electricity information 2004 – IEA statistics.
  • UN (1998): Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto. Japan. on 11 December 1997
  • Treaty of Accession to the European Union. Annex II. Part 12. page 588. which amends Directive 2001/77/EC in order to set targets for new Member States on the contribution of renewable energy to electricity generation.
  • COD/2008/0013 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community
  • COD/2008/0014 - Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020
  • COM(2008) 16 final - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community
  • COM(2008) 778 final/2 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
  • COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • SEC(2007) 53 - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system - Summary of the Impact Assessment
  • EEA (2012) Greenhouse gas data viewer, last update June 2012 [http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer]
  • EU (2009) Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
  • http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm

Targets

No targets have been specified

Related policy documents

  • 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • 2008/c 82/01
    Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • 2009/29/ec
    Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • 2009/31/EC
    Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
  • 2009/125/EC - Ecodesign Directive
    The Ecodesign Directive is a framework Directive: it does not set binding requirements on products by itself, but through  implementing measures  adopted on a case by case basis for each product group. All guiding principles for developing implementing measures are set in the  framework Directive 2009/125/EC . The list of product groups to be addressed through implementing measures is established in the periodic  Working Plan .  Standardisation  supports the implementation of the Ecodesign Directive (notably through harmonised standards giving presumption of conformity with all or some Ecodesign legal requirements).
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COD/2008/0013
    Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community.
  • COD/2008/0014
    Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
  • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
    With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
  • COM(2008) 16 final
    Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gasemission allowance trading system of the Community
  • COM(2008) 778
    Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
  • DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC Renewable electricity
    Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market
  • DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2008/101/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 November 2008 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community
  • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
  • Directive 2010/30/EU
    Energy labelling directive Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
  • Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997
  • SEC(2007) 53
    Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system - Summary of the Impact Assessment.
  • Treaty of Accession to the European Union. Annex II. Part 12. page 588
    Amends Directive 2001/77/EC in order to set targets for new Member States on the contribution of renewable energy to electricity generation.

Key policy question

Is the electricity production becoming less carbon intensive in Europe?

Specific policy question

Is electricity consumption increasing in Europe?

Specific policy question

Are power plants becoming more efficient?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Meta data

Technical information

  1. Data source:
    Electricity production by fuel and total gross electricity generation: Eurostat
    Final Electricity Consumption: Eurostat http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ 
  2. Description of data/Indicator definition:
    Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. It is the total amount of electrical energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, for example nuclear or wind energy to electrical energy. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.
    Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite; oil; nuclear; natural and derived gas; renewables (wind; hydro; biomass and waste; solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations.
    The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result.
    Units: Electricity generation is measured in either GWh or TWh (1000 GWh)

    Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).
    Units: Final electricity consumption is measured in terawatt hours (TWh).
  3. Geographical coverage:
    The Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey plus the EFTA countries (Iceland, Switzerland and Norway). Liechtenstein and Iceland are not anymore covered separately by Eurostat.
  4. Temporal coverage: 1990-2012.
  5. Methodology and frequency of data collection: Data collected annually.
    Eurostat definitions and concepts for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
    Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadataMethodology of data manipulation:
  6. Averaged annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
    Share of electricity production by fuel calculated as ratio of electricity production by fuel type to total gross electricity generation.
    The coding (used in the Eurostat database) for the gross electricity generation is :

    Coal fired power stations
  • Anthracite : main electricity activity 22_108501, main activity CHP 22_108502, autoproducers electricity 22_108503, autoproducers CHP 22_108504
  • Coking coal : main electricity activity 22_108511, main activity CHP 22_108512, autoproducers electricity 22_108513, autoproducers CHP 22_108514
  • Bituminous : main electricity activity 22_108521, main activity CHP 22_108522, autoproducers electricity 22_108523, autoproducers CHP 22_108524
  • Sub Bituminous : main electricity activity 22_108531, main activity CHP 22_108532, autoproducers electricity 22_108533, autoproducers CHP 22_108534
  • Lignite/brown coal : main electricity activity 22_108541, main activity CHP 22_108542, autoproducers electricity 22_108543, autoproducers CHP 22_108544
  • Peat : main electricity activity 22_108551, main activity CHP 22_108552, autoproducers electricity 22_108553, autoproducers CHP 22_108554
  • Patent fuel : main electricity activity 22_108561, main activity CHP 22_108562, autoproducers electricity 22_108563, autoproducers CHP 22_108564
  • Coke oven coke: main electricity activity 22_108571, main activity CHP 22_108572, autoproducers electricity 22_108573, autoproducers CHP 22_108574
  • Gas coke : main electricity activity 22_108581, main activity CHP 22_108582, autoproducers electricity 22_108583, autoproducers CHP 22_108584
  • Coal tar : main electricity activity 22_108591, main activity CHP 22_108592, autoproducers electricity 22_108593, autoproducers CHP 22_108594
  • BKB/briquettes : main electricity activity 22_108601, main activity CHP 22_108602, autoproducers electricity 22_108603, autoproducers CHP 22_108604

    Oil fired power stations
  • Crude oil : main electricity activity 22_108701, main activity CHP 22_108702, autoproducers electricity 22_108703, autoproducers CHP 22_108704
  • NGL (Natural Gas Liquid) : main electricity activity 22_108711, main activity CHP 22_108712, autoproducers electricity 22_108713, autoproducers CHP 22_108714
  • Refinery gas : main electricity activity 22_108721, main activity CHP 22_108722, autoproducers electricity 22_108723, autoproducers CHP 22_108724
  • LPG : main electricity activity 22_108731, main activity CHP 22_108732, autoproducers electricity 22_108733, autoproducers CHP 22_108734
  • Naphta: main electricity activity 22_108741, main activity CHP 22_108742, autoproducers electricity 22_108743, autoproducers CHP 22_108744
  • Kerozene type jet fuel: main electricity activity 22_108751, main activity CHP 22_108752, autoproducers electricity 22_108753, autoproducers CHP 22_108754
  • Other Kerozene: main electricity activity 22_108761, main activity CHP 22_108762, autoproducers electricity 22_108763, autoproducers CHP 22_108764
  • Gas/diesel oil: main electricity activity 22_108771, main activity CHP 22_108772, autoproducers electricity 22_108773, autoproducers CHP 22_108774
  • Residual fuel oil: main electricity activity 22_108781, main activity CHP 22_108782, autoproducers electricity 22_108783, autoproducers CHP 22_108784
  • Bitumen: main electricity activity 22_108791, main activity CHP 22_108792, autoproducers electricity 22_108793, autoproducers CHP 22_108794
  • Petroleum coke: main electricity activity 22_108801, main activity CHP 22_108802, autoproducers electricity 22_108803, autoproducers CHP 22_108804
  • Other oil products: main electricity activity 22_108811, main activity CHP 22_108812, autoproducers electricity 22_108813, autoproducers CHP 22_108814

Natural gas fired power stations
  • main electricity activity 22_108891, main activity CHP 22_108892, autoproducers electricity 22_108893, autoproducers CHP 22_108894

    Derived gas fired power stations
  • Gas works gas : main electricity activity 22_108611, main activity CHP 22_108612, autoproducers electricity 22_108613, autoproducers CHP 22_108614
  • Coke oven gas : main electricity activity 22_1086211, main activity CHP 22_108622, autoproducers electricity 22_108623, autoproducers CHP 22_108624
  • Blast furnace gas : main electricity activity 22_108631, main activity CHP 22_108632, autoproducers electricity 22_108633, autoproducers CHP 22_108634
  • Oxygen steel furnace gas : main electricity activity 22_108641, main activity CHP 22_108642, autoproducers electricity 22_108643, autoproducers CHP 22_108644

 

Biomass fired power stations

  • Industrial wastes : main electricity activity 22_108901, main activity CHP 22_108902, autoproducers electricity 22_108903, autoproducers CHP 22_108904
  • Municipal wastes (renewable): main electricity activity 22_108911, main activity CHP 22_108912, autoproducers electricity 22_108913, autoproducers CHP 22_108914
  • Municipal wastes (non-renewable): main electricity activity 22_108921, main activity CHP 22_108922, autoproducers electricity 22_108923, autoproducers CHP 22_108924
  • Wood, wood wastes and other solid fuels: main electricity activity 22_108931, main activity CHP 22_108932, autoproducers electricity 22_1089313, autoproducers CHP 22_108934
  • Landfill gas: main electricity activity 22_108941, main activity CHP 22_108942, autoproducers electricity 22_1089343, autoproducers CHP 22_108944
  • Sludge gas: main electricity activity 22_108951, main activity CHP 22_108952, autoproducers electricity 22_1089353, autoproducers CHP 22_108954
  • Other biogas: main electricity activity 22_108961, main activity CHP 22_108962, autoproducers electricity 22_1089363, autoproducers CHP 22_108964
  • Other liquid biofuels: main electricity activity 22_108971, main activity CHP 22_108972, autoproducers electricity 22_1089373, autoproducers CHP 22_108974

    Solar
  • Main electricity from photovoltaic 14_1070421, main solar thermal 14_1070422, autoproducers solar 14_1070423

    Pumped hydro
  • Main electricity from pumped hydro 15_107036, autoproducers pumped hydro 14_107037

    Nuclear
  • Main electricity activity 15_107030, main activity CHP 15_107031, autoproducers electricity 15_107032, autoproducers CHP 15_107033

    It should be noted that in the Eurostat database ‘Other fuels – 107012’ also includes ‘gross production from photovoltaic systems - 107023’ and although almost negligible in overall terms it has been subtracted from 107012 in the calculation of the indicator.
    For the denominator, where required: total gross electricity generation 107000

    Electricity consumption
    Electricity consumption per capita calculated by dividing final electricity consumption by population for each country (demo_pjan).
    The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator (in relation to the product ‘6000 - electrical energy’) are:
    Numerator: final electricity consumption industry 101800 + final electricity consumption transport 101900 + final electricity consumption households 102010 + final electricity consumption services/agriculture calculated as (final electricity consumption households/services 102000 - final electricity consumption households 102010).
    Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final electricity consumption 101700

    Efficiency of the electric sector
    The efficiency of the electric sector is calculated as the ratio between the electricity production and the inputs used to produce electricity (Transformation input for thermal power stations (coal, oil, gas, biomass) + nuclear production, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuel).

    CO2-emission intensity of the public electricity and heat  production
    The CO2-emissions intensity of the public electricity and heat production is calculated as the ratio between CO2-emission from public electricity and heat production (in gCO2) and the public  electricity and heat produced (in kWh). The CO2 emission data (TgCO2) are from the EEA dataviewer for greenhouse gases (http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer). The code is : 1A1a for Public Electricity and Heat production. The CO2-emission data from for 1A1a is for all energy production from Public Electricity Generation, Public CHP and Public Heat Plants. The corresponding activity (KTOE, kiloton of oil equivalent) data are from the Eurostat database:
  • Transformation output - Main Activity Conventional Thermal Power Stations; Electrical Energy; nrg_100a, 6000_B101121
  • Transformation output - Main Activity Conventional Thermal Power Stations; Derived Heat; nrg_100a, 5200_B101121
  • Transformation output - District Heating Plants; All products; nrg_100a; 0_B101109


Qualitative information

  1. Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
    Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
  2. Reliability, Accuracy, Robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
    Indicator uncertainty (historic data):
    Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, Biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for that from industry.
    Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only.
    Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in electricity production by fuel. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.
  3. Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems. 3 = major reservations):
  •  Relevance: 1
  • Accuracy: 1
  • Comparability over time: 1
  • Comparability over space: 1

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling procedure has been applied.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

External data references

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sets uncertainty

Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

Rationale uncertainty

Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, Biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for that from industry.

Also, electricity data (unlike that for overall energy consumption) for 1990 refers to the western part of Germany only.

Electricity consumption within the national territory includes imports of electricity from neighbouring countries. It also excludes the electricity produced nationally but exported abroad. In some countries the contribution of electricity trade to total electricity consumption and the changes observed from year to year need to be looked at carefully when analysing trends in electricity production by fuel. Impacts on the (national) environment are also affected since emissions are accounted where the electricity is produced whereas consumption is accounted where the electricity is consumed.

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Mihai Florin Tomescu

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
ENER 038
Specification
Version id: 1
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Permalinks

Permalink to this version
4dbc0767d150444da352ead08b6688e9
Permalink to latest version
KIWM8NGHNS

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)

Related content

Data references used

Relevant policy documents

Strongly related indicators

Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Gross Final Renewable Energy Consumption is the amount of renewable energy consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport in the Member States with actual and normalised hydro and wind power generation [1]  and expressed as a share against gross final energy consumption. The indicator is developed for measuring the contribution to the 2020 and 2030 objectives on renewable energy for the EU.   The Renewable Energy Directive (RED) [2]  commits the Union to reaching a 20% share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption [3]  by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy consumed in transport by the same year.   It sets binding national targets for renewable energy consumption by 2020 and it prescribes for each country minimum indicative trajectories in the run-up to 2020 to ensure that national 2020 targets will be met. In addition, the Directive requires Member States to adopt and publish National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) that outline the expected trajectories for the national share of RES for the years starting with 2010 and until 2020. Countries have submitted their NREAPs in 2010. They have the obligation to report biennially on national progress towards indicative RED and expected NREAP targets.   Europe 2020– the European Union’s ten-year growth strategy reaffirms the importance of the renewable energy sector for Europe. The 20 % renewable energy share in gross final consumption is one of the three headline targets for climate and sustainable energy under the strategy. The other EU-wide targets are achieving a 20 % reduction of the EU’s GHG emissions compared to 1990 and achieving a 20 % saving of the EU’s primary energy consumption compared to projections, both by 2020. Together, these represent the Union’s triple 20/20/20 objectives for climate and energy in the run-up to 2020. They are implemented through the EU’s 2009 climate and energy package and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED).   For 2030, EU leaders endorsed the following three EU-wide targets: (i)            achieving a binding minimum 40 % domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990; (ii)           achieving a binding minimum 27 % share of renewable energy consumption; and (iii)          achieving an indicative minimum 27 % improvement in energy efficiency.  [1] In accordance with accounting rules under Directive 2009/28/EC, electricity from hydro and wind needs to be normalised to smooth the effects of annual variations (hydro 15 years and wind 5 years). [2] Directive 2009/28/EC [3] Gross final energy consumption means the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to industry, transport, households, services including public services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission (cf. Art. 2f of Directive 2009/28/EC). With this, it excludes transformation losses which are included in gross inland energy consumption. In calculating a Member State's gross final energy consumption for the purpose of measuring its compliance with the targets and interim RED and NREAP trajectories, the amount of energy consumed in aviation shall, as a proportion of that Member State's gross final consumption of energy, be considered to be no more than 6.18% (4.12% for Cyprus and Malta).

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