Final energy consumption by sector and fuel

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-16-en
Also known as: CSI 027 , ENER 016
Created 31 Aug 2015 Published 21 Oct 2015 Last modified 30 Nov 2016, 04:15 PM
Topics: ,
Between 1990 and 2013, final energy consumption in the EU28 increased by 2.2%.  Between 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption decreased by 7.0% in the EU28. It was a result of decreased final  energy consumption in  industry, transport and households sectors, where final energy consumption  dropped by 15.4%, 5.7% and 3.2%, respectively.   In contrast, the services sector was the only sector where energy consumption increased, by a figure of 5.7% over the same period. The decrease in final energy consumption since 2005 was influenced by economic performance, structural changes in various end-use sectors, in particular industry, improvements in end-use efficiency and lower heat consumption due to favourable climatic conditions. In 2013, the EU28 was on track to meet its 2020 target for final energy consumption. Early estimates suggest that final energy consumption decreased by a further 3.4% in 2014 compared to 2013.  Final energy consumption in EEA countries increased by  6.2% between 1990 and 2013 and t his difference is caused by the increased energy consumption in Turkey (115%) and Norway (17%). B etween 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption in EEA countries decreased by  5.0% and the largest contributor of this decrease was industry sector (13.1%).  On average, each person in the EEA countries used 2.0 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2013.

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2013, final energy consumption in the EU28 increased by 2.2%. Between 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption decreased by 7.0% in the EU28. It was a result of decreased final energy consumption in industry, transport and households sectors, where final energy consumption dropped by 15.4%, 5.7% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, the services sector was the only sector where energy consumption increased, by a figure of 5.7% over the same period. The decrease in final energy consumption since 2005 was influenced by economic performance, structural changes in various end-use sectors, in particular industry, improvements in end-use efficiency and lower heat consumption due to favourable climatic conditions. In 2013, the EU28 was on track to meet its 2020 target for final energy consumption. Early estimates suggest that final energy consumption decreased by a further 3.4% in 2014 compared to 2013. 

Final energy consumption in EEA countries increased by 6.2% between 1990 and 2013 and this difference is caused by the increased energy consumption in Turkey (115%) and Norway (17%). Between 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption in EEA countries decreased by 5.0% and the largest contributor of this decrease was industry sector (13.1%). 

On average, each person in the EEA countries used 2.0 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2013.

Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Final energy consumption by sector

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Final energy consumption of petroleum products by sector

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Final energy consumption of electricity by sector

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Final energy consumption of solid fuel by sector

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Final energy consumption by fuel type

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Member states progress towards indicative national energy efficiency targets for 2020

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Final energy consumption and estimated national 2020 targets

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  • Between 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption decreased by 7.0% (0.9% annually) in the EU28 (Fig. 1) and by 5.0% (0.6% annually) in the EEA countries. Between 2012 and 2013, final energy consumption in the EU28 and EEA countries stabilised (see Table 1) after a small increase due to a mild economic recovery between 2009 and 2010. Overall, between 1990 and 2013, there was a relatively small increase of 2.2% in final energy consumption in the EU28 (0.1% annually) and of 6.2% in the EEA countries (0.3% annually). The difference in final energy consumption between the EEA countries and the EU28 is mainly caused by the increased energy consumption in Turkey (115%) between 1990 and 2013 (31% between 2005 and 2013). In Norway, energy consumption increased by 17% between 1990 and 2013 and by 1% between 2005 and 2013.
  • The decrease  in final energy consumption in the EU28 since 2005 took place in all sectors, except the services sector (see Figure 1). Industry and other [1] sectors show the largest decrease between 2005 and 2013, at 15% and 25% respectively in the EU28. During this period, energy consumption in the services sector continued to increase by 5.7% in the EU28 (9.4% in the EEA). Since 2005, energy consumption in the residential sector has started to decrease in the EU28, after a history of small yearly increases. This deviation of the trend indicates that EU policies on the energy performance of buildings are having an effect (see also ENER 037).
  • Over the whole period (1990-2013), the largest increases in final energy consumption in the EU28 occurred in the services and transport sectors, with 40% and 23% respectively (48% and 26% in the EEA) (see Figure 1).
    • In the services sector, energy consumption increased due to the continued rise in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning.
    • In the transport sector, the increase was observed as a result of improvements in fuel efficiency being offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, as well as growing settlement and urban sprawl, leading to longer distances travelled, and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation between 1990 and 2005 have contributed significantly to increased transport demand. Between 2005 and 2013, final energy consumption in the transport sector decreased by 6% in the EU28. The transport sector accounted in 2013 for 32% of total final energy consumption in the EU28 Member States followed by household sector (27%), the industrial sector (25%) and the service sector (14%) (see Figure 1).
  • Of the major sectors, the largest fall in energy consumption between 1990 and 2013 took place in the industry sector, where final energy consumption in the EU28 fell by 25%, at an annual average rate of 1.2%. Between 2005 and 2013, energy consumption in the industry sector fell at an annual average rate of 2.1%. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries and the continuing transition to a more service-oriented European economy, combined with the effects of the economic recession in recent years.
  • The observed trend in final energy consumption differs significantly across the EEA member countries (see Table 1). Between 2005 and 2013, Malta, Turkey and Poland experienced, by far, the largest increase in final energy consumption (32%, 31% and 8% respectively), whereas Greece and Hungary experienced the largest decrease with 27% and 18% respectively. In addition, final energy consumption also decreased significantly in Spain (17%), Portugal (17%), Ireland (15%), Bulgaria (14%), Romania (12%), Cyprus (12%), Italy (12%) and the UK (11%) during this period.
  • Between 1990 and 2005, oil consumption increased by 13%, but has since decreased by 15% in the EU28 (see Figure 2 and Figure 6). In the transport sector, the use of petroleum fuels increased by 29% between 1990 and 2005, at an average annual rate of 1.7%. Between 2005 and 2013, the consumption of oil decreased in all sectors. At 9%, and with an annual decrease of 1.1%, the smallest decrease occurred in the transport sector. In 2013, the transport sector accounted for a 77% share of petroleum consumption (compared to 62% in 1990). Increased fuel efficiencies, as a result of to transport standards, play an important role in this decreased consumption. For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the EEA (2014a) and EEA (2014b).
  • The consumption of electricity increased most rapidly, with a 28.1% increase since 1990 (see Figure 3 and Figure 6). Since 2005 and 2013, there was a 0.5% decrease in the final energy consumption of electricity. The increase since 1990 was due to the increase of electricity consumption in the services and households sector at 88% and 36%, respectively. Since 2005, electricity consumption in these sectors continued to increase (3% for the household sector and 13% for the service sector), while electricity consumption in industry decreased by 12% over the same period due to improvements in industrial processes
  • Consumption of natural gas also increased by 20% in the EU28 during the 1990-2013 period (see Figure 4 and Figure 6). Since 2005, however, consumption of natural gas has decreased by 7%. In the residential and service sectors, weather conditions and income levels play an important role. Although the transport sector had the largest increase in natural gas consumption, the increases in the service and household sectors are much more significant overall because of their contribution to total consumption. Between 1990 and 2013, the service and household sectors experienced an increase of 91% and 45%, respectively. The household sector has experienced a decrease of 6% since 2005, whereas natural gas consumption in the service sector increased by 11%. In 2013, the household sector had the largest share of final energy consumption of natural gas (44%) for the EU28. This was a result of the increase in the use of gas for residential heating and cooking.
  • Consumption of solid fuels underwent the largest decrease (62%) between 1990 and 2013 (12% since 2005) (see Figure 5 and Figure 6). The largest absolute reductions were observed in the industry and households sectors. This is as a result of the switch from coal to gas, triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s).
  • According to the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU), the EU Member States have set up national indicative targets that collectively would help reach the EU's 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. In 2013, the cumulative final energy consumption target for all Member States was 5 Mtoe below the EU28 target of 1086Mtoe. Member States have the possibility to update their targets in the National Energy Efficiency Plan, although this is not specifically mentioned in the Energy Efficiency Directive. By 2013, sixteen of the EU Member States reached their estimated national target (see Figure 7). In 2013, final energy consumption in Germany, France and the UK was 23, 21 and 7 Mtoe, respectively, above these countries' national targets. In countries such as Italy, Poland, Romania and Croatia, final energy consumption in 2013 was well below their estimated national 2020 target. In 2013, final energy consumption in the EU28 was 1104 Mtoe, 1.6% above the 2020 target of 1086 Mtoe. For more information on progress towards the energy efficiency targets see also EEA (2014c) and forthcoming updates).

[1] “Other” is the sum of Fishing, Agriculture and Forestry

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.

The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Units

Final energy consumption is measured in million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The trend in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, etc.) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity) or a combination of these.

Policy context

  • The 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive established a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. Under the Directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain, from its production to its final consumption. To reach the EU's 20% energy efficiency target by 2020, individual EU countries have set their own indicative national energy efficiency targets. Depending on country preferences, these targets are based on primary and/or final energy consumption, primary and/or final energy savings or energy intensity. New national measures have to ensure major energy savings for consumers and industry. To help officials in EU countries implement the Energy Efficiency Directive, the European Commission publishes guidance notes; COM(2013) 762.

Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance.
Commission Guidance COM(2013) 762, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and Council, Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive.
Council Directive 2013/12/EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia.

  • Earlier legislation: in 2009 the council adopted the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20% reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents.

Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01).
Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the community. 
Regulation (EC) No. 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.

  • Second Strategic Energy Review COM(2008) 781 final
    Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
  • Sustainable production and consumption action plan COM(2008) 397 final
    The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote its sustainable industrial policy.
     

EEA references

Targets

The Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in primary energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member States whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

Related policy documents

  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COM(2008) 397
    Sustainable production and consumption action plan
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • Directive 2012/27/eu
    DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Technical information
  1. Data source:
    Final Energy Consumption: Eurostat (historical data) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ 
    Final Energy Consumption, non European countries: IEA http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP
    Final energy consumption is one of the European Environment Agency’s core-set indicators. More information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI.
  2. Description of data/indicator definition:
    Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
    The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand. 
  3. Geographical coverage:
    The EEA had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Note that no data is included for Switzerland and Liechtenstein due to lack of data in Eurostat. Table 1 also covers data for the world, Africa, the Middle-East, China, India, Russia and the United States.
  4. Methodology and frequency of data collection: 
    Data collected annually.
    Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata
  5. Methodology of data manipulation:
    Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
  6. The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture/forestry 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + final energy consumption - Other Sectors 102000.
    • Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700.
    This was done for 0000 All-products; 3000 - Total petroleum products, 6000 - Electrical energy, 4100 - Natural gas and 2000 - Solid fuels.

    The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total; Flow; Final Consumption – Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in the petrochemical industry.

    The estimated indicative national targets for 2020 are based on the National Energy Efficiency Plans for 2014 or earlier when not available; see https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-directive/national-energy-efficiency-action-plans.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling was applied.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Reliability, accuracy, robustness and uncertainty (at data level)

Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral share also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat, final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines.

Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 1
Comparability over time: 1
Comparability over space: 1

Data sets uncertainty

Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)

Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses. 
Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found on Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | natural gas | electricity | ghg retrospective | solid fuels | electriciy | energy
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2013, 2020
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,