Final energy consumption by sector and fuel

Indicator Assessment
Prod-ID: IND-16-en
Also known as: CSI 027 , ENER 016
expired Created 19 Dec 2014 Published 01 Jan 2015 Last modified 21 Oct 2015, 02:03 PM
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Over the period 1990 and 2012 final energy consumption in EU28 increased by 2.3% (6.5% in EEA countries). Between 2005 and 2012 the final energy consumption in the EU28 decreased by 7.1% (5.0% in EEA countries). The services sector is the only sector where the energy consumption increased by 3.5% over the period 2005-2012. B etween 2005 and 2012, t he energy consumption dropped by 14% in industry, 5.1% in transport and 4% in households. The implementation of energy efficiency policies and the economic recession played an important part in the reduction of energy consumption. On average, each person in the EEA countries used 2.1 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2012.

Key messages

Over the period 1990 and 2012 final energy consumption in EU28 increased by 2.3% (6.5% in EEA countries). Between 2005 and 2012 the final energy consumption in the EU28 decreased by 7.1% (5.0% in EEA countries). The services sector is the only sector where the energy consumption increased by 3.5% over the period 2005-2012. Between 2005 and 2012, the energy consumption dropped by 14% in industry, 5.1% in transport and 4% in households. The implementation of energy efficiency policies and the economic recession played an important part in the reduction of energy consumption. On average, each person in the EEA countries used 2.1 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2012.

Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Final energy consumption by sector

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Final energy consumption of petroleum products by sector

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Final energy consumption of electricity by sector

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Final energy consumption of natural gas by sector

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Final energy consumption of solid fuel by sector

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Final energy consumption by fuel type

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  • Between 2005 and 2012, final energy consumption decreased by 7.1% (1.0% annually) in the EU28 and by 5.0% (0.7% annually) in EEA countries. Between 2011 and 2012 final energy consumption in the EU28 and in the EEA countries stabilized (see Table 1) after a small increase due to mild economic recovery between 2009 and 2010. Such trends suggest that Europe has not managed to decouple in absolute terms energy consumption from economic growth. Overall, between 1990 and 2012, there has been a relatively small increase in the final energy consumption in the EU28 by 2.3% (0.1% annually) and 6.5% in the EEA countries (0.3% annually). The difference in final energy consumption between the EEA countries and the EU28 is mainly caused by the increased energy consumption in Turkey, at 118% between 1990 and 2012 (33% between 2005 and 2012). The transport sector accounted for 32% of total final energy consumption in the EU28 Member States followed by the industrial and household sectors (both 26%) and the service sector (13%) (see Figure 1).
  • The decrease since 2005 in final energy consumption in the EU28 takes place in all sectors, except in the services sector. Fishing, Agriculture & Forestry and Industry are the sectors with the largest decrease between 2005 and 2012, at 22% and 14% respectively in the EU28. During that period the energy consumption in the services sector continued to increase by 3.5% in the EU28 (7.6% in the EEA). Since 2005 energy consumption in the residential sector has started to decrease in the EU28, after a history of small yearly increases. This deviation of the trend indicates that EU policies on energy performance of buildings are having effect.
  • Over the whole period (1990-2012) the largest increases in final energy consumption in the EU28 occurred in the services and transport sectors 36% and 24%, respectively (45% and 26% in the EEA) (Fig.1). In the services sector, energy consumption increased due to the continued rise in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. In the transport sector, the increase was observed as a result of improvements in fuel efficiency being offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation between 1990 and 2005 have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Between 2005 and 2012 the final energy consumption in the transport sector decreased by 5% in the EU28. Of the major sectors, the largest fall in energy consumption between 1990 and 2012 took place in the industry sector, where final energy consumption fell by 23%, at an annual average rate of 1.2% in the EU28, increasingly so at an annual average rate of 2.2% between 2005 and 2012. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, the continuing transition to a more service-oriented European economy, in combination with effects of the economic recession in recent years.
  • The observed trend concerning final energy consumption differs significantly across the EEA member countries (see Table 1). Between 2005 and 2012 Iceland, Malta and Poland experienced, by far, the largest increase in final energy consumption (28%, 18% and 9% respectively) whereas Hungary and Greece experienced the largest decrease with 19% and 18% respectively. In addition, final energy consumption decreased significantly also in Portugal (15%), Spain (15%), UK (12%), Italy (12%) and Slovakia (11%) during this period..
  • The consumption of electricity has increased most rapidly in percentage terms (see Figure 3 and Figure 6). Since 2005, there has been a 0.5% increase (29.3% increase since 1990) in final energy consumption of electricity. The increase since 1990 was due to the increase of electricity consumption in the services and households sector at 91% and 36%, respectively. Since 2005 electricity consumption in these sectors continued to increase (3% for the household sector and 15.4% for the service sector) while the electricity consumption in industry decreased by 11% over the same period due to improvements in industrial processes
  • Consumption of natural gas has also increased in the EU28 during 1990-2012 (17%) (Fig.4 and Fig. 6). Since 2005 however, consumption of natural gas decreased by 10%. In the residential and service sectors, weather conditions and income levels play an important role. Although the transport sector had the largest increase of natural gas consumption the increases in the service and household sectors are much more significant overall because of the contribution they make to absolute total consumption. The service and household sectors experienced an increase of 73% and 42% respectively between 1990 and 2012. The household sector experienced a decrease of 9% since 2005, whereas natural gas consumption in the service sector stabilized during that period. In 2012, the household sector had the largest share of final energy consumption of natural gas for the EU28 at 44% as a result of increase in the use of gas for residential heating and cooking.
  • Solid fuels had the largest decrease in consumption (62%) between 1990 and 2012 (11% since 2005) (Fig.5 and Fig. 6). The largest absolute reductions have been observed in the industry and households sectors. This is as a result of the switching from coal to gas, triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s).
  • Consumption of petroleum products increased between 1990 and 2005 by 13% and has since then decreased by 15% in the EU28 (Fig.2). In the transport sector the use of petroleum fuels has increased by 29% between 1990 and 2005, at an average annual rate of 1.7%. Whereas, between 2005 and 2012 the consumption of oil decreased in all sectors. The smallest decrease by 8% occurred in the transport sector at an annual decrease of 1.2%. In 2012 the transport sector had a 76% share in the petroleum consumption (compared to 62% in 1990). Increased fuel efficiencies due to standards for transport play an important role in the decreased consumption. For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the EEA (2013) and EEA (2014).

Indicator specification and metadata

Indicator definition

Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.

The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Units

Final energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).


Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The trend in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (e.g. GHG emissions, air pollution, etc) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity, see ENER 17, ENER 19 and ENER 21) or a combination of these.

Policy context

  • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20% reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents.
  • Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
  • Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
  • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
    Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
  • Sustainable production and consumption action planCOM(2008) 397 final
    The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote its sustainable industrial policy.
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the PotentialCOM(2006)545 final

    This Action Plan outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to intensify the process of realising the 20% estimated savings potential in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020.

References

Targets

The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in primary energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

Related policy documents

  • A closer look at urban transport – TERM 2013: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
    This TERM 2013 report includes an assessment of progress towards the transport-related environmental targets set out in the 2011 White Paper and other transport and environment regulations. It also includes a focus on the environmental impacts of urban transport.
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • Monitoring CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013
    he EEA has collected EU Member States' data on passenger car registrations, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 443/2009. All Member States reported information on Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the mass of cars, together with other vehicle characteristics. This data was used to evaluate the performance in 2013 of the new vehicle fleet, and its progress toward meeting the CO2 emissions target of 130 grams of CO2 per kilometre (gCO2/km) by 2015. The current dataset is provisional, and will now be sent for verification to all car manufacturers responsible for cars registered in the EU in 2013.

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Meta data

Technical information

  1. Data source:
    Final Energy Consumption: Eurostat (historical data) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ 
    Final Energy Consumption non European countries: IEA http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP
    Final energy consumption is one of the European Environment Agency’s core-set indicators. More information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI.
  2. Description of data/Indicator definition:
    Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
    The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
    Units: Final energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).
  3. Geographical coverage:
    The Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus the countries Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Note that no data are included on Switzerland and Liechtenstein due to lack of data in Eurostat. Table 1 also covers data of the World, Africa, Middle-East, China, India, Russia and United States.
  4. Temporal coverage: 1990-2012
  5. Methodology and frequency of data collection:
    Data collected annually.
    Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata

  6. Methodology of data manipulation:
    Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
  7. The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture ao calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture/forestry 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + Final energy consumption - Other Sectors 102000.
    • Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700
    These was done for 0000 All-products; 3000 - Total petroleum products, 6000 - Electrical energy, 4100 - Natural gas and 2000 - Solid fuels.

    The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total;
    Flow; Final Consumption – Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in petrochemical industry.

    Qualitative information

  8. Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
    Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.
    Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction
  9. Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
    Indicator uncertainty (historical data):
    Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
    The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. a new definition will be is now used in the energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines.
  10. Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):
    Relevance: 1
    Accuracy: 1
    Comparability over time: 1

    Comparability over space: 1

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling was applied.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):

Indicator uncertainty (historical data):
Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the primary energy consumption needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in the energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines

Data sets uncertainty

Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.

Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sources

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | natural gas | electricity | ghg retrospective | solid fuels | energy cosumption | electriciy | energy
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2012
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

EEA Management Plan

2014 1.3.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100