Final energy consumption by sector
Justification for indicator selection
The indicator tracks progress made in reducing energy consumption in the different end-use sectors. Indirectly, the indicator shows progress (or lack of) in reducing the associated environmental impacts of energy production because of avoided energy supply. It can be used to monitor progress in implementation of energy efficiency and energy conservation policies. In the EU-27, the calculation of both GHG emissions and renewable targets for 2020 entails a certain level of energy efficiency/conservation.
- No rationale references available
Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
Final energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).
Policy context and targets
The trend in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households).
The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (e.g. GHG emissions, air pollution, etc) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity, see ENER 02, ENER 17, ENER 19 and ENER 21) or a combination of these.
The Europe 2020 growth growth strategy aims to address shortcoming of the European economic model while creating coditions for smarter, more sustainable and inclusive growth. One of the headline targets include the objective of increasing the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption to 20% by 2020.
The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in gross inland energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. This directive has a direct impact on the renewables target since it aims to reduce the final energy consumption, thus making the renewables target easier to reach.
A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final). Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.
On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication "Energy Roadmap 2050". The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness.
On 10 November 2010, the European Commission has adopted the Communication "Energy 2020 - A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy". The Communication defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prizes and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners.
Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents
- Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
- Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
- Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
- Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
- Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
- Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
Sustainable production and consumption action plan COM(2008) 397 final
The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote
its sustainable industrial policy.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential COM(2006)545 final
This Action Plan outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to intensify the process of realising the 20% estimated savings potential in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020.
The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in gross inland energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.
Related policy documents
Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
Sustainable production and consumption action plan
COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
Transport at a cross-roads. Term 2011: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
EEA(2011), Laying the foundations for greener transport — TERM 2011: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
Methodology for indicator calculation
Methodology and frequency of data collection
Data collected annually.
Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata
Methodology of data manipulation
Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
- Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture ao calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture/forestry 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + Final energy consumption - Other Sectors 102000.
- Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700
These was done for 0000 All-products; 3000 - Total petroleum products, 6000 - Electrical energy, 4100 - Natural gas and 2000 - Solid fuels.
The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
- Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total;
Flow; Final Consumption – Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in petrochemical industry.
The Agency had 32 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus the countries Iceland, Switzerland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Note that no data are included on Liechtenstein or Iceland due to lack of data in Eurostat. Figure 3 also covers data of the World, Africa, Middle-East, China, India, Russia and United States.
Final energy consumption is one of the European Environment Agency’s core-set indicators. More information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI.
Methodology for gap filling
No gap filling was applied.
No methodology references available.
EEA data references
- No datasets have been specified here.
External data references
Data sources in latest figures
Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
Indicator uncertainty (historical data):
Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in the energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines
Data sets uncertainty
Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.
Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction
No uncertainty has been specified
Short term work
Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.
Long term work
Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.
Responsibility and ownership
EEA Contact InfoAnca-Diana Barbu
Frequency of updates
ClassificationDPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe’s environment.
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