Final energy consumption by sector
Between 1990 and 2009, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 3.2 % at an annual average rate of 0.2% whereas the final energy consumption decreased by 6.6% between 2005 and 2009. Transport remains the sector with the fastest growing energy consumption (30.6% over the period 1990-2009) followed by services (29.7% over the period 1990-2009). Over the same period, household final energy consumption increased by about 8.0% while final consumption in industry fell by 27.0 %. Of this decline in industry, a large decline occurred during the period 2008 to 2009, where there was a decline of 14.7% since 2008. Between 2008 and 2009, EU-27 final energy consumption decreased by 5.2 %. There were declines in all sectors due to the economic recession; there was even a decline in the transport sector (-2.7%) during the same period. On average, one person in the EEA countries used 2.1 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2009.
Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?
Total final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2009
Note: Consists of 5 figures that show the total final energy consumption, final energy consumption of petroleum products, final energy consumption of electricity, final energy consumption of natural gas and final energy consumption of solid fuel, all by sector in the EU-27.
Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data.
Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27
Note: Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27
Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data.
IEA. Final Energy Consumption non European countries: IEA
- Between 1990 and 2009, total final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 3.2 % (0.2% annually), off-setting some of the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements (see ENER 001, ENER 005, ENER 006, ENER 007). The transport and services sectors have seen the largest increases of 30.6% and 29.7%, respectively, over this longer time period. Final energy consumption decreased by 6.6% between 2005 and 2009 with the Industry sector showing the largest reduction over this period (19.0%).
- Total final electricity consumption in households and services is driven to a large extent by greater ownership of electrical appliances and IT equipment and in industry by the declining cost of electricity relative to other fuels (although this trend has been reversing in recent years).Transport was the fastest-growing sector over the period and now has the largest share of 33% in 2009 (see Figure 1a).
- Between 2008 and 2009 total final energy consumption in the EU-27 decreased by 5.2% (see Table 1) mainly due to the recession. A similar decrease was seen across all sectors. Between 2005 and 2009, the picture is more promising with a 5.8% decline for EEA32 and 6.6% decline for the EU27, but how interlinked this is with the economic recession remains to be seen (Figure 1a). Since 2005, the biggest percentage change has been an increase in Turkey’s wood and wood products sector with over a fourfold increase (455.3%) and the biggest decrease was for Switzerland’s non ferrous metal sector (-59.7%).
Is final energy consumption decreasing in the household and service sectors in Europe?
- Between 1990 and 2009, household final energy consumption in EU-27 increased by 8.0 % (and reduced by 3.5% 2005-2009), at an annual average rate of 0.41 % due to rising personal incomes that have permitted higher standards of living, an increase in comfort levels and broader ownership of domestic appliances. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand, and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations.
- During the same period 1990 to 2009 (and 2005 to 2009), final energy consumption in services grew by about 29.7 % (and reduced by 2.3%) at an annual average rate of 1.38 %. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning.
- It is the demand for electricity in both these sectors that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms. Since 1990, there has been a 55.2% increase (6.4% increase since 2005) in final energy consumption from electricity in the households and services sector (see Figure 1c). The service sector has contributed most to this with a large increase of 77.8% (4.3% increase since 2005). The household sector has also seen a large increase in final electricity consumption – 39.0% increase since 1990 (6.5% increase since 2005).
- For the household sector, there has also been a noticeable increase in the final energy consumption of natural gas (see Figure 1d) where there have been increases of 52.1% since 1990. In 2009, the household sector had the largest share of final energy consumption of natural gas for the EU-27 at 46.9%. The share for the services sector was much smaller at 17.1%, but there has been a much larger percentage increase of 61.4% across the time period.
- More recently, household total final energy consumption decreased by 0.6 % from 2008 to 2009, which might be due to the recession. In non-EU EEA countries the decrease in the household sector was more pronounced at 6.1% for the same period. In 2009, the share of household consumption in total final energy consumption was 26.5% for EU-27 (see Figure 1a).
- For the service sector between 2008 and 2009, total final consumption decreased by 0.5%, again possibly due to the recession. In non-EU EEA countries the change in final energy consumption in the services sector was even more pronounced than the EU decline with an 8.2% decrease. In 2009, the service sector was responsible for a 12.6% share of total final energy consumption in the EU-27 Member States (see Figure 1a).
Is final energy consumption decreasing in industry in Europe?
Final energy consumption in the industry sectors in the EU27, 1990-2009
Note: The figure shows the development of the final energy consumption in the different industry sectors.
Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data.
Historic data. This year have added paper, pulp and print due to the emerging pre-recession increases in the sector.
- Between 1990 and 2009 (2005 and 2009), total final energy consumption in industry fell by 27.0 % (19.0%), at an annual average rate of 1.64%. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, the continuing transition to a more service-oriented European economy, as well as the possible effects of the economic recession. Since 2008, the total final energy consumption in industry decreased by 14.7%. In 2009, the share of final energy consumption for the industrial sector was 24.2% (see Figure 1a and also ENER25), whereas in 2008 it was nearly three percent higher.
- There have been large decreases in the consumption of solid fuels (59.4%, see Figure 1e), liquid petroleum fuels (40.0%, see Figure 1b) and natural gas (22.9%, see Figure 1d) in the industrial sector, which suggests the decrease is not just the result of fuel switching. Only electricity consumption has remained fairly static (see Figure 1c).
- Figure 2 shows final energy consumption in the top six industry sectors in the EU-27. The graph shows reductions in energy consumption in the iron and steel industry, the chemical industry and in other non-classified industries. For these sectors, final consumption dropped between 1990 and 2009 (2005 and 2009) by 46.3% (30.5%), 27.2% (10.7%) and 52.4% (40.1%), respectively, but most of the reductions occurred in the early 1990s. The iron and steel industry has seen dramatic declines more recently as a result of the recession and plant closures; there was a 26.9% decline between 2008 and 2009. The food, drink and tobacco industry has been relatively stable since 1990 and only shows a 2.4% decrease over the period. The paper, pulp and printing sector is the only sector to show a 23% increase since 1990. Even in this sector, there are recession related decreases in the last two years visible in Figure 2.
Is final energy consumption of petroleum products decreasing in the transport sector in Europe?
- Transport is the fastest-growing energy-consuming sector in the EU-27. Between 1990 and 2009, total final energy consumption in transport increased by 30.6 % at an average annual rate of 1.41 %. However the increase reduced significantly to 0.1% between 2005 and 2009. In 2009, the share of transport in final energy consumption was 33.0% (see Figure 1a). Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (both domestic and international) represented about 12.9 % of final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2009 and grew by about 73 % (3.9 % annually) between 1990 and 2009. This is in part due to the growth of low-cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population.
- Underlying this increase in final energy consumption in the transport sector is the large increase in petroleum fuels (see Figure 1b). Between 1990 and 2009, there has been an increase in petroleum fuels in the transport sector of 26.1%, increasing at an average annual rate of increase of 1.23%. However between 2005 and 2009 petroleum fuels in the transport sector reduced by 2.4%. The transport sector is now responsible for a 75.1 % share of petroleum consumption in 2009. For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the TERM report.
Indicator specification and metadata
Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
Final energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).
Policy context and targets
The trend in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households).
The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (e.g. GHG emissions, air pollution, etc) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity, see ENER 02, ENER 17, ENER 19 and ENER 21) or a combination of the these.
Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents:
- Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
- Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
- Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
- Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
- Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
- Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final. Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
Sustainable production and consumption action plan COM(2008) 397 final. The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote its sustainable industrial policy.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential COM(2006)545 final. This Action Plan outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to intensify the process of realising the 20% estimated savings potential in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020.
Related policy documents
Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
Sustainable production and consumption action plan
COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
EEA (2009) Transport at a cross-roads
Term 2009: indicators tracking transport and environment in the European Union
REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
Methodology for indicator calculation
Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
- Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture ao calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture/foresty 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020.
- Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700
These was done for 0000- All-products; 3000 - Total petroleum products, 6000 Electrical energy, 4100 Natural gas and 2000 – Solid fuels.
For Figure 2, industry codes were 101805 – Iron and steel; 101810 – no ferrous metals; 101815 – chemical and petrochemical; 101820 – non-metallic minerals; 101830 – food and tobacco;101840 – paper, pulp and print and 101853 – non specified (industry).
The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
- Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total; Flow; Final Consumption – Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in petrochemical industry
Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data collected annually.
Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata
The Agency had 32 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus the countries Iceland, Switzerland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Note that no data are included on Liechtenstein or Iceland. Figure 3 also covers data of the World, Africa, Middle-East, China, India, Russia and United States
Methodology for gap filling
No gap filling necessary
No methodology references available.
Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. a new definition will be is now used in the energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines.
Data sets uncertainty
Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.
Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction
No uncertainty has been specified
Final Energy Consumption non European countries (IEA)
provided by International Energy Agency (IEA)
Energy statistics (Eurostat)
provided by Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
Energy (Primary topic)
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
- CSI 027
- ENER 016
Contacts and ownership
EEA Contact InfoCinzia Pastorello
EEA Management Plan2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)
- 08 Aug 2011 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 14 Sep 2010 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 28 Apr 2008 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 21 May 2007 - EN16 Final Energy Consumption by Sector
- 23 Mar 2007 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 12 Apr 2006 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 27 Sep 2005 - Final energy consumption by sector
- 01 Jun 2001 - Household expenditure categories
- 01 Jun 2001 - Household energy consumption
- 01 Jun 2001 - Household number and size
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe’s environment.
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