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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Final energy consumption by sector / Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Mar 2012

Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Mar 2012

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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | csi | natural gas | electricity | energy | ghg retrospective | solid fuels | industry
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2009, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 3.2 % at an annual average rate of 0.2% whereas the final energy consumption decreased by 6.6% between 2005 and 2009. Transport remains the sector with the fastest growing energy consumption (30.6% over the period 1990-2009) followed by services (29.7% over the period 1990-2009). Over the same period, household final energy consumption increased by about 8.0% while final consumption in industry fell by 27.0 %. Of this decline in industry, a large decline occurred during the period 2008 to 2009, where there was a decline of 14.7% since 2008. Between 2008 and 2009, EU-27 final energy consumption decreased by 5.2 %. There were declines in all sectors due to the economic recession; there was even a decline in the transport sector (-2.7%) during the same period. On average, one person in the EEA countries used 2.1 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2009.

Total final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2009

Note: Consists of 5 figures that show the total final energy consumption, final energy consumption of petroleum products, final energy consumption of electricity, final energy consumption of natural gas and final energy consumption of solid fuel, all by sector in the EU-27.

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data.

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Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Note: Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. 

IEA. Final Energy Consumption non European countries: IEA

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Key assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2009, total final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 3.2 % (0.2% annually), off-setting some of the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements (see ENER 001, ENER 005, ENER 006, ENER 007). The transport and services sectors have seen the largest increases of 30.6% and 29.7%, respectively, over this longer time period. Final energy consumption decreased by 6.6% between 2005 and 2009 with the Industry sector showing the largest reduction over this period (19.0%).
  • Total final electricity consumption in households and services is driven to a large extent by greater ownership of electrical appliances and IT equipment and in industry by the declining cost of electricity relative to other fuels (although this trend has been reversing in recent years).Transport was the fastest-growing sector over the period and now has the largest share of 33% in 2009 (see Figure 1a).
  • Between 2008 and 2009 total final energy consumption in the EU-27 decreased by 5.2% (see Table 1) mainly due to the recession. A similar decrease was seen across all sectors. Between 2005 and 2009, the picture is more promising with a 5.8% decline for EEA32 and 6.6% decline for the EU27, but how interlinked this is with the economic recession remains to be seen (Figure 1a). Since 2005, the biggest percentage change has been an increase in Turkey’s wood and wood products sector with over a fourfold increase (455.3%) and the biggest decrease was for Switzerland’s non ferrous metal sector (-59.7%).

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in the household and service sectors in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2009, household final energy consumption in EU-27 increased by 8.0 % (and reduced by 3.5% 2005-2009), at an annual average rate of 0.41 % due to rising personal incomes that have permitted higher standards of living, an increase in comfort levels and broader ownership of domestic appliances. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand, and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations.
  • During the same period 1990 to 2009 (and 2005 to 2009), final energy consumption in services grew by about 29.7 % (and reduced by 2.3%) at an annual average rate of 1.38 %. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning.
  • It is the demand for electricity in both these sectors that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms. Since 1990, there has been a 55.2% increase (6.4% increase since 2005) in final energy consumption from electricity in the households and services sector (see Figure 1c). The service sector has contributed most to this with a large increase of 77.8% (4.3% increase since 2005). The household sector has also seen a large increase in final electricity consumption – 39.0% increase since 1990 (6.5% increase since 2005).
  • For the household sector, there has also been a noticeable increase in the final energy consumption of natural gas (see Figure 1d) where there have been increases of 52.1% since 1990. In 2009, the household sector had the largest share of final energy consumption of natural gas for the EU-27 at 46.9%. The share for the services sector was much smaller at 17.1%, but there has been a much larger percentage increase of 61.4% across the time period.
  • More recently, household total final energy consumption decreased by 0.6 % from 2008 to 2009, which might be due to the recession. In non-EU EEA countries the decrease in the household sector was more pronounced at 6.1% for the same period. In 2009, the share of household consumption in total final energy consumption was 26.5% for EU-27 (see Figure 1a).
  • For the service sector between 2008 and 2009, total final consumption decreased by 0.5%, again possibly due to the recession. In non-EU EEA countries the change in final energy consumption in the services sector was even more pronounced than the EU decline with an 8.2% decrease. In 2009, the service sector was responsible for a 12.6% share of total final energy consumption in the EU-27 Member States (see Figure 1a).

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in industry in Europe?

Final energy consumption in the industry sectors in the EU27, 1990-2009

Note: The figure shows the development of the final energy consumption in the different industry sectors.

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. 

Historic data. This year have added paper, pulp and print due to the emerging pre-recession increases in the sector.

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Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2009 (2005 and 2009), total final energy consumption in industry fell by 27.0 % (19.0%), at an annual average rate of 1.64%. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, the continuing transition to a more service-oriented European economy, as well as the possible effects of the economic recession. Since 2008, the total final energy consumption in industry decreased by 14.7%. In 2009, the share of final energy consumption for the industrial sector was 24.2% (see Figure 1a and also ENER25), whereas in 2008 it was nearly three percent higher.
  • There have been large decreases in the consumption of solid fuels (59.4%, see Figure 1e), liquid petroleum fuels (40.0%, see Figure 1b) and natural gas (22.9%, see Figure 1d) in the industrial sector, which suggests the decrease is not just the result of fuel switching. Only electricity consumption has remained fairly static (see Figure 1c).
  • Figure 2 shows final energy consumption in the top six industry sectors in the EU-27. The graph shows reductions in energy consumption in the iron and steel industry, the chemical industry and in other non-classified industries. For these sectors, final consumption dropped between 1990 and 2009 (2005 and 2009) by 46.3% (30.5%), 27.2% (10.7%) and 52.4% (40.1%), respectively, but most of the reductions occurred in the early 1990s. The iron and steel industry has seen dramatic declines more recently as a result of the recession and plant closures; there was a 26.9% decline between 2008 and 2009. The food, drink and tobacco industry has been relatively stable since 1990 and only shows a 2.4% decrease over the period. The paper, pulp and printing sector is the only sector to show a 23% increase since 1990. Even in this sector, there are recession related decreases in the last two years visible in Figure 2.

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption of petroleum products decreasing in the transport sector in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Transport is the fastest-growing energy-consuming sector in the EU-27. Between 1990 and 2009, total final energy consumption in transport increased by 30.6 % at an average annual rate of 1.41 %. However the increase reduced significantly to 0.1% between 2005 and 2009. In 2009, the share of transport in final energy consumption was 33.0% (see Figure 1a). Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (both domestic and international) represented about 12.9 % of final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2009 and grew by about 73 % (3.9 % annually) between 1990 and 2009. This is in part due to the growth of low-cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population. 
  • Underlying this increase in final energy consumption in the transport sector is the large increase in petroleum fuels (see Figure 1b). Between 1990 and 2009, there has been an increase in petroleum fuels in the transport sector of 26.1%, increasing at an average annual rate of increase of 1.23%. However between 2005 and 2009 petroleum fuels in the transport sector reduced by 2.4%. The transport sector is now responsible for a 75.1 % share of petroleum consumption in 2009.  For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the TERM report.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100