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Final electricity consumption by sector (ENER 018) - Assessment published Sep 2010

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 08 Mar 2010 Published 14 Sep 2010 Last modified 11 Mar 2014, 01:47 PM
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This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)
 
Contents
 

Indicator definition

Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).

Units

Final electricity consumption is measured in terawatt hours (TWh).


Key policy question: Is electricity consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Final electricity consumption increased rapidly in most economic sectors at an average annual growth of around 1.7% per year over the period 1990-2007. Across the whole period, final electricity consumption grew by 32.8 %. The strongest growth was observed in the service sector (59.1 %), followed by households (37.2 %), industry (17.5 %) and the transport sector (14.3 %). The observed increase is the consequence of both the attractiveness of electricity as an energy carrier and economic growth.

Final electricity consumption by sector, EU-27

Note: Final electricity consumption by sector, EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_105a&lang=en

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Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007, EU-27

Note: Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007, EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_105a&lang=en

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Key assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, total electricity consumption increased by 32.8 %. The average annual growth rate of final electricity consumption across the EU-27 was 1.7 % in this period. The share of electricity in final energy consumption also rose from 17.2 % in 1990 to 21.2 % in 2007. Electricity is an attractive energy carrier due to its flexibility of use and the importance placed by consumers on the variety of energy services it provides. Furthermore, influenced by the liberalisation of the power market, electricity prices decreased during the 1990s but they have started to rise again in the last few years (see ENER31 and Figure 1).
  • In non-EU EEA countries, total electricity consumption increased by 71.2 % between 1990 and 2007. The average annual growth rate of final electricity consumption across these countries was 3.2 %, considerably larger than in the EU-27. This high rate was mainly caused by Turkey, with an average annual growth rate of 7.5 % due to the rapid transition to a modernised economy with the associated increase in electricity.

Specific policy question: Is electricity consumption decreasing in the European service (including agriculture) sector?

Specific assessment

  • Since 1990, in the EU-27 the electricity consumption increased in the service sector (including agriculture) at an annual growth rate of 2.8 %. In total, the electricity consumption increased by 59 % between 1990 and 2007. The main reasons for increased electricity consumption in the service sector were the sustained growth of this sector throughout the EU, the increased use of electrical appliances (such as air conditioning, lighting or IT equipment) and the penetration of new electrical devices (see Figure 2). Because small and medium sized enterprises dominate the service sector and in general the European economic landscape (99% of businesses are SMEs in Europe), it is important to look at their energy consumption patterns. In 2007, only 4% of SMEs had in place comprehensive mechanisms for energy efficiency and only 30% of SMEs were applying basic energy conservation measures (2007 SME Observatory). In non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the service sector more than doubled in this period, with a total growth of 105.4 %, and an annual growth rate of 4.3 %. The strongest growth was observed in Turkey, where total electricity use more than quadrupled in this period, with an average annual growth rate of 10.4 % (see  Figure 2).

Specific policy question: Is electricity consumption decreasing in the European household sector?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, the electricity consumption in the household sector in EU-27 grew by 37.2 %, at an average annual rate of 1.9 %. This trend can be explained by rising incomes, higher living standards, a shift towards smaller households and larger dwellings and a growing demand for electrical appliances. In 2007 total household final electricity consumption was 801 TWh (representing 28.1 % of final energy consumption across a total of almost 200 million households in the EU-27). In non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the household sector grew by 68.4 % in this period, an average annual growth rate of 3.1 %. Improvements in efficiency of large electrical appliances (leading to a decrease in average specific consumption of 1.5 % per year in the case of refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers, TVs and dryers) were to a large extent offset by the use, numbers and size of large appliances as well as a growing number of smaller appliances such as videos and computers (Enerdata et al, 2003). In 2007 a declining trend can be observed, the households electricity consumption was reduced by 0.6 % compared to 2006. Sweden (-4.5 %), the United Kingdom (-1.2 %) and Germany (-1.0 %) are the main contributors to this overall decrease, which resulted from a combination of mild winter weather and high electricity prices (see Figure 2).

Specific policy question: Is electricity consumption decreasing in the European industrial sector?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, the electricity consumption in the industry sector grew by 40.4 % in the EU-27, at an average annual rate of 0.95 %, hence slower than the services and household sectors. Industry electricity consumption in the New Member States fell sharply during the early 1990s during the process of economic restructuring. Over the period 1990-2007, in these countries final electricity consumption in industry decreased on average by 1.7%. However, between 2006 and 2007, final electricity consumption in industry actually increased in all New Member States, except Romania where there was a steep decrease of 5.9%, despite economic growth. There is a significant variation between the EU-27 member states. For example, in Lithuania, Latvia and Bulgaria between 1990 and 2007 the average annual consumption in the industrial sector decreased by almost 3.5 %, while in Ireland it increased by almost 4 % during the same period (see Figure 2). In non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the industry sector increased by 58.2 %, an average annual growth rate of 2.7 %.

Specific policy question: Is electricity consumption increasing in the European transport sector?

Specific assessment

  • The transport sector is only responsible for around 2.5 % of total electricity consumption in EU-27. Between 1990 and 2007, final electricity consumption in this sector grew by 14.3 %, at an average annual rate of 1.7 %. This increase can mainly be attributed to growing consumption in the EU-15, due to increased electrification of Europe’s railways (especially in France and the United Kingdom). The trend for the new Member States was opposite to that of EU-15. Due to lower usage of trains and other domestic public transport and an increase in road and air transport, a gradual decrease in electricity consumed for transport purposes was observed in the new Member states (average annual decrease between 1990 and 2007 of 3 %). However, the electricity consumption for transportation in these countries increased by 4.5 % in 2006-2007. Between 2006 and 2007, the final electricity consumption in transport increased by 1.2% across the EU-27 countries, with the strongest growth observed in Greece (15.7 %) and Slovakia (11.2 %) (see Figure 2). In the non-EU EEA countries, electricity consumption in the transport sector increased by 43.5 % from 1990-2007, an annual growth rate of 2.1 %.

Specific policy question: What are the key differences among European countries as well as between European countries and other countries and regions in the world?

Average annual percentage change in final electricity consumption, EU-27 1990-2007

Note: Average annual percentage change in final electricity consumption, EU-27 1990-2007

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_105a&lang=en

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Electricity consumption per capita (in kWh/cap) in 2007

Note: Electricity consumption per capita (in kWh/cap) in 2007

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_105a&lang=en

IEA. World, Electricity/Heat Supply and Consumption. http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP

Eurostat. Population by sex and age on 1. January of each year. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/population/data/database

 

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Specific assessment

  • Most countries in the EU-27 experienced an overall increase in electricity consumption over the period from 1990 to 2007, except for Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Bulgaria and Estonia. During this period, the average annual growth rate of electricity consumption varied greatly by country, ranging from less than 1 % per year in Sweden, Hungary and Slovakia to over 4 % in Spain, Portugal, Malta, Ireland and Cyprus. The decrease or low growth in electricity consumption in the new Member States was a combined result of economic restructuring in the 1990s and a decrease or low growth of the total population in those countries (see Figure 3).
  • Electricity consumption per capita also varies greatly between countries, with the lowest per capita consumption occurring in some new Member States, including Romania, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria. Although the use of air conditioning in southern European countries contributes to a large increase in electricity consumption during the summer months, the highest consumption per capita was in the northern-most countries, (Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland), where electrical heating based on low-cost electricity produced by hydropower meets a large part of the overall heating requirements (see Figure 4).
  • The average electricity use per capita in the EU-27 is almost 2.3 times the global average and 2.8 times that of China. Only Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Iceland are using more electricity per capita than in the United States. The rest of the EU-27 is well below the US (see Figure 4).

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

Reducing electricity consumption is a robust way to lower the environmental impacts of electricity generation. This may result from reducing the electricity consumption for lighting, appliances and information and communication technology equipment, or by using electricity in a more efficient way, or from a combination of the two. In the transport sector, however, an increase in electricity consumption might signal a positive trend of modal shift towards rail transport or a higher penetration of electric vehicles.

Nevertheless, the type and extent of energy-related pressures on the environment depends not only on the amount of electricity consumed (and thus generated and/or avoided), but also on the fuels used for electricity generation, which are predominantly still fossil fuels (see ENER 27 for more information about electricity production by fuel and its impacts) and how the electricity is produced (see ENER 19 on efficiency of conventional thermal electricity generation, ENER 20 on penetration of combined heat and power and ENER 06 on the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used) .

The switch from other end-use fuels towards electricity increases the environmental pressure in many cases, as around three units of energy are needed to produce one unit of electricity, due to efficiency losses in electricity generation and transmission. However, if the electricity is generated by low emission technologies like renewables, such a switch could also significantly reduce the environmental consequences of electricity production while, at the same time, improving the security of energy supply.

Policy context

Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents

  • Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
  • Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

 

Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final. Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778 final/2. Directive on intensification of existing regulation on energy-efficiency of products.

 

Targets

No targets have been specified

Related policy documents

  • 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • 2008/101/EC
    Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • 2008/c 82/01
    Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • 2009/28/EC
    Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • 2009/29/ec
    Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • 2009/31/EC
    Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
  • ADEME (2003)
    Energy efficiency in the European Union 1990-2001.
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COD/2008/0013
    Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community.
  • COD/2008/0014
    Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
  • COM(2008) 16 final
    Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gasemission allowance trading system of the Community
  • COM(2008) 778
    Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • EEA (2008)
     Greenhouse gas data viewer, 2008
  • SEC(2007) 53
    Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system - Summary of the Impact Assessment.

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
Electricity consumption per capita calculated by dividing final electricity consumption by population for each country (demo_pjan).
The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator (in relation to the product ‘6000 - electrical energy’) are:
Numerator: final electricity consumption industry 101800 + final electricity consumption transport 101900 + final electricity consumption households 102010 + final electricity consumption services/agriculture calculated as (final electricity consumption households/services 102000 - final electricity consumption households 102010).
Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final electricity consumption 101700.
For non-EEA members data from the IEA is used:
Report ‘Electricity Information’, table ‘World, Electricity/Heat Supply and Consumption’, product ‘Electricity (GWh)’, balance (‘Observed Consumption – Total Energy Sector’). Report ‘World Energy Balances’, table ‘World Indicators’, flow ‘Population (millions)’.

Methodology for gap filling

No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of electricity consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of electricity consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in TWh) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed to generate the electricity before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final electricity consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of electricity consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors.

Geographical coverage:
The Agency had 32 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland.
No energy data available for Liechtenstein or Iceland.
Data for World, United States, China, India, Russia, the Middle East and Africa.

Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data collected annually.
Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata

Data sets uncertainty

Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.
Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
electricity | energy | consumption
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • ENER 018
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2007
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2009 2.9.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Filed under: , ,

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100