Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic
Published (reviewed and quality assured)
13 Dec 2016, 05:02 PM- Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic
14 Jan 2011, 12:00 AM- Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic
03 Sep 2010, 12:00 AM- Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic
21 Apr 2009, 12:00 AM- Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic
Justification for indicator selection
This indicator shows the contribution made by transport to air quality and focuses on particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The negative impacts of these two pollutants on human health are outlined in CSI 004. Road transport is the largest, or among the largest, source of emissions related to these pollutants. Especially in urban areas, where the majority of the European population lives and works, the contribution of road transport to observed concentrations is especially high, leading to increased exposure to the two pollutants. It is therefore relevant to compare concentrations observed at traffic stations (stations located close to road traffic emission sources, which are often in city centres) to those observed at background stations.
- WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91, WHO 2000
- Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide, Report on a WHO Working Group, WHO 2003
- Estimations of road vehicle primary NO2 exhaust emission fractions using monitoring data in London' Carslaw, D. and Beevers, S. D., 2005, Atmospheric Environment, 39 (1) 167–177,
- Recent trends and projections of primary NO2 emissions in Europe Grice, S., Stedman, J., Kent, A., Hobson, M., Norris, J., Abbott, J., Cooke, S., 2009. Atmospheric Environment, (43/13), 2 154–2 167.
- Trends in NOX and NO2 emissions and ambient measurements in the UK Carslaw D., Beevers, S., Westmoreland E., Williams, M., Tate, J., Murrells, T., Stedman, J., Li, Y., Grice, S., Kent A, and Tsagatakis, I., 2011, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
- 'Long-term trends of primary and secondary NO2 production in the Athens area. Variation of the NO2/NOX ratio Mavroidis, I. and Chaloulakou, A., 2011, Atmospheric Environment, (45) 6 872–6 879.
This indicator compares concentrations of pollutants at background stations to those at traffic stations. This comparison provides an estimate of the increased levels of air pollution to which the population is exposed in areas with increased road traffic. It also provides a measure of the impact of the technical and non-technical measures adopted to reduce the road transport sector's contribution to observed concentrations.
The indicator makes use of the data submitted to Airbase. Data permitting, pan-European coverage is attempted and the indicator focuses on selected station pairs (traffic and urban background stations) from capital cities across Europe. Where data in capital cities are not available, the next largest city is chosen.
The units used in this indicator are the average yearly, daily and weekly variations of the concentrations at traffic and urban background stations, measured in micrograms per cubic metre (mg/m3).
Policy context and targets
This indicator provides information relevant for current European air quality legislation related to the setting of national emission targets (National Emission Ceiling Directive 2001/81/EC), the reduction of transport related emissions (discussed in detail in TERM 34) and the protection of human health from harmful air pollutant levels (Directives 1999/30/EC for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter and 2002/3/EC for ozone, both discussed in detail in CSI 004). The Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (Directive 2008/50/EC) also sets target and limit values for PM2.5 (particulate matter that passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 2.5 micrometres aerodynamic diameter), since 2010.
EU limit values for concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air
Both limit values had to be met by 1 January 2010:
- In the Council Directive 1999/30/EC (section 1 of Annex II), an annual mean limit value for nitrogen dioxide of 40 mg NO2/m3 has been set for the protection of human health.
- An hourly limit value of 200 mg NO2/m3, not to be exceeded more than 18 times per calendar year, has also been set.
EU limit values for concentrations of PM10 in ambient air
Both limit values had to be met by 1 January 2005:
- a limit value for PM10 of 50 mg/m3 (24 hour average, i.e. daily), not to be exceeded more than 35 times per calendar year, has been set for the protection of human health in Council Directive 1999/30/EC (Annex III).
- an annual average limit value of 40 mg/m3 has also been set.
EU limit values for concentrations of other pollutants:
- sulphur dioxide
Two limit values have been set for the protection of human health. Both limit values had to be met by 1 January 2005
- a limit value of 125 mg SO2/m3, as a daily average not to be exceeded more than three times per calendar year, has been set for the protection of human health in the adopted Daughter Directive 1999/30/EC, Section I of Annex I.
- an hourly limit value for the protection of human health has been set at 350 mg.
A combined ozone and acidification abatement strategy has been developed by the European Commission, resulting in a new Ozone Daughter Directive (2002/3/EC) and a National Emission Ceiling Directive (2001/81/EC). In this legislation, target values for ozone levels and for precursor emissions have been set.
- The Ozone Daughter Directive sets a target value for the protection of human health of 120 mg O3/m3, as a maximum daily 8 hour mean, not to be exceeded on more than 25 days per calendar year, averaged over three years. This target should be met in 2010.
- The Ozone Daughter Directive has also set a long-term objective of 120 mg O3/m3, as a maximum daily 8 hour average not to be exceeded on any day within a calendar year.
Related policy documents
COM(2001) 245 final. The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE).
The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme: Towards a Thematic Strategy for Air Quality COM(2001) 245 final
Council Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996
Council Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996 on ambient air quality assessment and management.
Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999
Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 Relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air
Directive 2001/81/EC, national emission ceilings
Directive 2001/81/EC, on nation al emissions ceilings (NECD) for certain atmospheric pollutants. Emission reduction targets for the new EU10 Member States have been specified in the Treaty of Accession to the European Union 2003 [The Treaty of Accession 2003 of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. AA2003/ACT/Annex II/en 2072] in order that they can comply with the NECD.
Directive 2002/3/ EC...ozone in ambient air
Directive 2002/3/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2002 relating to ozone in ambient air
Directive 2008/50/EC, air quality
Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.
Key policy question
Is the transport sector's contribution to air pollution being reduced?
Methodology for indicator calculation
Data submitted to Airbase have been used. The average diurnal variation was obtained by averaging each hour of the hourly data available at the selected measurement station. Average weekly variation was obtained by averaging the daily average for each day of the week (hourly or average daily data were used, depending on data availability) at the selected measurement station. Average yearly data were obtained from average hourly or average daily data, whichever were available at the selected measurement station (see data availability table for details). For all of the above, data gaps were not filled in.
Methodology for gap filling
No gap-filling is applied for this indicator, however, the databases and spreadsheets used for the production of the indicator contain gap-filled values.
- Buijsman E, PR van Hooydonk, WJA Mol, L Cernikovsky (ETC/ACC) 2004, European exchange of air quality monitoring meta information in 2002, ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2004/1
- Adams M and J Goodwin (AEA Technology Environment, uk), B Gugele (UBA-Vienna, AT) 2004, EEA/ETC-ACC technical report describing the gap-filling methodologies used for the 2004 EEA/ETC-ACC LRTAP Convention and GHG (CRF) air emissions spreadsheet, ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2004/3
EEA data references
- Air Quality e-Reporting (AQ e-Reporting) provided by European Commission
- National emissions reported to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Data sources in latest figures
Air quality data are officially submitted. It is assumed that data have been validated by the national data supplier. Station characteristics and representativeness are often insufficiently documented. The data are thought to be representative for the urban population in each city. Locally, (at the city level) the indicator is subject to year-on-year variations due to meteorological variability.
Data sets uncertainty
- Strengths and weaknesses (at data level): data officially reported by the countries to Airbase are used, however, the data reported across countries vary in quantity. Also, the station characterisation (urban background or traffic) is difficult to compare across countries.
- Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level): Uncertainties are discussed separately for each graph. The data quality cannot be commented upon, since the data are reported by the individual countries, but data availability is sometimes low and does not allow for robust conclusions/intercomparisons (see data availability table for details). The main problem is the lack of data and not the actual quality of the data available.
No uncertainty has been specified
Short term work
Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.
Work descriptionTimeseries Countries should improve data availability in Airbase, in terms of the yearly coverage. A suggestion would be that for stations that have recently been included in Airbase, also the past data could be uploaded, if available. A continuous problem is that stations close down and therefore timeseries become redundant as new stations must be used. Pollutants In terms of the pollutant coverage, all countries should ensure that there is at least one station of each type in Airbase, for the largest urban agglomeration and measuring all “basic” pollutants such as NO x , CO, PM 10 , SO 2 . In this analysis NO 2 has been used instead of NO x due to the lack of available data. When looking at traffic contribution, it would be more appropriate to study NO x data, so improvement in this direction would also be necessary. Furthermore, as scientific evidence indicates that PM 2.5 form the largest part of the PM 10 measured at traffic stations, it should become obligatory for the member states to measure PM 2.5 in urban agglomerations, namely at traffic stations. The new Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner for Europe (Directive 2008/50/EC) sets target and limit values for PM 2.5 and is expected to increase the availability and submission of such data to Airbase, enabling its consideration in future indicator analysis. Other data Meteorological data is needed in order to estimate the meteorologically induced variation in the concentrations observed. Member States should be encouraged to submit such data to a relevant database, perhaps Airbase could be extended to include such information also, as it is always needed in an air quality analysis. Station information in Airbase It is not sufficient to just know the station type but rather it is necessary to understand the geometry of the area the station is located in and also where within the urban area (in relation to major roads and significant industrial sources) it is located. Such data is requested by Airbase, but following the EoI decision, it is not obligatory for the MS to deliver this data. It is important that countries submit this type of data, as this would greatly help with this type of analysis. Spatial coverage Based on measurements, spatial coverage of all EEA member countries is not possible. This can only be done with the assistance of models. In order to draw conclusions for the urban areas as a whole (and not station specific conclusions) using measurements only, adequate coverage in terms of number of stations is necessary. This is not the case for the urban areas at present. Other transport modes Based on available measurements, only road transport can be considered in this analysis.
No resource needs have been specified
Deadline2015/12/31 00:00:00 GMT+1
Long term work
Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.
Responsibility and ownership
EEA Contact InfoAlfredo Sanchez Vicente
Frequency of updates
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/exceedances-of-air-quality-objectives or scan the QR code.
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