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Energy efficiency and specific CO2 emissions (TERM 027) - Assessment published Apr 2009

Indicator Assessment Created 13 Nov 2008 Published 21 Apr 2009 Last modified 20 Feb 2014, 04:40 PM
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Contents
 

Indicator definition

Specific CO2 emissions are defined as emissions of CO2 per transport unit (passenger-km or tonne-km), specified by mode (road, rail, inland, maritime, air).

CO2 emissions from new passengers cars are expressed in terms of grams of CO2 per kilometer. They are the experimental data measured in the vehicle type approval procedure.

Units

For passenger transport, specific CO2 emissions are expressed in g per passenger-kilometre.
For freight transport, specific CO2 emissions are expressed in g per tonne-kilometre.

For new passenger cars, tailpipe emissions are expressed in g per kilometre


Key policy question: Are the various passenger and freight transport modes becoming more energy efficient?

Key messages

  • Specific CO2 emissions of road transport have decreased since 1995, mainly due to an improvement in the fuel efficiency of passenger car transport. The voluntary agreement with the car industry has led to some reductions towards the 140 g CO2/km target by 2008/2009, but in the absence of additional measures, the EU objective of 120 g CO2/km will not be met at a 2012 horizon.
  • Specific CO2 emissions of air transport, although decreasing, are of the same order of magnitude as for road, while rail and maritime shipping remain the most energy efficient modes of passenger transport.
  • Specific energy efficiency of light and heavy duty trucks has improved, but road transport still consumes significantly more energy per tonne-km than rail or ship freight transport.

TERM27 Development of specific CO2 emissions from road passenger and freight transport in Europe

Note: TREMOVE results refer to 30 EEA member countries (EU-27 plus Norway, Switzerland, Turkey) and Croatia, while TRENDS covers only EU-15.

Data source:

TREMOVE and TRENDS

Downloads and more info

TERM27 Specific CO2 emissions per passenger-km and per mode of transport in Europe

Note: TREMOVE results refer to 30 EEA member countries (EU-27 plus Norway, Switzerland, Turkey) and Croatia, while TRENDS covers only EU-15.

Data source:

TREMOVE and TRENDS

Downloads and more info

TERM27 Specific CO2 emissions per tonne-km and per mode of transport in Europe

Note: TREMOVE results refer to 30 EEA member countries (EU-27 plus Norway, Switzerland, Turkey) and Croatia, while TRENDS covers only EU-15.

Data source:

TREMOVE and TRENDS

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

The specific CO2 emissions of the road sector were reduced between 1995 and 2007 by 9 % for passenger transport and 11 % for freight transport. The energy efficiency and CO2 per passenger-kilometre of passenger car transport has improved by 10 % over the same period and this improvement results partly from the voluntary agreement of the automotive manufacturing industries.The reductions in road freight transport are due to both technical improvements and increased activity of the heavy-duty trucks and the increased penetration of diesel light-duty trucks.

The combined effect of improvements in aircraft technology and increased load factors has resulted in a decrease in specific CO2 emissions of air passenger transport by 26 % between 1995 and 2007. But because transport volumes have grown faster than efficiency improvements the total emissions are still growing.

Rail is the most energy efficient mode of passenger transport and the second most efficient for freight transport (after maritime). Specific CO2 emissions of rail transport have decreased by about 12 % from 1995 to 2007 for both passenger and freight transport. For passenger transport this is mainly due to shifting from diesel to electric trains, while for freight transport this is a result of both technological improvements and increased load factors. The CO2 emission factors for electricity production represent the emissions incurred during the whole production and supply process from fuel extraction to electricity transport to the sub-stations feeding the railway network.

The energy efficiency of maritime shipping has only recorded slight changes of the order of 2 % in the time period considered.

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

Since specific CO2 emissions are expressed per transport unit, occupancy rates and load factors have a considerable effect on specific emissions produced from passenger and freight transport respectively. Reduction of specific emissions can be achieved by increasing occupancy rates and load factors and/or by decreasing the emissions per vehicle-km (e.g. by setting stricter emission standards and introducing more energy efficient technologies such as hybrid, plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, etc).

Targets

There are no specific objectives or targets related to the energy efficiency or specific CO2 emissions. Policy objectives are only set with respect to CO2 emissions of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Regulation No 443/2009 specifies that each vehicle manufacturer must achieve a fleet-average CO2 emission target of 130 g/km by 2015 for all new cars registered in the EU. In order to meet the CO2 emission target of 120 g/km, a further reduction of 10 g/km is to be provided by additional measures, such as the use of biofuels. The regulation also defines a long-term target of 95 g/km to be reached from 2020. Similarly to passenger cars, the Vans Regulation (No 510/2011) specifies a fleet-average CO2 emission target of 175 g/km to be phased in between 2014 and 2017 for newly registered vans in the EU. A long-term target of 147 g/km is specified for the year 2020.

As an additional incentive for the introduction of more energy efficient technologies (hybrid, plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, electric vehicles with range extender), vehicles of CO2 emissions below 50 g/km receive super-credits. For passenger cars, each such vehicle is counted as 3.5 cars in 2012 and 2013, as 2.5 cars in 2014, 1.5 cars in 2015, and as 1 car from 2016. For vans, each such vehicle is counted as 3.5 cars in 2014 and 2015, as 2.5 cars in 2016, 1.5 cars in 2017, and as 1 car from 2018.

Related policy documents

  • 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • Decision No 1753/2000/EC, CO2 from new passenger cars
    Decision No 1753/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 2000 establishing a scheme to monitor the average specific emissions of CO2 from new passenger cars
  • REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011
    REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

For passenger transport, the specific emissions are calculated by dividing the CO2 emissions of each mode (i.e. road, rail, maritime and air transport) by the respective passenger-kilometres.
For freight transport, the specific emissions are calculated by dividing the CO2 emissions of each mode (i.e. road, rail, inland shipping and maritime transport) by the respective tonne-kilometres.

For CO2 emissions from new passenger cars, data is compiled from DG-Clima monitoring 2000-2009 whereas the EEA is monitoring it since 2010.

Methodology for gap filling

Passenger- and tonne-kilometres and CO2 emissions are modelled and therefore no gap filling is necessary.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

COPERT 4 is used for emissions calculations in EC4MACS. CO2 emissions are consistent with UNFCCC submissions.

Data sets uncertainty

Since the data on CO2 emissions, passenger-km and tonne-km are modelled rather than measured, the data must be treated as estimates. Data on CO2 emissions are less uncertain, as they are calibrated against statistical fuel consumption. Hence, the uncertainty of the passenger-km and tonne-km characterises the overall uncertainty of the indicator. EC4MACS is little sensitive when calculating vehicle and tonne kilometres. This means that the overall uncertainty of passenger-km and tonne-km (as a modelled output) depends on the uncertainty of the underlying statistical data provided as input to the model. The latter may vary significantly among different countries, depending on the way data are collected and reported.

Rationale uncertainty

N/A

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Generic metadata

Topics:

Transport Transport (Primary topic)

Tags:
transport
DPSIR: Pressure
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • TERM 027
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.9.2 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
Filed under:

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100