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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector / Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector (ENER 023) - Assessment published Sep 2011

Energy efficiency and energy consumption in the transport sector (ENER 023) - Assessment published Sep 2011

This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other
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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
energy consumption | consumption | energy | co2 | emissions | transport
DPSIR: State
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Indicator codes
  • ENER 023
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2010
 
Contents
 

Specific policy question: Answer to unknown question

Energy efficiency progress in transport in the EU

Note: The figure shows the energy efficiency progress in transport as ODEX index

Data source:

ODYSSEE database. Energy efficiency in transpor sector. The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/.  The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • The energy efficiency of transport in the EU-27 improved by about 15% between 1990 and 2008 (0.9%/year), as measured according to the ODEX indicator. Greater progress was achieved in the energy efficiency of both cars and airplanes than in the rest of the sector (Figure 1).

Specific policy question: Is the transport energy consumption per capita decreasing in Europe?

% change in transport final energy consumption per person, 1990-2008

Note: The figure shows the change in transport final energy consumption per person (1990-2008) in %

Data source:

EUROSTAT

    Reference of the table :  populat, Code of the dataserie : demo_pjan

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

Downloads and more info

% change transport final energy consumption per person by period

Note: The figure shows the %-change in transport final energy consumption per person (1990-2008)

Data source:

EUROSTAT

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • From 1990 to 2008 per capita transport energy consumption increased in almost all countries (Figure 2): it increased on average by 26% in the EU-27, at an annual average growth rate of 1.3%. The progression was particularly rapid (around or above 4%/year) in three new EU member countries (Slovenia, Poland, Czech Republic) and in Ireland, Spain, Portugal, and Austria.
  • Since 2000, there has been a net slowdown in the consumption growth in most EU-15 countries and at the EU-27 as a whole (Figure 3); this trend was especially marked in Germany, France and Italy, with a consumption lower in 2008 than in 1999. Since the year 2000, the consumption per capita increased at an annual average rate of only 0.7% per year in the EU-27. The trend however was very different in most new member countries, Iceland and Turkey, where the annual average growth rate of the energy consumption per capita almost reached 5% per year (average for EU-12), 4.2% for Iceland and 2.9%/year for Turkey.
  • Year 2008 was marked by very high oil price in the first half of the year and the beginning of the economic crisis ( the GDP  only increased by 0.7%, which is the lowest growth rate since 1993, year of recession). As a result of these to effects, the per capita energy consumption of the transport sector decreased by 1.1% on average in the EU-27 and even by 2% in EU-15 countries; this trend was very different in new EU member countries where the consumption continued its rapid progression (+ 5.2%).
  • In 2008, the energy consumption decreased by 6.8 Mtoe, as result of the combined effect of a reduction in passenger and goods traffic (respectively -0.2% and -2%), of energy savings (mainly for goods) and of a reduction in the share of cars in passenger transport.

Specific policy question: What are the main factors behind the energy consumption trends in transport in Europe?

Energy consumption by transport mode in the EU-27

Note: The figure shows the share of energy consumption by mode in total transport in EU-27

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

Downloads and more info

Breakdown of the energy consumption variation for transport in the EU-27 (1990-2008)

Note: The energy consumption variation of passenger and goods transport is broken down into 2 explanatory effects: activity effect (increase in traffic) and global energy savings (change in specific energy consumption per unit of traffic). Air transport excluded; Activity: impact of increase in traffic; modal shift : decrease in the share of public transport in total traffic; energy savings: measured from the reduction in specific consumption per unit of traffic.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/. The access is restricted to project

partners or subscribers.

 

Data on traffic for passengers or freight:

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

 

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • Road transport represents on average 81 % of the total energy consumption in transport in EU-27 in 2008. In half of the countries however, its share is declining due to the growing importance of air transport. Cars represent almost 50% of the total energy consumption of the transport sector but this share is declining slowly ( 47% in 2008 compared to 52% in 1990), while the share of road freight transport (trucks and light- duty vehicles) is increasing (31% of total energy consumption of transport in 2008 compared to 28% in 1990). Road freight transport vehicles have the fastest energy consumption growth among road vehicles (2.2%/year compared to 1.1%/year for passenger cars) and did not slow down after 2000, as it did for other vehicles (Figure 4).
  • The energy consumption for domestic and international air transport increased at a rapid rate of about 4.6%/year between 1990 until 2000; after 2000, the sector was struck by a crisis and the progression of its fuel consumption was twice slower (2.2%/year). The energy consumption of rail and domestic water transport accounted for 4.4% of total transport energy demand (share of 2.6% for rail and 1.8% for water in 2008).The energy consumption of inland waterways decreased over the period 1990-2008 and was 10% below its 1990 level in 2008 (-0.6%/year). The consumption of rail for reduced slightly (-1% or -0.1%/year for rail transport).
  • At the EU level, the share of public transport in passenger traffic decreased by five points between 1990 and 2008, from 23% to 18%. This trend had a negative impact on the energy consumption of passenger transport, since cars consume four times more energy per passenger-km than public transport . This modal shift contributed to increase the energy consumption in transport (excluding air transport) by 7.7 Mtoe (i.e. 0.42 Mtoe/year on average) (Figure 5).
  • The growth in passenger traffic between 1990 and 2008 caused the energy consumption of passenger transport to increase by 47 Mtoe but this was partially offset by energy efficiency improvements (change in specific consumption per unit of traffic) which amounted to 25.6 Mtoe (Figure 5).
  • For freight transport, the modal shift from rail and water to road transport contributed to increase the energy consumption by 9.2 Mtoe at EU level between 1990 and 2008. The increase in freight traffic in tonne-km was responsible for a consumption increase of 40.4 Mtoe. Energy efficiency improvements (change in specific consumption per unit of traffic), due to both improved efficiency of vehicles and a better management of transport operations (load factor) led to 13.6 Mtoe of energy savings, thus partially offsetting the effect of modal shift and increase in freight traffic and limiting the energy consumption increase to 36.1 Mtoe (Figure 5).
  • Over the period 1990-2008, traffic growth and modal shift to road transport (cars for passengers and trucks for goods) contributed to increase the consumption by respectively 87.8 Mtoe (4.9 Mtoe/year) and 16.9 Mtoe (0.9 Mtoe/year). Energy savings due to changes in the specific energy consumption per unit of traffic) amounted to around 39.1 Mtoe (2.2 Mtoe/year), of which 65% for passengers and 35% for goods: they limited the increase of the energy consumption to 65.5 Mtoe (3.6 Mtoe/year)

Specific policy question: What are the main explanatory factors behind CO2 emissions trends in transport in Europe?

Variation of CO2 emissions from transport (EU-27)

Note: The figure shows the variation of CO2 emission from transport, EU-27 level CO2 represent around 99% of the sector’s greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from international air transport are not included in countries’ emissions (UNFCCC methodology).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/. The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

Downloads and more info

Variation of CO2 emissions in transport (EU-27)

Note: The figure shows the variation of CO2 emissions in transport for EU-27. CO2 emissions for total transport can be split into 2 explanatory effects: an activity effet illustared by an increase in traffic of passengers and freight, CO2 savings due to the reduction in the specific emissions of vehicles per unit of traffic

Data source:

EEA. Data on CO2 from  EEA  (inventories 2010) : CO2 emissions for total transport, road, rail, waterways and domestic air based on the Annual European Community Greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2008 and inventory report 2010.

 

EEA GHG data viewer available at: http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/PivotApp/pivot.aspx?pivotid=475

 

 

Data on traffic for passengers or freight extracted from the statistical pocketbook "EU Energy and transport in figures" (DG Energy and transport).  Available at : http://ec.europa.eu/transport/publications/statistics/doc/2009_energy_transport_figures.pdf

 

For EU, the data sources are the following:

  • Energy consumption by transport modes (road, water, rail, air): Eurostat
  • Energy consumption by type of road vehicle (car, truck & light vehicle, bus) : Calculated for each type of vehicle by type of fuel (gasoline and diesel) from the the stock of vehicles for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of EU countries; for EU 27, the unit consumption by fuel for each type of vehicle is calculated as equal to the weighted average of 15 countries for which data are available, of which 11 EU-15 countries and 4 new member countries; the weighting factor is the number of vehicle in each country.
  • Specific consumption of cars in litre /100 km: extrapolated with Odyssee national data (15 countries available, of which the 11 main EU-15 countries plus Hungary, Poland and Slovenia). The weighting factor is the number of cars in each country.
  • Stock of vehicles: as a sum of countries (all data by countries available)

 

Downloads and more info

Specific assessment

  • CO2 emissions from transport have increased by almost 24% since 1990: as a result, transport represented in 2008 42% of total CO2 emissions of final consumers (i.e. excluding the power sector) compared to 32% in 1990. Between 2000 and 2007, the increase of emissions from transport has slowed down (1%/year compared to 1.6%/year over 1990-2000); in 2008 emissions decreased by 1.8%.
  • Road transport represented 94% of total CO2 emissions from transport in 2007 (Figure 6). Emissions from cars have increased by 18% since 1990 and represented around 54% of the total transport CO2 emissions in 2008. The emissions from road freight transport increased by nearly 40% between 1990 and 2008 and made up 37% of the total emissions of transport (compared to 32% in 1990).
  • Although emissions from domestic air transport represented only 2% of the total (CO2 emissions from transport), they are increasing at a very fast pace. In 2008, CO2 emissions from domestic transport were 26% higher than they were in 1990.
  • The increase in the traffic of passengers and freight should have increased CO2 emissions in transport by    356 Mt CO2 between 1990 and 2008 but the reduction in the specific emissions of road vehicles per unit of traffic led to 171 Mt of CO2 emissions savings over the same period thus offsetting partly the effect of increased passenger and freight traffic (Figure 7). Around 30% of the savings come from trucks and light vehicles, 60% from cars, 6% for domestic air and 3% for rail.

 

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

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Cinzia Pastorello

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EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

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