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Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry (ENER 025) - Assessment published Apr 2012

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 11 Apr 2012 Published 11 Apr 2012 Last modified 06 Nov 2013, 01:11 PM
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This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)


Key messages

Over the period 1990-2009, in EU-27 countries, energy efficiency in industry has improved by 30% at an annual average rate of 1.8% per year, with large differences among countries. Energy efficiency improvement has been realized in all industrial branches except textile.  Over the period 2005-2009 energy efficiency improved by 1.5%/year with an important deterioration in 2009 due to the economic crisis.

Is energy efficiency improving in the industrial sector?

Energy efficiency index (ODEX) in the EU-27

Note: Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : August 2009). ODEX EU-27 in industry. The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

 

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Energy efficiency improvement (ODEX) in EU-27 countries

Note: Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year).

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : August 2009). ODEX EU-27 in industry. The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project partners or subscribers

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  • Over the period 1990-2009, energy efficiency in industry has improved in EU-27 countries by around 30%, at an annual average rate of 1.8% per year (Figure 1). Greater progress was achieved in the nineties but slowed down since 2000; over the period 2005-2009 energy efficiency improved by 1.5%/year. In 2009, there  was a deterioration in energy efficiency (loss of efficiency) because of the economic crisis  (the index increase by 0.5 %). The loss of efficiency during a recession period is linked to the fact that, on the one hand, the consumption does not follow the reduction of activity as part of the consumption is not linked to the level of production and, on the other hand, to the fact that industrial equipment, such as kilns, boilers or motors, became  less efficient as they did not operate at full capacity.

 

  • There is a large difference among countries concerning progress towards improving the energy efficiency (Figure 2). The highest energy efficiency improvements are registered in new member countries over the period 2005-2009 (such as -5.1%/year in Poland, -5.9%/year in Romania, -4.9%/year in Slovenia, -3.2% in Hungary, -2.2%/year in Czech Republic). Energy efficiency improvement in industry results from technical improvement in industrial process and electric motors, encouraged by policies combining voluntary agreements (e.g. with CEMEP for motors), investment subsidies or audit schemes and the EU-ETS.

Is energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

CO2 emissions in EU countries (1990, 2009)

Note: The figure shows the CO2 emissions in the industry in EU Countries

Data source:
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  • In 2009 the consumption of the industry sector is 27% below its 1990 level and that reduction has been mainly significant from1990 to 1993 (-4.7%/year) and after 2003. From 2003 to 2007 this consumption decreased by around 1.1%/year following a period of 10 years where the consumption grew by 0.6%/year (1993-2003). In 2008 the consumption has decreased by 2.7% followed by a sharp drop of 14.7% in 2009.
  • The energy consumption in manufacturing sector represents around 98% of the consumption of industry (the remaining branches are construction and mining).  Chemicals and steel represented around 2/3 of the manufacturing energy consumption in 2009 (19% and 17% respectively) followed by non metallic minerals (14%), paper (13%) and food (11%). The share of steel in manufacturing consumption has decreased from 23% in 1990 to 17% in 2009 (6 points).
  • Over the period 1990-2009, improvements took place in all industrial branches except the textile industry. The three most energy intensive branches (chemicals, steel and paper), which represent over 50% of the energy consumption of the sector, reduced their specific energy consumption, i.e. energy consumption per unit of physical output, by 54%, 26% and 12% respectively. Significant improvements were also made in the machinery and cement industries which reduced their specific energy consumption by 40% and 17% respectively (Figure 1).

What are the key drivers behind the energy consumption in selected industrial branches?

Benchmarking in the steel industry

Note: Figure shows a more detailed comparison of the performance (in terms of energy unit consumption) of the European steel sector across the different EU-27 countries taking into account the relative share of electric steel in total crude steel production.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

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Benchmarking in the cement industry

Note: Figure compares the energy unit consumption of cement in EU countries as a function of the share of clinker: the higher this ratio, the higher the specific energy consumption.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project
partners or subscribers

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Benchmarking in the pulp and paper industry

Note: The figure displays the unit energy consumption per ton of paper as a function of the ratio pulp production to paper production: the higher the ratio, the higher the energy unit consumption.

Data source:

ODYSSEE database (last update : October 2010). The Odyssee database is available at http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/  The access is restricted to project partners or subscribers

Downloads and more info

When analyzing specific energy consumption trends in industrial branches, one has to account for the specificities in terms of process mix and product mix. For steel, there are basically two main production processes: the blast furnace oxygen process and the electric arc furnace process. The first one, which represents about 2/3 of the crude steel production for only 1/3 for the electric arc furnace, is much more energy intensive. For paper and cement, part of the energy intensive component, pulp and clinker respectively, may be imported instead of being produced in the country, which will reduce the unit energy consumption, all things being equal[1].

  •  Figure 3 shows a more detailed comparison of the performance (in terms of energy unit consumption) of the European steel sector across the different EU-27 countries taking into account the relative share of electric steel in total crude steel production. The vertical distance to the red line (benchmark) shows the technical improvement possible at the given process mix of the country.
  • Figure 4 compares the energy unit consumption of cement in EU countries as a function of the share of clinker: the higher this ratio, the higher the specific energy consumption. The vertical distance from the world best practice (benchmark based on the best available in terms of specific energy consumption) shows the technical improvement possible at a given clinker/cement mix of the country; in other words it indicates the potential of energy savings.

  • Energy unit consumption in the pulp and paper industry is very different among countries: it varies by a factor of 2-3 from a minimum of 0.25 toe/tonne to 0.7 toe/tonne (Figure 5). Low values may mean that most of the pulp is imported and high values that pulp is exported. Therefore, to make the comparison more meaningful, Figure 6 displays the unit energy consumption per ton of paper as a function of the ratio pulp production to paper production: the higher the ratio, the higher the energy unit consumption.

[1] The mix of process to produce the clinker (wet versus dry process) or the paper pulp (chemical versus mechanical pulp) is another explanatory factor of the differences observed but due to lack of data it has not been quantified here.

    Indicator specification and metadata

    Indicator definition

    • Specific consumption per tonne produced : Energy consumption divided by the physical production (for steel, cement , paper)
    • Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year).
    • CO2 emissions from energy uses split between direct emissions and indirect emissions: Direct emissions refer to emissions from the combustion of coal, gas and oil products (source: EEA inventories 2009); Indirect emissions (or electricity related) refer to emissions in the power sector corresponding to the electricity consumption in the sector
            Indirect CO2 = E ind/E tot * CO2 ie
      with E : electricity consumption (ind for industry, tot for all sectors) (source ODYSSEE database);
      CO2 ie : CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat production ( source EEA, inventories 2009)

    Units

    ODEX: #

    Production: kt

    unit consumption: toe/t

    CO2: Mt


    Policy context and targets

    Context description

    Policy context is not defined

    Targets

    No targets have been specified

    Related policy documents

    No related policy documents have been specified

    Methodology

    Methodology for indicator calculation

    • Specific consumption per tonne produced : Energy consumption divided by the physical production (for steel, cement , paper)
    • Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches; the weight being the share of each branch in the sum of the energy consumption of these branches in year t and the sum of the implied energy consumption from each underlying industrial branches in year t (based on the unit consumption of the sub-sector with a moving reference year). The 10 branches considered in the calculation are: chemical, steel, non ferrous, cement, other non metallic, paper, food, machinery, transport equipment and textile. For steel, cement and paper, energy savings are calculated using specific consumption per tonne produced; for the other branches, the indicator used is the ratio on energy consumption related to production index.

    The variation of the weighted index of the unit consumption between t-1 and t is defined as follows:

    It -1/It = SUMi ECi,t *(UCi,t/UCi.t-1)

    with : energy share EC i  (consumption of each branch i   in total industry consumption); unit consumption index UC i (ratio : consumption related to production index or ratio : consumption related to physical production of steel, cement  and paper) 

    t refers the current year, t-1 to the previous year

    The value at year t can be derived from the value at the previous year by reversing the calculation:It /It -1= 1/( It -1/It)

    ODEX is set at 100 for a reference year and successive values are then derived for each year t by the value of ODEX at year t-1 multiplied by It /It -1

    CO2 emissions from energy uses split between direct emissions and indirect emissions:

    • Direct emissions refer to emissions from the combustion of coal, gas and oil products (source: EEA inventories 2009)
    • Indirect emissions (or electricity related) refer to emissions in the power sector corresponding to the electricity consumption in the sector

    Indirect CO2 = E ind/E tot * CO2 ie

      with E : electricity consumption (indfor industry, tot for all sectors) (source ODYSSEE database);

      CO2 ie : CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat production ( source EEA, inventories 2009)

    Geographical coverage:
    The Eurostat database covers all 27 EU member states plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Croatia and Turkey. Odyssee database covers EU-27 plus Norway and Croatia. Not always data is available for all countries.

    Temporal coverage:
    1990-2009 with a focus on the period 2000/2009 for detailed analysis by country (due to data non available or reliable for new EU countries before 2000).

    Methodology and frequency of data collection:
    Data collected annually in the framework of the ODYSSEE MURE project

    Methodology of data manipulation:
    More information on ODYSSEE available on the website http://www.odyssee-indicators.org

    Methodology for gap filling

    •  Energy consumption : source Eurostat except for :
      - Wood (NCE 20): source Enerdata / IEA
      - Construction (NCE 45): source Enerdata / IEA
      - Machinery (NCE 28-32) and transport vehicles (NCE 34-35) [in Eurostat energy consumption for these 2 branches are given together]  for ODYSSEE this overall consumption has been split into 2 sub branches according to the disaggregation given in the Enerdata ‘ s database (coherent with IEA)
      - Other branches : in Eurostat this residual branch includes also construction , wood; for ODYSSEE energy consumption of this branch has been recalculated as total industry minus sum of the energy consumption of the branches
    • Energy intensive branches:

    - Cement :
    o physical production: sum of the production of the 27 countries (source Odyssee)
    o energy consumption : based on the energy consumption of 12 countries (10  EU-15 countries: uk, swe, esp, prt, nld, ita, grc, fra, rfa, bel) + Poland and Hungary (source Odyssee), which is extrapolated for EU-27, based on the  share of production these 12 countries in the total production of cement (consumption EU-27= consumption 12* (production EU-27/production 12)).

    - Paper
    o physical production for EU-27 is the sum of EU-27 countries (source Odyssee)
    o energy consumption : source Euro stat

    - Steel :
    o physical production for EU-27 is the sum of EU-27 countries (source IISI)
    o energy  consumption : source Eurostat

    Methodology references

    No methodology references available.

    Uncertainties

    Methodology uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    Data sets uncertainty

    Not all data is available for all countries. Availability for data on years earlier than 2009, is higher.
    Odyssee data is recently updated (October 2011)

    The reliability of total industry energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. 

    Rationale uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    Data sources

    Generic metadata

    Topics:

    Energy Energy (Primary topic)

    Tags:
    co2 | odex | energy | emissions | energy efficiency | industry
    DPSIR: State
    Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
    Indicator codes
    • ENER 025
    Dynamic
    Temporal coverage:
    1990-2009
    Geographic coverage:
    Austria, Belgien, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cypern, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Frankrig, Germany, Greece, Grækenland, Hungary, Ireland, Italien, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Polen, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Spanien, Storbritannien, Sverige, Sweden, Tyskland, Ungarn, United Kingdom, Østrig

    Contacts and ownership

    EEA Contact Info

    Anca-Diana Barbu

    Ownership

    EEA Management Plan

    2011 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

    Dates

    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    Kongens Nytorv 6
    1050 Copenhagen K
    Denmark
    Phone: +45 3336 7100